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■  S^s'JVf- 



Life  and  Deeds 


General  Sherman 

Includiog  the  Story  of  His 

Great  March  to  the  Sea  ' 


His  Boyhood  and  Early  Life ;  Education  at  West  Point ;  Career 
in    Florida,    California    and    Louisiana  ;    Daring   Deeds 
at    Shiloh,    Corinth    and    Vicksburg ;    Sublime 
Achievements  in  the  Georgia  and  Tenn- 
essee  Campaigns,  and  Closing 
Scenes    of    the    Great 
Struggle,  etc.,  etc., 


Thrilling    Descriptions    of   Battles,    Marches,    and    Victories; 
Personal  Anecdotes  ;  Life  as  a  Citizen  ;  Last  Sickness 
and  Death  ;  the  Nation's  Sorrow,  and  Magnifi- 
cent Tributes  to  the 


By  Henry  Davenport  Northrop 



239  Levant  Street. 


JUL  -  1 1898 

.  \^5\j  1 



n  \  ov. 


I  -,>:30 

f  i.W  J 



The  story  of  General  Sherman's  brilliant  career  is 
one  of  the  most  interesting  ever  told.  His  early 
life  was  spent  in  poverty  and  obscurity;  he  rose  to 
the  highest  pinnacle  of  fame.  Fortune  was  against 
him ;  he  conquered  it ;  he  was  a  conqueror  through- 
out his  eventful  life.  Without  wealth  or  outside 
influence  to  lift  him  above  his  surroundings,  he 
carved  his  name  high  before  the  eye  of  the  world, 
and  died  amidst  the  honors  of  the  nation  he  defended 
so  nobly. 

Like  nearly  all  Americans  who  have  achieved  fame, 
Sherman  was  a  self-made  man.  He  was  a  patriot 
who  courted  sacrifice  and  death ;  he  was  a  leader  of 
undaunted  bravery,  brilliant  strategy,  and  unfaltering 
resources.  His  rank  is  among  the  world's  greatest 
heroes,  and  his  place  is  in  the  hearts  of  more  than 
sixty  millions  of  people. 

The  complete  story  of  his  life,  contained  in  this 
volume,  gives  a  graphic  account  of  his  boyhood  and 
youth.  The  reader  sees  him  struggling  with  early 
trials ;  the  sturdy  boy  grows  into  the  manly  youth, 
pressing  on  in  his  eager  pursuit  of  an  education.  He 
enters   the    Military    Academy ;    he   graduates    with 

iv  PREFAc:6. 

honor,  and  is  fully  equipped  for  his  magnificent  mili- 
tary career. 

General  Sherman  is  then  seen  among  the  Ever- 
glades of  Florida,  at  Fort  Moultrie  in  South  Carolina, 
and  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  The  outbreak  of  the  war 
finds  the  gallant  leader  in  Louisiana ;  he  sees  that 
war  is  inevitable,  resigns  his  position,  and  appears  in 

At  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Sherman  is  a  colonel; 
he  rises  to  the  rank  of  brigadier  of  volunteers  and  is 
sent  to  Kentucky.  His  upward  strides  are  rapid,  and 
the  reader  next  beholds  him  in  command  of  a  division 
at  Shiloh,  where  he  displays  consummate  generalship 
and  heroism,  and  saves  that  famous  battle.  He  is  the 
first  to  enter  Corinth ;  he  takes  command  at  Memphis; 
he  makes  a  bold  attack  on  Vicksburg;  and  next  ap- 
pears upon  the  world-renowned  field  of  Chattanooga. 
Through  the  dense  smoke  and  fiery  glare  of  Mission- 
ary Ridge  the  reader  sees  the  commanding  figure  now 
prominent  before  the  nation,  whose  presence  on  the 
field  is  the  signal  for  victory. 

These  wonderful  exploits,  this  daring  heroism,  this 
extraordinary  command  of  men,  these  magnificent 
deeds  which  thrill  two  hemispheres,  are  ^depicted  in 
this  work.  The  theme  is  brilliant  and  captivating. 
Step  by  step  the  thrilling  history  is  unfolded ;  over 
the  pages  armies  march  and  charge,  and  the  reader 
moves  amid  startling  scenes :  the  old  days  of  heroism 
and  Spartan  bravery  are  brought  back. 

The   crowning  achievement  of  General  Sherman, 


that  which  electrified  the  whole  world,  that  which 
even  military  men  believed  to  be  impossible,  was  his 
celebrated  march  to  the  sea.  This  part  of  the  narra- 
tive has  an  extraordinary  interest  for  the  reader,  and 
is  told  in  this  volume  by  General  Sherman  himself, 
who  was  as  skilful  and  fascinating  with  the  pen  as  he 
was  valiant  with  the  sword.  Here  the  great  general 
showed  his  remarkable  foresight,  burned  the  bridges 
behind  him,  pushed  into  the  enemy^s  country,  met 
and  mastered  seeming  impossibilities,  and  put  the 
,  plendid  climax  upon  his  marvellous  career. 

We  find  him  at  Atlanta  with  an  army  which  il 
compelled  to  subsist  upon  the  surrounding  country. 
Thence  he  marches  to  the  Adantic.  This  almost 
miraculous  feat,  resulting  in  the  capture  of  Savan- 
nah, the  retreat  of  General  Hardee  from  Charleston, 
and  other  events  of  vast  importance,  is  fully  por- 
trayed. The  grave  doubts  as  to  the  result  all  van- 
ished before  the  masterly  generalship,  intrepid 
courage,  and  perseverance  of  the  illustrious  leader. 

Next  the  reader  sees  the  two  great  generals,  Sher- 
man and  Grant,  face  to  face.  The  bloody  days  are 
ended,  the  smoke  of  battle  lifts  from  the  field,  the 
noise  of  guns  is  hushed,  and  the  world  looks  on  in 
wonder  at  the  closing  scenes  of  the  greatest  struggle 
of  modern  times.  Conspicuous  in  this  thrilling  period 
of  our  history,  his  majestic  form  standing  in  the 
nation's  eye,  we  see  the  hero  and  patriot,  the  invin- 
cible commander.  He  has  received  the  surrender  of 
Johnston,  and  has  acted  a  part  no  less  remarkable  and 


successful  than  that  of  Grant  in  the  Wilderness  and 
before  Richmond, 

This  work  also  gives  a  striking  picture  of  General 
Sherman's  life  as  a  citizen.  He  was  a  genial  man; 
he  was  an  admirable  speech-maker  ;  he  was  the  idol  of 
the  nation :  he  was  honored  on  every  public  occasion 
where  his  commanding  figure  was  seen  ;  his  loyalty  to 
the  old  veterans  was  sincere  and  unwavering;  his 
popularity. among  the  army  boys  was  surpassed  by 
that  of  no  other  general. 

All  readers  are  interested  in  personal  anecdotes  and 
reminiscences  concerning  great  men.  In  the  long  life 
and  checkered  career  of  General  Sherman  many  inci- 
dents occurred,  and  account  of  which  the  public  is 
anxious  to  obtain.  Stories  of  camp-life,  long  marches 
hardships  of  the  campaign,  and  anecdotes  concerning 
General  Sherman's  private  life  and  intercourse  with 
his  old  comrades  enliven  the  pages  of  this  volume. 
Side  by  side  stand  with  him  other  brilliant  heroes  in 
the  nation's  struggle,  and  a  picture  of  him  as  a  man 
among  men  is  presented. 

The  demonstration  of  sympathy  and  sorrow  when 
his  death  occurred  has  scarcely  been  paralleled  in  this 
country.  Sherman  was  loved  by  everybody,  as  well 
as  admired.  His  death  struck  home  to  the  heart  of 
the  nation.  All  classes  of  citizens,  including  the 
President,  members  of  the  Cabinet,  army  and  naval 
officers,  merchants,  farmers,  professional  men,  the 
rich,  the  poor,  vied  with  each  other  at  his  funeral  *.n 
telling  of  his  glory  and  in  honoring  his  memory. 




J^  Rkmarkabi^e    Famii^y.— The    Ii,i,ustrious    Commandsr»s 
Bari^y  Life  and— Born  to  be  a  Hero  .       .    17 


Education  at  West  Point.— Chasing  Savage  Seminoi^ES  in 
THE  South ...    25 

A  Recruiting  Officer. — Stirring  Times  in  Cai^ifornia       .    32 


Sherman's    Romantic  Marriage. — Banker  in   Cawfornia 
AND  New  York. — Become  a  Lawyer 40 


Prophet  and  Patriot. — Advice  to  the  War  Department 
THEATED  AS  A  Proof  of  Insanity 50 


Army    of    the    Tennessee. — Sherman    Co-operates   with 
Grant. — Forward  Movements 65 


From  Ati,anta  to  the  Sea. — ^Thrii,  Story  of  One  of 
THE  Greatest  Feats  in  Military  History        ...    78 




Important  Letter  of  Generai.  Sherman.— The  Country 
DeIvUded  in  the  Eari,y  Part  of  the  War. — Strange. 
Charge  op  Lunacy 95 

After  the  War.— Not  a  Candidate  for  the  Presidency. — 
Sketch  of  the  Hero.— Life  in  New  York        .       .       .113 

Reminiscences   of  the    Renowned    Commander. — Ardent 
Friendship  for  Grant. — Interesting  Facts  and  Anec- 
dotes      133 


Sherman  at  the  Batti^e  of  Bui.Iv  Run.— His  Graphic  Ac- 
count of  the  Bi,oody  Confwct 175 

Events  preceding  the  Batti^e  of  Shii^oh.— Rapid   Move- 

Sherman  Saves  the  Batti^e  of  Shii^oh.— Vai,i,ey  of  Death. 
—A  Wai,!,  of  Iron.— Grant  Praises  Sherman's  Heroism.  206 

Genkrai,  Sherman's  Graphic  Description  of  the  Batti^e 
of  Shii^oh 236 




T4JMLI.ING    PEN-PiCTURB    OI''    THE    BATTI^E  O^    ShILOH   BY   AN 

Army  Surgeon 254 

Generai,  Sherman's  Achievements  at  Vicksburg        •       .  270 

Sherman's  Superb  Vai^or  at  Chattanooga      ....  314 


Generai,  Sherman's  Fascinating  Story  of  the  Batti^e  of 
Chattanooga 357 


The  Great  Ati^anta   Campaign.— Grand   Forward  Move- 
ment       393 

From  Ati^anta  to  the  Sea.— The  Famous  March   .       •       ,417 

Brii,i,iant  Campaign  oe  the  Carownas     .       »       o       e       •  450 


Surrender  of  Johnston  to  Sherman.— Capture  of  Fifty 
Thousand  Men 469 




Fatai,  Ii,i,nbss.— The    Giant   Shorn    o^    his    Strbngth. — 
Anxiety  throughout  the  Nation 481 


TlATTWNG  WITH  THE  FOE.— A  GaI,I,ANT  FiGHT  EOR  I/IEE  .  .   490 


The  STRUGGI.E  Ended.— The  Great  Warrior's  Last  Bat- 
Ti,E -       .       .  50.^ 

A  Nation  in  Mourning.— Tributes  of  Love  and  Respect    .  514 


FiNAi<  Obsequies  oe  Generai.   Sherman.— Grand   Proces- 
sion OE  Troops  and  Civic  Bodies 529 


Gl^OWING      EUI^OGIES       UPON      THE      WORI^D-REKOWNED       COM- 
MANDER   548 




A  Remarkable  Family. — The  Illustrious  Com- 
mander's Early  Life  and  Struggles. — Born  to 
be  a  Hero. 

A  PATRIOTIC  American,  a  wise,  brave,  skilfui  soldier, 
A  sincere,  earnest,  friendly  man,  General  Sherman 
died  honored  and  beloved  by  numberless  personal 
friends  and  by  millions  of  his  countrymen.  In  a 
sense  broader  than  that  of  a  military  genius.  General 
Sherman  was  a  orreat  man.  He  showed  in  his  war 
correspondence  that  he  had  the  learning  of  the  scholar 
and  the  wisdom  of  the  statesman.  Such  men  do  not 
die  ;  they  pass  on  from  among  their  surviving  old 
comrades  of  camp  and  field  to  a  grander  life,  to  the 
reward  of  men  who  are  good  and  great. 

Like  Grant,  Meade,  and  Sheridan,  General  Sher- 
man had  not  only  military  genius ;  he  had  the  high- 
est qualities  of  a  citizen  of  the  great  Republic.  He 
entered  the  service  of  his  country  as  one  who  was 
willing,  if  need  be,  to  die.  He  gave  it  no  half-hearted, 
2  17 


halting  service,  and  the  mighty  energy  he  so  continu- 
ously displayed  on  the  march  and  in  the  assault  was 
as  much  the  inspiration  of  his  loyal  heart  as  of  his 
alert  mind  and  vigorous  body. 

A  Brilliant  Record. 

Sherman's  education  wsls  unusually  liberal  and 
comprehensive  before  the  war  began.  He  was  grad- 
uated from  the  West  Point  Military  Academy  with 
distinction  ;  he  served  in  the  army  v/ith  credit  and 
usefulness  as  second  and  as  first  lieutenant  and  as 
captain.  Subsequently  resigning  his  commission,  he 
became  a  banker  and  lawyer,  and  still  later  on  a  rail- 
road president  and  the  superintendent  of  the  Louisiana 
State  Military  Institute ;  which  latter  position  he  re- 
signed, when  Louisiana  seceded  from  the  Union,  in  a 
letter  that  was  in  the  highest  degree  creditable  to  his 
honor  and  patriotism.  He  was  nearly  forty-one  years 
old  when  the  Civil  War  began,  and  was  then  in  ilu: 
fullest  vigor  of  physical  and  mental  health.  His  fine 
intelligence,  his  diverse  education,  his  varied  associa- 
tions and  intercourse  with  men  of  distinction  in  dif- 
ferent walks  of  life,  had  peculiarly  fitted  him  for  the 
great  work  to  which  his  country  called  him  at  the 
beginning  of  the  war. 

The  story  of  his  achievements  is  one  of  the  most 
glorious  and  precious  records  of  his  country,  and 
most  conspicuous  In  It  is  that  chapter  of  it  known  to 
his  countrymen,  to  the  admirers  of  military  genius  of 
all  countries — the  march  through  Georgia  from  the 
mountains  to  the  sea.     It  was  the  grandeur  of  this 



great  movement,  the  grandeur  of  Its  courage  and 
of  its  results,  which  will  render  it  forever  remark- 

No  soldier  of  ancient  or  modern  history  more  com- 
pletely burned  his  bridges  behind  him  than  did  Sher- 
man when  he  marched  out  of  Atlanta  at  the  head  of 
i'^it  great  Union  host,  the  objective  point  of  which 
was  die  Atlantic  Ocean,  the  purpose  of  which  was  to 
cut  through  the  Confederacy  in  Its  most  vital  part, 
and  to  bring  its  chief  support,  the  army  of  Lee,  be- 
tween two  fires,  that  of  Grant  and  Meade  and  that  of 
Sherman.  As  It  was  planned,  it  was  executed — with- 
out a  single  failure  at  any  point.  All  that  was  antici- 
pated from  it  was  reahi^d,  and  history  wrote  one  of  Its 
most  thrilling  chapters  that  day  when  Sherman,  turning 
his  back  upon  the  mountains,  set  out  upon  his  march 
to  the  sea. 

It  is  Impossible  to  form  any  just  estimate  of  the 
value  of  services  such  as  this  Illustrious  soldier  ren- 
dered his  country  In  Its  time  of  greatest  need.  He 
was  one  of  those  who  stood  as  an  Impregnable  fort- 
ress In  defence  of  national  unity.  He  offered  to  the 
cause  of  Union  and  freedom  all  that  man  has  to  offer 
— intellect,  strength,  and  even  that  for  which  all  things 
else  will  be  freely  sacrificed,  life.  General  Sherman's 
was  the  genius  of  both  planning  and  doing.  He 
thought  and  he  wrought  with  magnificent  courage 
and  effective  skill  for  his  country,  and  his  efforts  were 
crowned  with  success,  ^n  the  sudden  making  of 
splendid  names  his  name  became  one  which  Inspired 


armies  with  confidence  and  assured  the  soldierly  en- 
deavor which  achieved  triumphs. 

Such  men  are  so  truly  great  that  their  countrymen 

can  only  reverently  salute  them  and  resolve  to  keep 

their  deeds   in   grateful   remembrance    as    they,  pass 

from  the  world  which  was  better  for  their  living  in  it. 

Sherman's  Ancestors. 

The  Sherman  family  from  which  William  Tecumseh 
Sherman  sprang  was  of  English  descent.  In  the  rec 
ords  of  the  British  Museum  there  is  an  account  of  the 
Shermans  of  Laxley,  in  the  county  of  Suffolk,  dating 
as  far  back  as  1616.  There  was  another  branch  of 
the  family  in  Dedham,  Essex  county.  The  first  Sher- 
man whose  name  is  found  recorded  in  this  country 
was  Edmond,  who,  with  his  three  sons,  Edmond, 
Samuel,  and  John,  was  at  Boston  before  1636.  In 
the  History  of  Anciejit  Woodbury,  Connecticut,  it  is 
stated  that  Samuel  Sherman,  the  Rev.  John  Sherman, 
and  Captain  John,  his  first  cousin,  arrived  from  Ded- 
ham in  1634.  This  Captain  John  was  the  ancestor 
of  Roger  Sherman,  the  signer  of  the  Declaration  of 
Independence.  The  Ohio  Shermans  trace  their  de- 
scent from  Samuel  Sherman  and  his  brother  John,  the 

All  these  Shermans  and  their  children  were  men  of 
prominence  in  their  respective  places.  They  were 
justices,  judges,  commissioners,  representatives  in 
the  Assembly,  town-clerks — in  fact,  they  were  good 
office-seekers,  lucky  in  getting  what  they  wanted,  and 
pretty    deserving   men   generally.     In   religion    they 


were     rigid     Presbyterians.      In    politics,    when   the 
struggle  for  independence  came,  they  were  rebels. 

The  Family  Settles  in  Ohio. 

When  James  Monroe  became  President  in  1817,  he 
made  Lawyer  Charles  R.  Sherman,  of  Norwalk,  Conn., 
a  collector  of  internal  revenue  Two  of  his  deputies 
robbed  the  Government,  and  involved  him  in  financial 
embarrassment  from  which  he  never  recovered.  In 
the  hope  of  bettering  his  condition  he  went  West  in 
1 82 1,  leaving  his  wife  behind  him  in  Connecticut.  A 
year  later  he  sent  for  her,  and  under  the  escort  of 
some  friends  and  neighbors  she  travelled  on  horse- 
back over  the  Alleghanies,  holding  her  infant  child  on 
a  pillow  in  front  of  her.  The  new  home  was  in  Lan- 
caster, O.  Mr.  Sherman  in  a  short  time  won  great 
prominence  as  an  able,  eloquent,  and  judicious 

His  reputation  soon  extended  over  the  entire  Statev 
and  his  practice  was  very  large  and  fairly  remunera- 
tive. In  1823,  when  he  was  only  thirty-five  years  of 
age,  the  Legislature  of  Ohio  elected  him  a  judge  of 
the  Supreme  Court. 

This  was  upon  the  recommendation  of  his  fellow- 
citizens,  as  follows : 

"Somerset,  Ohio,  July  6,  1821. 

"  May  it  please  your  Excellency  : 

"  We  ask  leave  to  recommend  to  your  Excellency's 
favorable  notice  Charles  R.  Sherman,  Esq.,  of  Lan- 
caster, as  a  man    possessing   in    an  eminent  degree 


those  qualifications  so  much  to  be  desired  in  a  judge 

of  the  Supreme  Court. 

"  From  a  long  acquaintance  with  Mr.  Sherman  we 
are  happy  to  be  able  to  state  to  your  Excellency  that 
our  minds  are  led  to  the  conchision  that  that  gentle- 
man possesses  a  disposition  noble  and  generous,  a 
mind  discriminating,  comprehensive,  and  combining  a 
heart  pure,  benevolent,  and  humane.  Manners  digni- 
fied, mild,  and  complaisant,  and  a  firmness  not  to  be 
shaken  and  of  unquestioned  integrity. 

"But  Mr.  Sherman's  character  cannot  be  unknown 
to  your  Excellency,  and  on  that  acquaintance  without 
further  comment  we  might  safely  rest  his  pretensions 

"We  think  we  hazard  little  in  assuring  your  Ex- 
cellency that  his  appointment  would  give  alniost  uni- 
versal satisfaction  to  the  citizens  of  Perry  county." 

He  was  soon  after  appointed  a  judge  of  the  Su- 
preme Court,  and  served  in  that  capacity  to  the  day 
of  his  death.  Admirably  fitted  for  the  bench,  his 
written  opinions  prove  that  he  possessed  a  fine  legal 
mind.  His  manner  was  kind  and  considerate,  and  to 
know  him  was  to  be  his  friend.  The  salary  attached 
to  the  office  was  barely  sufficient  to  support  himself 
and  his  large  family,  so  that  v/hen  he  suddenly  died 
at  Lebanon,  O.,  June  24,  1829,  in  the  noon  of  his 
fame  and  at  the  age  of  forty-one,  those  dependent  on 
him  were  almost  totally  unprovided  for,  and  the  family 
was  suddenly  thrown  on  its  own  resources. 

In  this  emergency  the  rcjavives  and  friends  of  her 


husband  came  to  the  assistance  of  the  widow  and  her 
eleven  children.  Two  of  them  were  adopted  by  an 
aunt.  John,  afterward  United  States  Senator  and  ex- 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  went  to  live  with  an  uncle, 
and  Thomas  Ewing,  who  had  then  been  United  States 
Senator  and  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  took  William 
Tecumseh  into  his  family  and  educated  him  as  one  of 
his  own  children. 

Adopted  by  Mr.  Ewing. 

The  story  of  the  adoption  is  interesting.  Mr. 
Ewing,  who  was  not  only  a  warm  friend,  but  also  a 
distant  relative  of  Judge  Sherman,  drove  across  the 
country  to  the  Sherman  home  as  soon  as  he  heard  of 
the  death.  He  knew  the  family  was  large,  that  they 
were  very  poor,  and  he  resolved  to  take  one  of  the 
children  until  the  fortunes  of  the  house  grew  brighter. 
Mrs.  Sherman  was  unable  to  decide  which  one  of  the 
little  ones  to  surrender.  After  a  tearful  consultation 
she  and  her  eldest  daughter  accompanied  Mr.  Ewing 
out  of  doors,  where  the  boys  were  romping  on  the 

"  Well,"  said  Mr.  Ewing,  "  which  one  of  'em  shall  I 
take  ?     They  all  look  alike  to  me." 

The  distressed  mother*  was  still  unable  to  decide, 
when  the  daughter,  snatching  up  one  of  them  in  her 
arms  and  holding  him  out,  said,  "Well,  Mr.  Ewing,  if 
you  must  take  one,  take  '  Cump,'  because  he  is  the 

"All  right,  then — 'Cump'  it  is,"  said  Mr.  Ewing, 
taking  the  child  in  his  arms  and  placing  him   in  his 


carriage.  Mr.  Ewing  took  him  to  his  family,  and,  says 
General  Sherman,  "  ever  after  treated  me  as  his  own 
son."  "  Cump  "  was  then  nine  years  of  age,  having 
been  born  in  Lancaster,  February  8,  1820.  His  father 
knew  and  admired  the  Indian  chief  Tecumseh,  which 
accounts  for  his  middle  name. 

You  nor  Sherman  was  sent  to  the  Lancaster  Acad- 
emy  by  his  benefactor.  It  was  the  best  educational 
establishment  in  the  place — as  good  a  school,  in  fact, 
as  any  in  Ohio  at  the  time.  He  studied  all  the  or- 
dinary branches,  including  Latin,  Greek,  and  French. 
The  years  passed  on,  and  one  day  a  note  came  from 
Senator  Ewing,  who  was  in  Washington,  notifying 
him  to  prepare  for  the  Military  Academy  at  West 
Point.  Previous  to  this,  however,  Sherman  was  al- 
lowed in  1834  to  work  during  that  fall  and  the  follow- 
ing spring  as  rodman  for  a  surveyor  who  was  making 
surveys  for  a  canal  to  connect  with  the  great  Ohio  one 
at  Carroll,  eight  miles  above  Lancaster.  He  was  paid 
a  silver  half-dollar  for  each  day's  actual  work,  and  this 
was  the  first  money  he  earned. 



Education   at    West    Point. — Chasing    Savage 
Seminoles  in  the  South. 

During  the  autumn  and  spring  of  1835-36  young 
Sherman  worked  hard  studying  mathematics  and 
French,  the  chief  requisites  for  admission  to  West 
Point.  The  letter  of  appointment  came  early  in  1836 
from  the  Secretary  of  War,  Mr.  Poinsett.  Sherman 
made  the  journey  to  Washington  to  see  Mr.  Ewing. 
A  week  was  spent  at  the  capital.  General  Jackson 
was  then  at  the  height  of  his  power,  and  General 
Sherman  has  left  it  on  record  how  he  spent  an  hour 
looking  through  the  wooden  railings  which  then  ran 
around  the  White  House  at  "  Old  Hickory "  as  he 
walked  up  and  down  inside.  In  less  than  thirty  years 
his  own  fame  as  a  soldier  was  destined  to  surpass  that 
of  the  hero  of  New  Orleans. 

The  start  for  the  academy  was  made,  and  on  June 
1 2  he  stepped,  in  New  York,  on  board  the  steamer 
Cornelius  Vanderbilt,  and  finished  the  last  stage  of  his 

He  joined  the  class  of  1836  and  went  through  the 
regular  course  of  four  years,  graduating  in  June,  1840, 
No.  6  in  a  class  of  forty-three.  The  class  originally 
was  more  than  one  hundred.  "At  the  academy,"  says 
the  general,  "  I  was  not  considered  a  good  soldier,  for 



at  no  time  was  I  selected  for  any  office,  but  remained 
a  private  throughout  the  whole  four  years.  Then,  as 
now,  neatness  in  dress  and  form,  with  a  strict  con- 
formity to  the  rules,  were  the  qualifications  required 
for  office,  and  I  suppose  I  was  found  not  to  excel  in 
any  of  these.  In  studies  I  always  held  a  respectable 
reputation  with  the  professors,  and  generally  ranked 
among  the  best,  especially  drawing,  chemistry,  mathe- 
matics, and  natural  philosophy.  My  average  demerits 
per  annum  were  about  one  hundred  and  fifty,  which 
reduced  my  final  class  standing  from  No.  4  to  No.  6." 
Early  Service  in  the  South. 

After  graduation  and  the  usual  three  months'  fur- 
lough he  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  in  the 
Third  Artillery,  and  ordered  to  report  the  following 
September  at  Governor's  Island  in  New  York  har- 
bor. There  he  was  placed  in  command  of  a  com- 
pany of  recruits  preparing  for  service  in  Florida.  In 
less  than  a  month  the  company,  with  three  others,  was 
ordered  to  Savannah,  Ga.  They  embarked  in  a  sail- 
ing vessel  for  that  port,  where  they  were  transferred 
to  a  small  steamer  and  taken  to  St.  Augustine,  Fla. 
General  Taylor  was  then  in  command  in  Florida,  with 
headquarters  at  Tampa  Bay. 

The  Third  Artillery,  Sherman's  regiment,  occupied 
the  posts  along  the  Atlantic  coast  from  St.  Augus- 
tine to  Key  Biscayne,  his  own  company  being  sta- 
tioned at  Fort  Pierce,  on  the  Indian  River.  He  was 
detached  from  the  company  of  recruits  and  joined  his 
own  command.     In  November  preparations  were  be- 








gun  for  active  operations  against  the  Indians,  the  ob- 
ject being  to  catch  the  scattered  bands  of  Seminoles 
then  on  the  Peninsula  and  send  them  to  join  their 
tribe  in  the  newly-estabhshed  Indian  Territory.  The 
Hfe  was  not  without  its  perils.  The  Indians  did  not 
want  to  leave,  and  frequently  offered  resistance  with 
disastrous  consequences  to  themselves  as  well  as  to 
the  military 

First  Promotion. 

In  November,  1841,  Sherman  received  his  first  pro- 
motion, being  made  the  first  lieutenant  of  Company 
G.  He  left  Fort  Pierce  and  joined  his  new  command 
at  St.  Augustine.  Shortly  afterward  he  was  placed 
in  command  of  a  detachment  of  twenty  men  at  Pico- 
lata,  on  the  St.  John's  River.  He  remained  there 
only  a  few  months,  having  been  ordered  on  duty 
which  took  him  to  Pensacola.  Thence  he  was  sent 
to  Fort  Morgan,  Mobile  Point. 

He  was  now  quartermaster  and  commissary.  The 
following  June  found  him  in  Fort  Moultrie,  the  regi- 
ment having  been  changed  from  the  Gulf  posts  to 
those  on  the  Atlantic.  "  We  remained  at  Fort  Moul- 
trie," says  General  Sherman,  "  nearly  five  years,  until 
the  Mexican  war  scattered  us  for  ever.  Our  life 
there  was  of  strict  garrison  duty,  with  plenty  of  leis- 
ure for  huntine  and  social  entertainment.  We  soon 
formed  many  and  most  pleasant  acquaintances  in  the 
city  of  Charleston,  and  it  soon  happened  that  many  of 
the  families  resided  at  Sullivan's  Island  in  the  summer 
season,  where  we  could  reciprocate  the  hospitalities 


extended  to  us  In  the  winter."  This  life  was  inter- 
rupted by  a  brief  leave  of  absence  in  1843,  which  he 
spent  in  Ohio  and  in  visiting  some  of  the  principal 
Southern  cities. 

First  March  through  Georg-ia. 

An  order  came  from  the  War  Department  at  Wash- 
ington in  January,  1844,  which,  curiously  enough,  took 
him  through  the  country  over  which  he  was  in  after 
years  to  sweep  at  the  head  of  a  conquering  army  on 
one  of  the  most  famous  expeditions  in  all  military 
history — the  "  march  to  the  sea."  It  was  a  detail  to 
assist  Colonel  Churchill,  the  inspector-general  of  the 
army,  in  taking  depositions  in  Upper  Georgia  and 
Alabama  concerning  certain  losses  by  volunteers  ii? 
Florida  of  horses  and  equipment  by  reason  of  the 
failure  of  the  United  States  to  provide  sufficient  for- 
age, and  for  which  Congress  had  made  an  appropria- 

The  order  directed  him  to  go  to  Marietta,  where 
Churchill  was  conducting  the  investigation.  It  was  all 
over  in  two  months,  when  Sherman  rode  south  on 
horseback  by  way  of  Rome,  Allatoona,  Marietta,  At- 
lanta, Madison,  and  Augusta,  Ga.  "Thus,  by  a  mere 
accident,"  says  Sherman,  "  I  was  enabled  to  traverse 
on  horseback  the  very  ground  where,  in  after  years,  I 
had  to  conduct  vast  armies  and  fight  great  battles. 
That  tiie  knowledge  thus  acquired  was  of  infinite  use 
^Q  me,  and  consequently  to  the  Government,  I  have 
always  felt  and  stated." 


Meets  with  an  Accident. 

ifn  the  winter  of  1 844  his  right  shoulder  was  dislo- 
cated by  the  fall  of  his  horse  while  hunting  deer  on 
the  Cooper  River.  He  suffered  severely,  and  spent  a 
short  leave  of  absence  which  was  allowed  him  in  the 
North.  He  was  back  in  Fort  Moultrie  by  March, 
1845.  Congress  had  about  this  time  passed  a  joint 
resolution  providing  for  the  annexation  of  Texas, 
then  an  independent  republic,  and  the  army  and  the 
country  looked  for  an  immediate  war  with  Mexico. 
General  Taylor  had  assembled  some  regiments  of  in- 
fantry and  one  of  dragoons  at  Fort  Jessup,  La.,  and 
the  orders  from  Washington  were  that  he  should  ex- 
tend military  protection  to  Texas  against  the  Indians 
or  a  "foreign  country''  when  the  terms  of  annexation 
were  agreed  to.  The  terms  were  accepted  in  July, 
and  he  moved  his  troops  to  Corpus  Christi,  at  which 
point  during  the  summer  and  fall  of  1845  ^^s  concen- 
trated the  army  that  in  the  spring  of  the  following 
year  was  to  begin  the  Mexican  War. 


A  Recruiting  Officer. — Stirring  Times  in 

A  CO.  '^  \Ny  of  Sherman's  regiment  was  ordered 
fr'jm  Fort  ivouitrie  to  Corpus  Christi,  but  it  was  net 
his,  and  before  the  other  companies  were  directed  to 
follow  Shermaj  was  detached  for  recruiting  service, 
May  I,  1846.  That  detail  took  him  out  of  the  Mexican 
War  and  deprived  him  of  the  promotion  it  brought 
to  so  many.  Perhaps  it  also  preserved  him  for  the 
greater  work  he  was  to  do.  The  recruiting  order 
wrought  him  back  again  to  Governor's  Island.  The 
Pittsburgh  district  was  given  to  him,  and  he  took  up 
his  headquarters  at  the  St.  Charles  Hotel  in  that  city 
early  in  May.  Recruits  were  in  very  active  demand, 
and  he  was  authorized  to  open  a  sub-rendezvous  at 
Zanesville,  Ohio. 

He  had  been  at  Pittsburgh  only  a  few  weeks  when 
the  stirring  news  of  the  battle  of  Palo  Alto  excited  the 
entire  country.  "  That  I  should  be  on  recruiting 
service,"  says  Sherman,  "  when  my  comrades  were 
actually  fighting  was  intolerable,  and  I  hurried  to  my 
post  at  Pittsburgh.  I  wrote  to  the  adjutant-general 
at  Washington,  asking  him  to  consider  me  as  an  appli- 
cant for  any  active  service,  and  saying  that  I  would 
willingly  forego  the  recruiting  detail,  which  I  well  knew 



plenty  of  others  would  jump  at.  Impatient  to  approach 
the  scene  of  active  operations,  without  authority — and, 
I  suppose,  wrongfully — I  left  my  corporal  in  charge  of 
the  rendezvous,  and  took  all  the  recruits  I  had  made 
in  a  steamboat  to  Cincinnati,  turning  them  over  to 
Major  N.  C.  McCrea,  commanding  at  Newport  Bar- 
racks. I  then  reported  to  Cincinnati,  where  the  super- 
intendent of  the  Western  recruiting  service  Inquired 
by  what  authority  I  had  come  away  from  my  post.  I 
argued  that  I  took  it  for  granted  he  wanted  all  the  re- 
cruits he  could  get  to  forward  to  the  army,  and  did 
not  know  but  that  he  might  want  me  to  go  along.  In- 
stead of  appreciating  my  volunteer  zeal,  he  cursed 
and  swore  at  me  for  leaving  my  post  without  orders, 
and  told  me  to  go  back  to  Pittsburgh." 

He  went  back,  and  the  following  June  received 
orders  relieving  him  from  the  recruiting  business,  and 
assigning  him  to  Company  F,  then  under  orders  for 
California.  This  brought  him  once  more  to  Gover- 
nor's Island. 

Early  Days  in  California. 

Over  in  Brooklyn  the  United  States  storeship  Lex- 
ington was  then  being  fitted  out  for  the  long  journey 
around  Cape  Horn  to  California.  The  Lexington  at 
last  was  ready,  In  July,  1846,  and  they  sailed.  Among 
that  party  of  officers  were  Ord  and  Halleck.  It  was 
a  slow,  tedious  voyage.  The  first  port  made  was 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  at  the  end  of  sixty  days.  They  had 
a  good  time  on  shore  for  a  week,  seeing  Dom  Pedro 
and  his  then  young  empress,  the  daughter  of  the  king 


of  Sicily.  Throne  and  empress  have  passed  away, 
ind  only  Dom  Pedro  himself  remains,  the  last  per- 
haps of  all. 

The  Lexington  resumed  her  voyage,  and  in  Octo- 
ber saw  the  snows  of  the  Cape.  In  sixty  days  from 
Rio,  Valparaiso  was  reached.  There  they  heard  news 
about  the  war,  the  events  of  which  up  to  that  time 
had  been  a  sealed  volume.  At  last,  about  the  middle 
of  January,  the  California  coast  began  to  loom  up, 
and  wlien  the  high  mountains  about  Santa  Cruz  came 
in  view  a  boat  with  Lieutenant  Henry  Wise,  master 
of  the  Independence  frigate,  that  they  had  left  at  Val- 
paraiso, came  alongside.  He  told  them  that  Cali- 
fornia had  broken  out  into  insurrection ;  that  General 
Kearney  had  reached  the  country  and  been  beaten  in 
a  severe  battle ;  and  much  else  which  was  not  strictly 

Ready  to  Fight. 

When  the  old  Lexington  dropped  anchor  in  the 
Bay  of  Monterey,  Jan.  26,  1847,  after  a  voyage  of  two 
less  than  two  hundred  days  from  New  York,  all  on 
board  were  ready  to  fight  at  once.  But  when  they 
went  on  shore,  nothing  could  be  more  peaceful  than 
Monterey.  No  fighting  was  necessary.  Sherman 
was  then  quartermaster  and  commissary,  and  he  had 
abundance  of  work  on  his  hands  for  a  few  weeks. 
But  he  soon  had  leisure  enough,  and  he  employed  it 
in  learning  something  about  the  country  in  which  the 
chances  of  war,  although  it  was  all  peace  to  him,  had 
thrown  him.     Sherman  was  not  making  much  history 


then,  but  the  vivid  story  of  the  scenes  and  incidents 
in  those  distant  California  days  which  he  tells  shows 
that-  if  he  was  denied  the  chance  to  make  history,  he 
knew  how  to  write  it. 

Making  Surveys. 

Sherman  was  acting  assistant  adjutant- general  of 
the  Department  of  California  until  February,  1849, 
when  he  was  transferred  to  San  Francisco  on  similai 
duty  on  the  staff  of  General  Persifer  Smith,  com- 
manding the  Division  of  the  Pacific.  There  was  very 
little  to  do,  and  General  Smith  encouraged  Sherman 
and  two  or  three  other  officers  to  go  into  any  business 
that  would  enable  them  to  make  money.  Sherman 
made  a  contract  to  survey  Colonel  J.  D.  Stevenson's 
newly-projected  city,  which  was  to  be  called  "  New 
York  of  the  Pacinc,"  at  che  mouth  of  the  San  Joaquin 
River.  The  contract  embraced  also  the  making  of 
soundings  and  the  markmg  out  of  a  channel  through 
Suisun  Bay.  For  this  work  he  got  five  hundred  dol- 
lars and  ten  or  fift^ien  lots.  Sherman  sold  enough 
lots  to  make  an  additional  five  hundred  dollars, 
"and,"  he  tells  us,  "  let  the  balance  go,  for  the  '  City 
of  New  York  of  the  Pacific '  never  came  to  any- 

Subsequently  he  made  a  bargain  with  a  Mr.  Hart- 
nett  to  survey  his  ranch  at  Consumnees  River  in  the 
Sacramento  Valley.  General  Ord  was  associated 
with  him  in  this  work.  It  took  about  a  month  to 
make  this  survey,  which,  when  finished,  was  duly 
plotted,  and  for -it  they  received  one-tenth  of  the  land 


or  two  sub-dlvislons.  Sherman  by  the  sale  of  the 
land  subsequently  realized  three  thousand  dollars. 
Ord  and  he  did  some  work  for  a  man  named  Bailor, 
who  paid  them  five  hundred  dollars  a  day  for  the 
party.  He  invested  these  earnings  in  Sacramento 
Cit}'   lots,  on   which  he  made  fair  profit. 

General  Smith  had  promised  Sherman  that  he 
would  send  him  East  the  first  opportunity,  and  the 
chance  came  in  December,  1849.  Smith  was  in 
Oregon,  and  from  there  he  sent  despatches  to  Sher- 
man, to  be  delivered  in  person  to  General  Winfield 
Scott,  who  was  then  in  New  York.  He  came  back  by 
way  of  Panama.  Scott  questioned  him  closely,  he 
s;4ys,  in  regard  to  affairs  on  the  Pacific  coast,  and 
"  Uartled  me  with  the  assertion  that  *our  country  was 
01  the  eve  of  a  terrible  civil  war.'  He  interested  me 
by  anecdotes  of  my  old  army  comrades  in  his  recent 
battles  around  the  city  of  Mexico,  and  I  felt  deeply 
the  fact  that  our  country  had  passed  through  a  foreign 
war,  that  my  comrades  had  fought  great  battles,  and 
yet  I  had  not  heard  a  hostile  shot.  Of  course  I 
thought  it  the  last  and  only  chance  in  my  day  and 
that  my  career  as  a  soldier  was  at  an  end." 

Sent  to  Washing-tou  by  General  Scott.  ^ 

By  order  of  Scott,  Sherman  went  to  Washington 
to  lay  before  Secretary  of  War  Crawford  the  de- 
spatches he  had  brought  from  California.  He  found 
Mr  Ewing  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  and  of  course 
his  position  was  in  every  way  assured.  Crawford,  he 
says,  questioned  him  on  California,  but  he  seemed  to 


be  Interested  In  the  country  chiefly  as  It  related  to 
slavery  and  the  route  through  Texas.  The  President, 
Zachary  Taylor,  whom  he  had  never  met,  although 
he  had  served  under  him  in  Florida  in  1840-41,  re- 
ceived him  with  great  kindness,  told  him  that  he  had 
heard  his  name  mentioned  with  praise,  and  that  he 
would  be  pleased  to  do  him  any  act  of  favor.  A  few 
years  before,  if  he  had  spoken  these  words  to  the  re- 
cruiting officer  at  Pittsburgh,  he  would  have  promptly 
asked  him  to  take  him  with  him  Into  Mexico. 

Very  wonderful  stories  are  told  of  those  old  days  In 
California,  Persons  are  now  livlna-  who  can  remember 
well  when  gold  was  first  discovered,  and  how  the  gold 
fever  swept  like  wild-fire  over  the  country.  Men  left 
home,  family,  friends,  and  all  their  pleasant  surround- 
ings In  the  East  to  make  their  fortunes  on  the  Pacific 
coast.  The  country  was  in  a  craze;  men  were  mad 
to  obtain  sudden  fortunes. 

Eag^er  for  Gold. 

Life  in  California  at  that  time  was  of  course  rough 
and  wild.  Men  were  their  own  diggers ;  hands  that 
had  never  been  hardened  by  work  grew  rough  by 
handling  the  spade  ;  wherever  there  was  gold  to  be 
had,  a  whole  host  was  after  It ;  some  men  made  for- 
tunes, and  many  others  lost  the  litde  fortune  they  had 
acquired  In  the  East  In  the  vain  endeavor  to  obtain  a 
larger  one  in  the  West. 

Sherman's  life  at  this  time,  since  It  brought  him  into 
contact  with  all  grades  of  men,  was  well  calculated  to 
prepare  him  for  his  future  career  in  the  service  of  the 


United  States.  It  is  particularly  important  that  a 
general  should  have  a  knowledge  of  men,  should 
know  the  interests  by  which  they  are  influenced,  and 
should  be  able  to  control  them  at  his  will.  Only  a 
man  of  experience  who  has  seen  a  great  deal  of  the 
world  can  do  this.  One  thing  is  particularly  to  be 
noted,  however ;  which  is,  that  General  Sherman  did 
not  in  California  make  a  fortune  for  himself.  How- 
ever rich  the  diggings  might  be,  he  was  not  himself  a 
"  digger." 

Men  slept  on  the  ground,  and  even  during  the 
rainy  season  the  sky  was  their  only  covering.  As  a 
soldier  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  he  had  only 
those  comforts  which  soldiers  obtain  in  the  field.  The 
life  of  a  soldier  is  hard  anyway,  and  the  only  wonder 
is  that  during  his  brief  stay  in  California  Sherman  did 
not  break  down  under  it.  He  was  possessed,  how- 
ever, of  an  iron  constitution,  which  served  him  ad- 
mirably through  his  long  life.  The  fibre  of  which 
he  was  made  was  oak,  not  basswood. 

A  Fine  City. 

What  a  contrast  between  the  California  of  to-day 
and  the  California  of  forty  years  ago  !  Now  the  wave 
of  civilization,  sweeping  westward,  has  struck  the 
Golden  Gate.  San  Francisco,  one  of  the  great  cities 
of  the  Republic,  has  its  inviting  streets,  lofty  mercan- 
tile establishments,  costly  public  buildings,  schools, 
churches,  and  financial  institutions,  and  in  some  re- 
spects is  the  foremost  city  in  the  land.  At  the  time 
when  Sherman  traversed  the  vales  and  climbed  the 


mountains  of  the  country  all  this  was  but  a  dream,  if 
any  one  dreamed  it  at  all. 

As  an  instance  of  the  kind  of  life  United  States 
officers  and  soldiers  led  there,  Sherman  relates  that 
the  servants  whom  General  Smith  had  brought  from 
New  Orleans,  and  who  had  pledged  their  word  that 
they  would  remain  with  him  faithfully  for  a  year,  de- 
serted him  one  after  another.  The  ladies  were  left 
without  maid  or  attendant,  and,  says  Sherman,  with  an 
exquisite  touch  of  humor,  "The  general  commanding 
all  the  mighty  forces  of  the  United  States  on  the  Pa- 
cific coast  had  to  scratch  to  get  one  good  meal  a  day 
for  his  family."  There  was  no  regular  time  for  break- 
fast, dinner,  or  supper ;  breakfast  could  generally  be 
had  by  twelve  o'clock,  and  "  dinner  according  to  cir- 
cumstances," which  circumstances  varied  from  day  to 
day,  so  that  the  most  uncertain  thing  was  the  dinner, 
as  no  one  knew  when  it  was  coming  nor  what  it  was 
to  be  composed  of  when  it  did  come. 

We  have  been  more  particular  to  refer  to  this  ex- 
perience of  Sherman  on  the  Pacific  coast  in  order  to 
bring  out  the  varying  struggles  of  his  earlier  days. 
If  he  had  been  the  scion  of  wealth  he  would  never 
have  been  the  world-renowned  commander.  He  was 
to  be  a  self-made  man ;  he  was  to  make  his  own  way 
in  the  world  ;  he  was  to  master  the  world — was  to 
put  the  world  proudly  beneath  his  feet ;  he  was  to 
rise  above  men,  stretch  out  his  arm  over  them  and 
give  them  command,  and  his  early  experience  qual- 
ified ^'^m   for  his  magnificent  career. 


General  Sherman's  Romantic  Marriage. — A 
Banker  in  California  and  New  York. — Be- 
comes a  Lawyer. 

Sherman  applied  for  leave  of  absence  from  army 
duty,  which  was,  of  course,  immediately  granted.  His 
first  visit  was  to  the  mother  whose  poverty  had  com- 
pelled her  to  surrender  him  so  many  years  before,  to 
Mr.  Ewing.  She  was  then  living  at  Mansfield,  Ohio. 
All  through  these  years,  while  he  was  in  Florida  and 
California,  they  had  been  in  constant  correspondence, 
and  he  contributed  handsomely  toward  the  support 
of  the  family.  He  returned  to  Washington,  and  on 
May  I,  1850,  he  was  married  to  his  old  playmate, 
Miss  Ellen  Boyle  Ewing,  the  daughter  of  the  man  of 
whom  he  was  the  adopted  child. 

The  marriage  ceremony  was  attended  by  a  large 
and  distinguished  company.  Daniel  Webster,  Henry 
Clay,  Thomas  H.  Benton,  President  Taylor,  and  the 
entire  Cabinet  were  among  the  guests.  The  cere- 
mony took  place  at  the  residence  of  Mr.  Ewing,  the 
old  house  subsequently  owned  by  Francis  P.  Blair,  on 
Pennsylvania  avenue,  opposite  the  old  War  Depart 
ment.  The  wedding-tour  took  the  young  officer — 
hen  only  thirty  years  old — and  his  bride  to  Baltimore, 



A  BANKER.  41 

New  York,  Niagara,  and  Ohio.  They  returned  to 
Washington  in  July. 

Taylor's  death  followed  in  a  few  days,  and  Sherman 
attended  the  funeral  as  an  aide-de  camp  at  the  request 
of  the  adjutant-general  of  the  army.  Sherman's  rank 
at  this  time  was  only  that  of  first  lieutenant  of  the 
Third  Artillery.  In  the  following  September  he  joined 
his  command  at  Jefferson  Barracks,  Mo.  He  had  not 
been  there  very  long  when  Congress  increased  the 
commissary  department  by  four  new  captains,  and  he 
was  made  one  of  them.  He  was  ordered  to  St.  Louis, 
where  he  relieved  Captain  A.  J.  Smith  of  the  First 
Dragoons.     His  commission  bore  date  September  27, 

1850.  Sherman  resided  in  St.  Louis  during  the  year 

1 85 1,  and  in  the  summer  of  1852  his  family  went  to 
Lancaster,  but  he  remained  at  his  post.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1852,  he  was  ordered  to  New  Orleans,  where  he 
remained  until  March,  1853.  He  then  obtained  six 
months'  leave  of  absence,  and  resigned  from  the  army 
September  6,  1853,  to  engage  in  the  banking  business 
in  San  Francisco. 

From  Barracks  to  Banks. 

Sherman  sent  his  family  to  Ohio,  and  started  for 
California  alone  by  way  of  Nicaragua.  The  captain 
of  the  vessel  lost  his  reckoning,  and  at  the  end  of 
eighteen  days  out  the  ship  struck  a  reef  north  of  San 
Francisco,  the  engines  stopped,  and,  although  it  was 
four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  decks  were  soon 
crowded  with  terrified  passengers.  The  sea  was 
calm,  and  the  ship,  being  already  on  the  bottom,  could 


not  sink.  The  passengers  were  soon  taken  on  shore 
and  huddled  on  the  beach  under  a  bluff.  Sherman 
started  off  to  make  an  examination  of  the  country 
and  find  out,  if  possible,  where  they  were.  He  learned 
that  the  ship  had  struck  at  Bantinas  Creek,  and  that 
a  schooner  was  only  waiting  for  the  tide  to  sail  to  San 
Francisco.  Sherman  sent  back  word  to  the  captain 
that  he  would  go  to  San  Francisco  on  the  schooner 
and  send  assistance.  The  schooner  had  not  been 
many  hours  at  sea,  however,  when  she  was  struck  by 
a  squall  which  sent  her  over  on  her  side.  Sherman, 
among  the  others,  found  himself  in  the  water,  but 
they  all  managed  to  escape.  He  was  picked  up  by  a 
passing  boat.  Finally,  he  got  to  San  Francisco,  but 
if  the  weather  had  been  stormy  the  chances  are  that 
he  could  never  have  reached  shore. 
Bank  Failure. 
After  makine  all  the  investio^ations  he  desired 
about  the  proposed  banking  business,  he  returned 
to  New  York  about  July,  1853,  and  proceeded  to 
Lancaster,  O.,  where  his  family  was  living.  He  ex- 
plained the  offer  that  had  been  made,  the  prospects 
of  success,  and  other  matters  connected  with  the  enter- 
prise. Having  completed  arrangements,  he  resigned 
from  the  army,  to  take  effect  six  months  later.  With 
his  family  he  left  New  York  in  September  for  San 
Juan  del  Norte.  He  had  then  only  one  child,  Lizzie, 
who  at  the  time  was  less  than  a  year  old.  They 
reached  San  Francisco  safely  on  October  15.  The  ex- 
soldier  now  plunged  into  all  the  mysteries  of  banking. 

A  BANKER.  43 

The  banking-house  of  Page,  Bacon  &  Co.  soon 
became  involved  in  trouble,  and  there  was  a  run  on 
*^he  San  Francisco  branch.  The  failure,  of  course, 
involved  all  the  other  banks  in  the  city,  and  the 
Sherman  institution  was  no  exception.  This  was  in 
1855.  When  the  doors  of  the  Sherman  house  were 
opened  one  morning,  in  rushed  the  crowd.  Several 
gentlemen  asked  if  their  money  was  safe,  and  on 
being  assured  that  it  was  they  went  away  satisfied. 
Before  the  day  closed  seventy-five  thousand  dollars 
in  gold  bullion  were  paid  out,  and  the  bank  was  kept 
open  until  the  usual  hour  for  closing,  meeting  all 
demands  upon  it.  It  still  had  a  respectable  amount 
left.  The  run  was  continued  the  next  day,  and  finally 
it  weathered  the  crisis  and  was  left  with  a  standincr  of 
the  very  first  class.  Finally  in  1855-56  business  in 
California  became  depressed.  A  great  many  enter- 
prises failed.  Foreign  capital  was  withdrawn,  and,  on 
the  suggestion  of  Sherman,  Mr.  Lucas  gradually  drew 
out  of  the  business,  settling  all  demands  and  giving 
due  notice  to  depositors.  The  house  closed  in  April, 
1857,  having  transacted  its  business  in  an  honorable 
way  from  first  to  last. 

The  Old  "Vigilance"  Days. 

Sherman  bore  a  very  prominent  part  in  the  disorders 
that  arose  in  San  Francisco  about  this  time  and  which 
led  to  the  establishment  of  the  Vigilance  Committee. 
But  he  was  on  the  side  of  law  and  order,  believing 
that  the  courts  were  abundantly  able  to  purge  the  city 
of  crime,  and  that  all  that  wa?  required  was  a  vigorous 


execution  of  the  law.  The  governor,  Johnson,  con- 
sulted him  about  the  reorganization  of  the  militia,  and 
offered  him  a  commission  as  major-general  of  the 
second  division  of  militia,  which  embraced  the  city  of 
San  Francisco.  Sherman  accepted  at  first,  but  while 
volunteers  were  numerous  enouorh  there  were  no 
arms  for  them.  In  this  emergency  efforts  were  made 
to  induce  General  John  E.  Wood  to  loan  some  of  the 
Government  rifles.  He  at  first  promised,  but  failed 
to  keep  his  engagement.  Sherman  made  many  un- 
successful efforts  to  stop  the  high-handed  action  of  the 
Vigilance  Committee,  but  finally  withdrew  from  the 
struggle  and  allowed   things  to  take  their  course. 

A  Banker  in  New  York. 

After  closing  the  bank,  Sherman,  on  May  i,  1857, 
left  San  Francisco  with  his  family,  by  way  of  Panama, 
for  New  York.  It  had  been  arrano-ed  that  a  branch 
bank  of  the  St.  Leu  is  house  was  to  be  established 
there,  with  Sherman  in  charge.  Mr.  Lucas,  Major 
Turner,  and  he  met  in  New  York  in  July  to  make  the 
necessary  preparations.  An  office  was  rented  at  No. 
12  Wall  street,  furniture  was  bought,  and  a  teller, 
bookkeeper,  and  porter  hired.  The  new  firm  was  to 
bear  the  name  of  Lucas,  Turner  &  Co.  The  office 
was  opened  July  21,  1857,  and  at  once  began  to 
receive  accounts  from  the  West  and  from  California. 
Sherman  went  to  live  at  No.  100  Prince  street. 

The  Metropolitan  Bank  and  Bank  of  America  were 
institutions  at  that  time  of  good  repute  in  New  York, 
and  with  these  he  established  business  relations.    For 

A  BANKER.  45 

a  time  prosperity  crowned  his  efforts  and  his  financial 
success  appeared  to  be  assured.  The  struggles 
through  which  he  had  passed  in  years  gone  by,  and 
the  misfortunes  which  had  attended  some  of  his  ven- 
•  tures,  seemed  to  be  over.  This,  as  has  already  been 
remarked,  was  in  the  year  1857,  which  was  memor- 
able for  the  greatest  financial  panic  our  country  ever 
saw.  As  a  certain  Friday  which  destroyed  magnifi- 
cent fortunes  in  Wall  street  has  been  called  "  Black 
Friday,"   so   1857  might  be  called"  the  black  year. 

Financial  Disaster. 

Suddenly,  like  a  thunderbolt  falling  from  a  clear 
sky,  on  the  21st  of  August  the  failure  of  the  Ohio 
Life  and  Trust  Company  was  announced;  Wall  street 
was  instantly  convulsed  and  the  city  was  in  a  panic; 
with  terrible  swiftness  the  panic  extended  from  New 
York  to  every  part  of  the  countr) .  Men  went  to  bed 
thinking  they  were  rich,  and  wak^^d  up  to  find  they 
were  poor.  Colossal  fortunes  were  swept  away  as 
the  frail  cottages  in  the  valley  of  Johnstown  were 
carried  like  chips  before  the  awful  flood. 

General  Sherman  says  the  panic  was  so  much  like 
similar  ones  he  had  witnessed  in  San  Francisco  that 
for  a  time  he  felt  no  alarm,  considerine  that  he  had 
nothing  very  valuable  at  stake.  He  was  simply' 
amused,  but  the  turn  of  affairs  assumed  a  serious 
aspect,  and  affected  him  as  it  did  all  others  in  the 
community.  Western  stocks  and  securities  shrank 
to  almost  worthless  figures,  so  that  the  banks  which 
Arid  them  and  had   borrowed  money  on  them  were 



forced  to  pay  their  indebtedness  at  once  or  substitute 
other  collaterals  of  increased  value. 

Startling  News. 

The  house  with  which  General  Sherman  was  con- 
nected was  not  indebted  to  parties  in  New  York  at 
all,  but  its  correspondents  in  the  West  were  deeply 
involved,  and  felt  extremely  anxious  concerning  their 
interests,  and  looked  to  General  Sherman  to  protect 
them.  Early  in  September  the  New  York  banks 
were  threatened,  having  caught  the  general  alarm, 
and  grave  fears   were  entertained  for  their  safety. 

In  the  very  midst  of  this  panic  came  the  news  that 
the  steamer  Central  America,  formerly  the  George 
Law,  with  six  hundred  passengers  and  about  one 
million  six  hundred  thousand  dollars  of  treasure, 
coming  from  Aspinwall,  had  foundered  at  sea  off  the 
coast  of  Georgia,  and  that  about  sixty  of  the  passen- 
gers had  been  providentially  picked  up  by  a  Swedish 
bark  and  brought  into  Savannah.  The  absolute  loss 
of  this  treasure  went  to  swell  the  confusion  and  panic 
of  the  day. 

All  efforts  to  save  the  banks  were  unsuccessful;  the 
whole  country  was  in  the  grasp  of  financial  failure. 
No  man  lost  a  single  cent  by  the  banking-house  with 
which  Sherman  was  connected,  which  speaks  vol- 
umes for  the  integrity  of  those  who  managed  its 

After  helping  to  straighten  matters  out  in  New 
York  and  St.  Louis,  Sherman  again  went  to  San 
Francisco  to  see  what  he  could  do  in  the  way  of  col- 

A  BANKEK.  4? 

lectinor  old  debts  due  himself  and  the  fii-m.  He  ad- 
vertised  that  the  notes  held  would  be  sold  at  auction 
and.  that  the  real  estate  would  be  sold.  Having  col- 
lected all  that  was  possible  to  be  collected,  he  sailed 
for  home.  He  got  back  to  Lancaster  July  28,  1858, 
free  in  every  way,  but  confronted  with  the  serious 
problem  of  finding  some  means  of  supporting  a  wife 
and  four  children. 

A  Kansas  Lawyer. 

He  conferred  with  Mr.  Ewing  and  others  as  to 
what  he  should  do — this  man  who  was  to  be  the  great 
soldier  of  the  Republic  less  than  six  years  later.  He 
wanted  to  be  independent  if  he  could.  There  were 
coal  and  salt  mines  belonorinor  to  Mr.  Ewino-  at 
Chauncey,  O.,  but  Sherman  was  not  attracted  toward 
that  part  of  Ohio.  Two  of  the  Ewing  boys  were  at 
Leavenworth,  Kan.,  where  they  and  their  father  had 
bought  a  good  deal  of  land,  some  in  the  town  and  the 
greater  portion  back  in  the  country.  Mr.  Ewing 
offered  Sherman  the  manaorement  of  his  interest  in 
the  speculation,  and  the  boys  were  willing  to  give  him 
an  equal  copartnership  in  the  law  firm.  He  accepted 
the  offer,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  not  by  examina- 
tion, but  on  the  ground  of  general  intelligence. 

On  the  first  day  of  the  New  Year,  1859,  another 
partner  was  admitted  into  the  firm,  which  became 
Sherman,  Ewing  &  McCook.  Business  continued  to 
grow,  but  the  income  was  hardly  large  enough  for  the 
three  partners,  and  Sherman  consented  to  look  out 
for  something  more  permanent  and  profitable.     Th^t 


spring  he  undertook  to  open  a  farm  on  a  large  tract 
forty  miles  from  Leavenworth  for  the  benefit  of  Mn 
Ewlng's  grand-nephew,  Henry  Clark,  and  his  grand- 
niece,  Mrs.  Walker.  There  was  only  a  little  money 
in  it,  but  it  helped  to  pass  away  the  time. 

Manag-er  of  a   Military   Academy. 

In  June,  1859,  Sherman  sent  a  note  to]  Major  D. 
C  Buell,  assistant  adjutant-general,  inquiring  if  there 
was  a  vacancy  among  the  paymasters  or  if  he  could  sug- 
gest any  other  military  employment.  Floyd  was  then 
Secretary  of  War.  Buell  sent  Sherman  the  programme 
of  a  military  college  which  was  abcmt  to  be  organized 
in  Louisiana,  and  advised  him  to  apply  for  the  posi- 
tion of  superintendent.  Sherman  at  once  addressed 
a  letter  to  Governor  R.  C.  Wickliffe  at  Baton  Rouge, 
La.  In  July,  1859,  Governor  Wickliffe  notified  him 
that  he  had  been  elected  superintendent  of  the  pro- 
posed college,  and  asking  him  to  come  to  Louisiana 
as  soon  as  possible,  as  they  were  anxious  to  put  the 
college  into  operation. 

"  For  this  honorable  position,"  says  Sherman  in 
telling  the  story  of  his  life,  "  I  was  indebted  to  Majoi 
D.  C.  Buell  and  General  G.  Mason  Graham.  During 
the  Civil  War  it  was  reported  and  charged  that  1 
owed  my  position  to  the  personal  friendship  of 
Generals  Bragg  and  Beauregard,  and  that  in  taking 
up  arms  against  the  South  I  had  been  guilty  of  a 
breach  of  hospitality  and  friendship.  I  was  not  in- 
debted to  General  Bragg,  because  he  himself  told  me 
that  he  was  not  even  aware   that  I  was  an  applicant. 

A  BANKER.  4^ 

and  had  favored  die  selection  of  Major  Jenkins,  an- 
other West  Point  graduate.  General  Beauregard  had 
nothingr  whatever  to  do  with  the  matter." 

Sherman  reported  to  Governor  Wickliffe,  who  by 
virtue  of  his  position  was  the  president  of  the  board 
of  supervisors  of  the  new  institudon,  in  the  autumn  of 
1859.  The  college  buildings  were  near  Alexandria, 
in  the  parish  of  Rapides.  It  was  a  large  and  hand- 
some house,  surrounded  by  about  four  hundred  acres 
of  pine  lands,  with  numerous  springs.  The  institu- 
tion was  opened  with  a  good  staff  of  professors 
January  i,  i860.  A  series  of  by-laws  for  its  govern- 
ment had  been  drawn  up  and  th^  title  of  the  "  Louis- 
iana Seminary  of  Learning  and  Military  Academy  " 
was  given  to  it.  The  title  grevi*  out  of  the  original 
grant  by  Congress  of  a  certain  township  of  public 
land,  to  be  sold  by  the  State  and  dedicated  to  the  use 
of  a  "seminarvof  learnino-." 

Sixty  cadets  appeared  on  the  day  of  the  opening, 
and  everything  started  on  pretty  much  the  same  lines 
as  at  West  Point,  but  without  uniforms  or  muskets. 
During  the  first  term  there  were  seventy- three  cadets, 
of  whom  nearly  sixty  passed  the  examination  in  July, 
;86o.  Defects  were  found  in  the  act  of  incorporation, 
and  the  legislature,  at  the  suggestion  of  Sherman, 
amended  it.  Handsome  appropriations  were  made 
for  the  support  of  the  cadets,  the  erection  of  new 
buildings  and  the  purchase  of  scientific  apparatus. 
The  seminary  was  made  a  State  arsenal,  and  was  placed 
in  a  fair  way  toward  efficiency  and  prosperity, 


Prophet  and  Patriot. — Advice  to  the  War  De- 
partment Treated  as  a  Proof  of  Insanity. 

Sherman,  however,  could  not  be  happy  away  from 
the  tap  of  the  drum.  As  stated,  he  was  made  president 
of  the  Louisiana  State  MiHtary  Academy  with  a  salary 
of  five  thousand  dollars,  and  he  stayed  there  until 
Louisiana's  talk  of  secession  roused  his  ire,  and  then 
penned  the  following  sharp  and  patriotic  letter: 

Jan.  1 8,  1861. 

Governor  Thomas  O.  Moore,  Baton  Rouge,  La. : 

Sir  :  As  I  occupy  a  ^2/^5/- military  position  under 
this  State,  I  deem  it  proper  to  acquaint  you  that  I 
accepted  such  position  when  Louisiana  was  a  State  in 
the  Union,  and  when  the  motto  of  the  seminary  was 
inserted  in  marble  over  the  main  door:  ''By  the  liber- 
ality of  the  General  Government  of  the  United 
States — the  Union,  Esto  pei^petua!'  Recent  events 
foreshadow  a  great  change,  and  it  becomes  all  men 
to  choose.  If  Louisiana  withdraws  from  the  Federal 
Union,  I  prefer  to  maintain  my  allegiance  to  the  old 
Constitution  as  lono-  as  a  fragment  of  it  survives,  and 
my  longer  stay  here  would  be  wrong  in  every  sense 
of  the  word.  In  that  event  I  beg  you  will  send  or 
appoint  some  authorized  agent  to  take  charge  of  the 




arms  and  munitions  of  war  here  belonging  to  the 
State,  or  direct  me  what  disposition  should  be  made 
of  them.  And  furthermore,  as  president  of  the  board 
of  supervisors  I  beg  you  to  take  immediate  steps  to 
relieve  me  as  superintendent  the  moment  the  State 
determines  to  secede,  for  on  no  earthly  account  will  I 
do  any  act  or  think  any  thought  hostile  to  or  in  defi- 
ance of  the  old  Government  of  the  United  States. 
With  great  respect,  etc., 

W.  T.  Sherman. 

His  resignation  was  accepted,  and  he  removed  to 
St.  Louis.  Pending  the  dreadful  days  of  doubt  be- 
tween the  inauguration  of  President  Lincoln  and  the 
firing  upon  Sumter,  Sherman  was  at  Washington,  a 
close  observer  of  affairs.  He  held  a  position  as  su- 
perintendent of  a  street  railway  in  St.  Louis  at  a 
salary  of  two  thousand  dollars,  but  his  heart  was  in 
mightier  things  than  transportation,  and  he  was  ready 
to  obey  the  first  call  of  duty. 

He  Meets  with  a  Cool  Reception. 

It  came  in  the  spring  and  found  Sherman  waidng. 
He  met  the  fate  which  so  often  overtakes  enthusiastic 
souls.  The  Secretary  of  War  received  him  coldly, 
saying  that  he  thought  the  ebullition  of  feeling  w^ould 
soon  subside.  Even  President  Lincoln  did  not  then 
believe  that  the  nation    would  be  plunged  into  civil 


'^  Humph  !"  said  Sherman  in  his  blunt  way ;  "you 
niio-ht  as  well  try  to  put  out  a  fire  with  a  squirt  gun 



as    expect    to    put    down    this    rebellion    with    three 
months'  troops." 

He  refused  to  go  to  Ohio  for  the  purpose  of  rais- 
ing three  months'  troops,  declaring  that  the  whole 
military  power  of  the  country  should  be  called  out  at 


once  to  crush  the  rebellion  in  its  incipiency.  Well 
would  it  have  been  if  his  advice  had  been  taken.  It 
was  worthy  of  consideration,  for  his  residence  in 
Louisiana  had  criven  him  an  inklinor-  of  the  tremend- 
ous  feeling  in  the  South — a  feeling  which  the  authori- 
ties at  Washington  did  not  fully  appreciate. 


Sherman's  patriotic  ardor  was  at  last  rewarded,  and 
he  was  appointed  by  General  McDowell  ix  colonel  of 
the  Thirteenth  Infantry,  regular  army.  At  the  battle 
of  Bull  Run  he  was  in  command  of  the  Third  brigade 
of  the  First  division,  and  his  command  was  the  only 
one  in  that  memorable  defeat  which  retired  from  the 
field  in  good  order.  For  his  soldierly  qualities  In  this 
battle  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  brigadier- 
general  of  volunteers,  and  was  ordered  to  join  An- 
derson, the  hero  of  Sumter,  who  was  in  command  of 
the  Department  of  the  Ohio,  with  headquarters  at 
Louisville.  General  Anderson's  ill-health  forced  him 
to  resign,  and  Sherman  succeeded  to  the  command. 

Good  Advice  Disregarded. 

The  affairs  of  the  department  were  in  a  bad  way. 
Sherman  applied  for  reinforcements.  In  reply  to  a 
question  of  Secretary  Cameron  as  to  the  number  of 
troops  required  for  a  successful  advance,  Sherman 
said  that  "to  make  a  successful  advance  against  the 
enemy — then  strongly  posted  at  all  strategic  points 
from  the  Mississippi  to  Cumberland  Gap — would  re- 
quire an  army  two  hundred  thousand  strong."  For 
this  reply  he  was  adjudged  to  be  "  crazy."  Being 
thus  in  discredit  with  the  War  Department,  he  asked 
to  be  relieved.  General  Buell  succeeded  him,  and  he 
retired  to  the  command  of  Benton  Barracks,  near  St. 

Grant,  who  still  had  his  spurs  to  win,  stood  by 
Sherman  in  this  opinion,  and  the  latter  never  forgot 
it.     One  day,  shordy  after  the  occupation  of  Savan- 


nah  by  Sherman,  a  prominent  civilian  approached  Te- 
cumseh  and  sought  to  win  favor  by  disparaging  Grant. 
"It  won't  do,  sir,"  said  Sherman;  "it  won't  do  at 
all.  Grant  is  a  great  general.  He  stood  by  me  when 
I  was  crazy,  and  I  stood  by  him  when  he  was  drunk 
and  now,  by  thunder,  sir,  we  stand  by  each  other." 

Not  so  Crazy  as  Others. 

Subsequent  events  proved  that  Sherman  was  again 
right  and  the  authorities  at  Washington  wrong.  If 
the  Confederates  had  made  good  use  of  their  oppor- 
tunities, General  Buckner  might  have  made  good  his 
boast  of  investinor  Louisville  before  winter. 

What  hurt  Sherman  more  than  to  be  called  crazy 
was  to  have  the  details  of  a  private  conversation  with 
Secretary  Cameron  and  General  Thomas,  in  which  he 
fully  reported  the  condition  of  his  troops,  amply  re- 
peated in  the  newspapers,  thus  giving  the  enemy  in- 
valuable  information  regarding  the  weakness  of  his 
position.  The  enemy  took  advantage  of  this  know- 
ledge, and  Sherman  was  forced  to  employ  strategy  to 
hold  his  position.  He  recognized  that  he  was  in  dis- 
favor  with  the  War  Department,  and  had  the  good 
sense  to  retire  from  a  conflict  which  must  have  proved 
disastrous  to  him  and  to  the  men  under  his  command. 
Sherman  was  always  a  man  of  rare  patience,  and  it 
never  stood  him  in  better  stead  than  in  this  instance. 

Saved  the  Day  at  Shiloh. 

His  opportunity  came  in  the  following  year,  1862, 
when  he  was  early  called  Into  the  field  and  assigned 
to  the  command  of  the  district  of  Cairo.     In  Febru- 


ary  his  headquarters  were  at  Paducah,  Ky.,  and  he 
rendered  General  Grant  invaluable  assistance  in  for- 
warding troops  and  supplies  to  the  latter,  who  was 
operating  on  the  Tennessee  and  Cumberland  rivers. 
After  the  capture  of  Fort  Donelson  he  was  assigned 
to  the  command  of  the  Fifth  division  of  the  Army  of 
the  Tennessee,  Major-General  Grant  commanding. 

In  the  battle  of  Shiloh  he  first  displayed  the  hidden 
merit  which,  up  to  that  time,  had  only  met  with  the 
ridicule  of  his  superiors. 

General  Grant,  always  generous  in  giving  praise  to 
those  beneath  him,  paid  this  tribute  to  Sherman's 
work : 

"  To  General  Sherman  I  was  greatly  Indebted  for 
his  promptness  in  forwarding  to  me,  during  the  siege 
of  Fort  Donelson,  reinforcements  and  supplies  from 
Paducah.  At  the  battle  of  Shiloh,  on  the  last  day,  he 
held,  with  raw  troops,  the  key-point  of  the  landing. 
It  is  no  disparagement  to  any  other  officer  to  say  that 
I  do  not  believe  there  was  another  division  com- 
mander on  the  field  who  had  the  skill  and  experience 
to  have  done  it.  To  his  individual  efforts  I  am  in- 
debted for  the  success  of  that  battle." 

Valor  and  Promotion. 

General  Halleck,  in  his  despatch  to  the  Secretary 
of  War  recommending  General  Sherman  for  promo- 
tion, said  of  him :  "  It  is  the  unanimous  opinion  here 
that  Brigadier-General  W.  T.  Sherman  saved  the  for- 
tunes of  the  day  on  the  6th  of  April  and  contributed 
Jargely  to  the  glorious  victory  of  the  7th.     He  was  in 


the  thickest  of  the  fight  on  both  days,  having  three 
horses  killed  under  him  and  beinor  wounded  twice.  I 
respectfully  request  that  he  be  made  a  major-general 
of  volunteers,  to  date  from  the  6th  instant." 

With  such  glorious  and  gallant  tributes  as  these, 
who  will  deny  to  William  Tecumseh  Sherman  the 
meed  of  his  deserts  ?  The  flaming  torch  of  truth 
speaks  from  the  battle-field.  It  is  only  when  men  are 
grown  cold  and  selfish  that  the  spirit  of  envy  detracts 
from  a  man's  true  worth. 

On  the  recommendation  of  General  Halleck,  Gen- 
eral Sherman  was  promoted  to  be  a  major-general  of 
volunteers,  his  rank  dating  from  May  i,  1862.  He 
next  took  part  in  the  operations  against  Corinth,  and 
his  troops  were  the  first  to  enter  the  enemy's  works 
upon  the  morning  of  May  30. 

Sherman's  Plan  of  Campaig-n. 

The  summer  of  1862  was  passed  in  completely  over- 
running and  subjecting  that  portion  of  Tennessee 
lying  west  of  the  Tennessee  River.  Sherman  moved 
at  the  head  of  a  column  across  the  country  toward 
Memphis.  The  city  capitulated  to  the  gunboats  on 
June  6,  and  Sherman  occupied  it  and  assumed  com- 
mand July  22. 

He  found  the  city  under  a  reign  of  terror,  but  his 
strong  arm  soon  brought  order  out  of  chaos.  The 
turbulent  element  was  quelled  and  Union  people  in 
the  city  once  more  breathed  free. 

An  interesting  glimpse  into  Sherman's  scheme  of 
campaign  was  given  by  him  in  a  speech  delivered  in 


St.  Louis  In  the  summer  of  1865.  *'  Here  in  St.  Louis, 
probably,"  he  said,  "  began  the  great  centre  movement 
which  terminated  the  war;  a  battle-field  such  as  never- 
before  was  seen,  extending  from  ocean  to  ocean  al- 
most with  the  right  wing  and  the  left  wing ;  and  from 
the  centre  here.  I  remember  one  evening  up  in  the 
old  Planters'  House  sitting  with  General  Halleck  and 
General  Cullum,  and  we  were  talking  about  this,  that, 
and  the  other.  A  map  was  on  the  table,  and  I  was 
explaining  the  position  of  the  troops  of  the  enemy  in 
Kentucky,  when  I  came  to  this  State. 

Halleck' s  Question. 

"  General  Halleck  knew  well  the  position  here,  and 
I  remember  well  the  question  he  asked  me — the  ques- 
tion of  the  school-teacher  to  his  child :  '  Sherman,  here 
is  the  line  ;  how  will  you  break  that  line  ?  ' — *  Physically, 
by  a  perpendicular  force.' — '  Where  is  the  perpendic- 
ular? ' — 'The  line  of  the  Tennessee  River.'  General 
Halleck  is  the  author  of  that  first  beginning,  and  I 
give  him  credit  for  it  with  pleasure.  Laying  down 
his  pencil  upon  the  map,  he  said,  *  There  is  the  line, 
and  we  must  take  it.'  The  capture  of  the  forts  on  the 
Tennessee  River  by  the  troops  led  by  Grant  followed. 

"These  were  the  grand  strategic  features  of  that  first 
movement,  and  it  succeeded  perfectly.  General  Hal- 
leck's  plan  went  farther — not  to  stop  at  his  first  line, 
which  ran  through  Columbus,  Bowling  Green,  crossing 
the  river  at  Henry  and  Donelson,  but  to  push  on  to 
the  second  line,  which  ran  through  Memphis  and 
Charleston  ;  but  troubles  intervened  at  Nashville  and 


delays  followed ;  opposition  to  the  last  movemeiit  was 
made,  and  I  myself  was  brought  an  actor  on  the  scene. 
I  remember  our  ascent  on  the  Tennessee  River;  I 
have  seen  to-night  captains  of  steamboats  who  first 
went  with  us  there ;  storms  came  and  we  did  not 
reach  the  point  we  desired.  At  that  time  General 
C.  F.  Smith  was  in  command,  t^  was  a  man  indeed. 
All  the  old  officers  remember  him  as  a  orallant  and 
elegant  officer,  and  had  he  lived  probably  some  of  us 
younger  fellows  would  not  have  attained  our  present 

"We  Fought  aud  Held  our  Ground." 
''We  followed  the  line — the  second  line— and  then 
came  the  landinor  of  forces  at  Pittsburo-  Landing. 
Whether  it  was  a  mistake  in  landing  them  on  the 
west  instead  of  the  east  bank  it  is  not  necessary  now 
to  discuss.  I  think  it  was  not  a  mistake.  There  was 
gathered  the  first  great  army  of  the  West,  commen- 
cing with  only  twelve  thousand,  then  twenty  thousand, 
then  thirty  thousand,  and  we  had  about  thirty-eight 
thousand  in  that  battle,  and  all  I  claim  for  that  is  that 
it  was  a  contest  for  manhood.  There  was  no  strategy. 
Grant  was  there  and  others  of  us,  all  young  at  that 
time  and  unknown  men,  but  our  enemy  was  old,  and 
Sidney  Johnson,  whom  all  the  officers  remembered  as 
a  power  among  the  old  officers,  high  above  Grant, 
myself,  or  anybody  else,  led  the  enemy  on  that  battle- 
field, and  I  almost  wonder  how  we  conquered.  But, 
as  I  remarked,  it  was  a  contest  for  manhood — man  to 
man — soldier  to  soldier.     We  foueht  and  we  held  our 


ground,  and  therefore  accounted  ourselves  victorious. 
From  that  time  forward  we  had  with  us  the  prestige ; 
that  battle  was  worth  millions  and  millions  to  us  by 
reason  of  the  fact  of  the  courage  displayed  by  the 
brave  soldiers  on  that  occasion,  and  from  that  time  to 
this  I  never  heard  of  the  first  want  of  courage  on  the 
part  of  our  Northern  soldiers." 

Sherman  counted  the  war  virtually  ended  when 
Vicksburg  was  taken  and  "the  Mississippi  ran  un- 
vexed  to  the  sea ;"  but  the  Confederates  would  not 
have  it  so,  and  there  had  to  be  more  fighting.  Jeffei 
son  Davis  had  the  Southerners  well  trained,  and  h» 
refused  to  ratify  the  work  of  the  Union  armies,  being 
vexatiously  obstinate. 

Movements  against  Vicksburg. 

In  November,  Sherman  was  assigned  to  the  con 
mand  of  the  right  wing  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennes 
see,  and  conducted  an  expedition  threatening  the 
enemy's  rear  south  of  the  Tallahatchie  River,  and 
enabled  General  Grant  to  occupy  the  position  without 
a  fight.  In  December  he,  having  returned  to  Mem- 
phis, was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Fifteenth 
army  corps,  still  continuing,  however,  in  the  general 
command  of  the  right  wing  of  the  army.  In  the 
middle  of  the  same  month  he  organized  an  expedi- 
tion composed  of  the  Thirteenth  and  Fifteenth  corps, 
and  moved  down  the  Mississippi  on  transports,  with 
a  view  to  an  attack  upon  Vicksburg  from  the  Yazoo 
River,  near  Chickasaw  Bayou  and  Haines'  Bluff.  The 
surrender  of  Holly  Springs,  Miss.,  enabling  the  enemy 


to  concentrate  at  the  point  of  attack,  frustrated  the 
efforts  of  the  Union  troops. 

The  terrible  fighting  of  December  27th,  28th,  and 
29th  settled  the  fact  that  the  place  could  not  be  taken 
by  storm,  and  the  troops  were  withdrawn  to  consum- 
mate the  glorious  victory  of  Arkansas  Post  in  Janu- 



ary,  1863.  In  this  last  action  General  Sherman  was 
subordinate  to  General  McClellan,  having  been  as- 
signed by  that  officer  to  the  command  of  the  right 
wing  of  the  temporary  Army  of  the  Mississippi. 
Upon  the  concentration  of  troops  preparatory  to 
further  movements  against  Vicksburg,  General  Sher- 
man was  stationed  with  his  corps  in  the  vicinity  of 


Young's  Point.  In  March,  1863,  he  conducted  the 
expedition  up  Steele's  Bayou  and  released  Admiral 
Porter's  fleet  of  gunboats,  which,  having  been  cut  off 
and  invested  by  the  enemy,  was  in  imminent  danger 
of  being  captured.  This  expedition  was  perhaps  one 
of  the  most  severe  ever  experienced  by  his  troops. 
They  penetrated  through  a  country  cut  up  by  numer- 
ous and  deep  bayous  and  swamps  and  overgrown  by 
immense  forests  of  cottonwood  and  cypress.  Sher- 
man, with  his  usual  determination,  was  not  to  be 
thwarted,  and  pushed  ahead  and  accomplished  hig 


Army  of  the  Tennessee. — Sherman  Co-operates 
with  Grant. — Forward  Movements. 

Upon  the  inauguration  of  General  Grant's  move- 
ment across  the  Peninsula  to  Grand  Gulf  and  Bruins- 
burg,  during  April,  1863,  General  Sherman  made  a 
feint  upon  Haines'  Bluff,  on  the  Yazoo  River.  His 
demonstration  (April  26th  and  29th)  was  intended  to 
hold  the  enemy  about  Vicksburg  while  the  main  army 
was  securing  a  foothold  on  the  eastern  shore  of  the 
Mississippi  below.  Having  successfully  performed 
this  duty,  by  means  of  rapid  and  forced  marches  he 
moved  down  the  Louisiana  side  of  the  river,  crossed 
at  Grand  Gulf,  and  immediately  pushed  forward  and 
rejoined  General  Grant's  main  army. 

Sherman,  with  his  corps,  accompanied  McPherson 
on  his  movement  against  Jackson,  the  capital  of  Mis- 
sissippi.  In  the  battle  of  Jackson,  Sherman  took  no 
part,  in  consequence  of  the  rout  of  the  enemy  being 
effected  by  McPherson's  corps  alone.  The  day  after 
the  battle  McPherson  hurried  toward  Baker's  Creek, 
while  Sherman  remained  in  Jackson  some  hours  longer 
to  complete  the  destruction  of  the  enemy's  stores  and 
the  railroad.  He  then  moved  on  a  line  parallel  with 
the  route  of  march  of  McPherson's  column,  crossed 
5  65 



the  Big  Black  River  and  took  possession  of  Walnut 
Hills,  near  Vicksburg,  on  May  i8th. 

The  occupation  of  this  important  position  enabled 
General  Grant  to  open  communication  with  his  depot 
of  supplies  on  the  Mississippi  River,  byway  of  Yazoo 


River,  from  Chickasaw  Bayou.  During  the  siege  of 
Vicksburg,  Sherman's  corps  held  the  left  of  General 
Grant's  lines  and  co-operated  in  all  the  combined  at- 
tacks of  the  centre  and  right.  During  the  conference 
between  the  rebel  commander  Pemberton  and  Gen- 
eral Grant  in  regard  to  the  terms  of  capitulation  for 

ARMY  01    THE   TENNESSEE.  6? 

the  garrison  and  city  of  Vicksburg.  Sherman  was 
vigorously  engaged  in  organizing  an  expedition  at 
the  Big  Black  River.  The  plan  was  to  carry  the  "var 
into  the  enemy's  country ;  hence  the  preparations  ^i 
this  expedition. 


No  sooner  had  Vicksburg  surrendered  than  he  re- 
ceived orders  to  throw  his  force  across  the  river  and 
move  out  into  the  country.     Vicksburg  was  occupied 


on  the  morning  of  the  4th  of  July.  The  same  after- 
noon troops  were  converging  from  all  parts  of  the  old 
lines,  and  Sherman's  advance  had  already  crossed  the 
Big  Black. 

Two  days'  march  found  Sherman  investing  Joe 
Johnston  in  Jackson.  Before  the  beginning  of 
August  he  engaged  the  enemy,  and,  defeating  him 
severely,  was  about  to  close  in  upon  his  rear  when 
the  rebel  commander  very  prudently  withdrew. 

For  his  great  service  in  the  military  operations  of 
1863,  Major-General  Sherman  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  brigadier-general  in  the  regular  army,  to  date 
from  July  4,  1863,  and  was  confirmed  bv  the  United 
States  Senate  February  29,  1864. 

Sliernian  Succeeds  Grant. 

Upon  the  assignment  of  General  Grant  to  the 
command  of  the  military  division  of  the  Mississippi, 
General  Sherman  succeeded,  by  authority  of  the 
President,  to  the  command  of  the  Department  and 
Army  of  the  Tennessee,  to  date  from  October  27, 
1863.  After  making  some  necessary  changes  in  the 
disposition  of  the  troops  on  the  Mississippi  River, 
Sherman  concentrated  portions  of  the  Fifteenth  and 
Sixteenth  corps  at  Corinth,  and  in  the  month  of  No- 
vember moved,  by  way  of  Tuscumbia  and  Decatur, 
Ala.,  to  join  and  participate  with  General  Grant  in 
his  winter  campaign  against  Chattanooga.  General 
Sherman's  forces  moved  up  the  north  side  of  the 
Tennessee  River,  and  during  the  nights  of  Novem- 
ber 23d  and  24th  established  pontoon-bridges   and 

ARMY    OF    THE    TENNESSEE.  69 

effected  a  lodgment  on  the  south  side,  between  Citico 
Creek  and  the  Chlckamauga  River, 

After  the  development  of  the  plans  along  other 
portions  of  the  lines,  on  the  24th  Sherman  carried 
the  eastern  end  of  Missionary  Ridge  up  to  the  tun- 
nel. On  the  next  day  the  whole  of  Missionary 
Ridge,  from  Rossville  to  the  Chickamauga,  was  car- 
ried after  a  series  of  desperate  struggles.  By  the 
turning  of  the  enemy's  right  and  forcing  it  back 
upon  Ringgold  and  Dalton,  Sherman's  forces  were 
thrown  between  Bragg  and  Longstreet,  completely 
severing  the  enemy's  lines.  No  sooner  was  this  end 
reached  than  Thomas  and  Hooker  forced  Brao^or  into 
Georgia,  while  Sherman,  with  his  own  and  Granger's 
forces,  moved  off  to  the  succor  of  Knoxville.  Burn- 
side,  by  a  gallant  defence  of  the  position,  held  out 
against  Longstreet,  who  upon  the  appearance  of 
Sherman  was  obliged  to  raise  the  siege  and  effected 
his  escape  by  withdrawing  into  Virginia.  The  enemy 
being  defeated  at  every  point,  his  army  broken  and 
his  plans  completely  disarranged,  and  Grant's  army 
in  winter  quarters,  General  Sherman  personally  left 
for  Cairo,  thence  for  Memphis,  arriving  in  the  begin- 
ning of  January.  After  organizing  a  portion  of  the 
Sixteenth  corps  for  the  field,  he  despatched  it  upon 
transports  to  Vicksburg. 

Pushes  on  to  Vicksburg. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  month  he  joined  it,  and  fin- 
ished the  organization  of  a  fine  body  of  troops,  com- 
posed of    portions   of    the     Sixteenth    army    corps, 


Major-General  S.  A.  Hurlbut  commanding,  and  the 
Seventeenth  army  corps,  Major-General  James  B. 
McPherson  commanding. 

On  the  third  of  February  the  expeditionary  army, 
commanded  in  person  by  Sherman,  crossed  the  Big 
Black,  and  after  continuous  skirmishing  along  the 
route  entered  Meridian,  Miss.,  February  14,  1864, 
driving  Polk,  with  a  portion  of  his  army,  toward 
Mobile,  another  portion  toward  Selma,  and  com- 
pletely cutting  off  Lovell  from  the  main  army,  pur- 
suing him  with  cavalry  northward  toward  Marion. 
Remaining  in  possession  of  Meridian  four  days,  the 
railroads  converging  there  were  destroyed  within 
a  radius  of  twenty  miles.  The  army  then  returned  by 
a  different  route,  reaching  Canton,  Miss.,  February  26. 

Turning  over  the  command  of  his  army  to  McPher- 
son, with  instructions  to  devastate  the  country  and 
then  to  continue  the  return  march  to  Vicksburg, 
General  Sherman,  at  eight  o'clock  the  next  morning, 
escorted  by  the  Second  Iowa  Cavalry,  pushed  through 
in  advance  of  the  army,  riding  over  sixty  miles  in 
twenty-four  hours,  and  reached  Vicksburg  on  the 
morning  of  February  28th.  Remaining  in  the  city  but 
a  few  hours,  he  embarked  on  one  of  the  boats  of  the 
Mississippi  Marine  brigade  and  left  for  New  Orleans. 

At  the  expiration  of  eight  days  he  returned  to 
Vicksburg,  having  during  his  absence  consulted  with 
General  Banks  upon  the  Red  River  expedition,  toward 
which  he  was  to  contribute  a  co-operating  column. 
This  force  was  immediately  organized  and  equipped, 


and  embarked  in  March  for  the  mouth  of  Red  River, 
and  was  commanded  by  Generals  A.  J.  Smith  and 
Thomas  Kilby  Smith,  both  veteran  officers  of  large 
experience  and  ability.  Sherman  now  left  for 

On  to  Atlanta. 

The  promotion  of  General  Grant  to  the  rank  of 
lieutenant-general  and  commander-in-chief  of  the 
armies  of  the  United  States  opened  a  still  higher  pro- 
motion to  General  Sherman.  By  authority  of  the 
President,  expressed  in  general  orders  dated  March 
1 2th,  he  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  military 
division  of  the  Mississippi.  On  the  14th  of  March 
he  received  notification  of  his  appointment  while  at 
Memphis.  He  immediately  left  for  Nashville,  and 
held  a  conference  with  General  Grant  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  the  spring  operations.  Between  the  two 
officers  there  was  a  full  and  complete  understanding 
of  the  policy  and  plans  for  the  ensuing  campaign, 
which  was  designed  to  embrace  a  vast  area  of  country. 
On  the  25th,  General  Sherman  commenced  a  tour  of 
inspection  of  the  various  armies  of  his  command,  visit- 
ing Athens,  Decatur,  Huntsville,  and  Larkin's  Ferry, 
Ala. ;  Chattanooga,  Loudon,  and  Knoxville,  Tenn. 

In  the  course  of  his  visit  he  held  interviews  with 
Major-General  McPherson  at  Huntsville,  Major-Gen- 
eral Thomas  at  Chattanooga  and  Major-General 
Schofield  at  Knoxville.  With  these  officers  he  ar- 
ranged in  general  terms  the  lines  of  communication 
CO  be  guarded,  the  strength  of  the   several  columns 


and  garrisons,  and  appointed  the  ist  of  May  as  the 
time  for  everything  to  be  In  readiness.  While  these 
commanders  were  carrying  out  their  Instructions 
General  Sherman  returned  to  Nashville,  giving  his 
personal  attention  to  the  subject  of  supplies,  organiz- 
ing a  magnificent  system  of  railroad  communication 
by  two  routes  from  Nashville,  and  preparing  the  way 
for  future  operations. 

Three  Great  Armies. 

The  storehouses  and  depots  of  Chattanooga  soon 
groaned  beneath  the  weight  of  abundance.  The 
whole  of  East  Tennessee  and  Northern  Alabama 
contributed  to  the  general  store,  while  the  whole 
North-west  and  West  poured  volumes  of  sustenance 
through  the  avenues  of  communication  from  Louis- 
ville. On  the  27th  of  April  the  three  great  armies  of 
his  division  were  converging  at  Chattanooga.  The 
1st  of  May  witnessed  over  sixty  thousand  troops  and 
one  hundred  and  thirty  guns  forming  the  Army  of 
the  Cumberland,  Major-General  George  H.  Thomas 
commanding,  encamped  in  the  vicinity  of  Ringgold,  Ga, 

McPherson,  with  a  portion  of  Grant's  old  veteran 
and  victorious  battalions  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennes- 
see, numbering  twenty-five  thousand  troops  of  all 
larms  and  ninety-six  guns,  lay  at  Gordon's  Mill,  on  the 
historic  Chickamauga.  General  Schofield,  with  over 
thirteen  thousand  troops  and  twenty-eight  guns,  con- 
stituting the  Army  of  the  Ohio,  lay  on  the  Georgia 
line,  north  of  Dalton.  In  the  aggregate  these  three 
armies   formed  a  grand    army  of  over   ninety-eight 


thousand  men  and  two  hundred  and  fifty-four  guns, 
under  the  supreme  command  of  General  Sherman. 
Preparing:  for  Attack. 

The  enemy,  superior  in  cavalry  and  with  three 
corps  of  infantry  and  artillery,  commanded  by  Hardee, 
Hood,  and  Polk,  and  all  under  the  command  of  General 
Joseph  E.  Johnston,  lay  in  and  about  Dalton.  His 
position  was  covered  by  an  inaccessible  ridge  known 
as  the  Rocky  Face,  through  which  ran  Buzzard  Roost 
Gap.  The  railroad  and  wagon-road  following  this 
pass  the  enemy  had  strongly  defended  by  abattis  and 
well-constructed  fortifications.  Batteries  commanded 
it  in  its  whole  length,  and  especially  from  a  ridge  at  its 
farther  end,  like  a  traverse  directly  across  its  debouch. 
To  drive  the  enemy  from  this  position  by  the  front 
was  impossible.  After  well  reconnoitring  the  vicinity, 
but  one  practicable  route  by  which  to  attack  Johnsott 
was  found,  and  that  was  by  Snake  Creek  Gap,  by 
which  Resaca,  a  point  on  the  enemy's  railroad  com- 
munication, eighteen  miles  below  Dalton,  could  be 

Accordingly,  McPherson  was  instructed  to  move 
rapidly  from  his  position  at  Gordon's  Mill,  by  way  of 
Ship's  Gap,  Villanow,  and  Snake  Creek  Gap,  directly 
upon  Resaca.  During  this  movement  Thomas  was  to 
make  a  strong  feint  attack  in  front,  and  Schofield  was 
to  press  down  from  the  north.  Thomas  occupied 
Tunnel  Hill  May  7,  facing  Buzzard  Roost  Gap,  ex- 
periencing little  opposition  except  fiom  cavalry.  Mc- 
PhersGn  reached  Snake  Creek  Gap  May  8,  surprising 



a  brlg-ade  of  the  enemy  while  en  route  to  occupy  it. 
May  9,  Schofield  moved  down  from  the  north  close 
on  Daltoiio     The  same  day  Newton's  division  of  the 


Fourth  corps  carried  the  ridge,  Geary  of  the  Twen- 
tieth corps  crowding  on  for  the  summit. 

While  this  was  going  on  at  the  front  the  head  oi 
McPherson's  column  made  its  appearance  near  Resaca 
and  took  position  confronting  the  enemy's  works. 
May  lo  the  Twentieth  corps  (Hooker)  moved  to  join 


McPherson  ;  the  Fourteenth  corps  (Palmer)  followed ; 
the  Fourth  corps  (Howard)  commenced  pounding 
Dalton  from  the  front.  Meanwhile,  Schofield  also 
hastened  to  join  McPherson.  May  ii  the  whole 
army,  with  the  exception  of  Howard's  corps  and  some 
cavalry,  was  in  motion  for  Snake  Creek  Gap.  May  1 2, 
McPherson  debouched  from  the  gap  on  the  main  road, 
Kilpatrick  with  his  cavalry  in  front. 

Thomas  moved  on  McPherson's  left,  Schofield  on 
Thomas'  left.  Kilpatrick  drove  the  enemy  within 
two  miles  of  Resaca.  Kilpatrick  having  been  wound- 
ed, Colonel  Murray  took  command,  and,  wheeling  out 
of  the  road,  McPherson's  columns  crowded  impetu- 
ously by,  and,  driving  the  enemy's  advance  within  the 
defences  of  Resaca,  occupied  a  ridge  of  bold  hills,  his 
right  resting  on  the  Oostenaula,  two  miles  below  the 
railroad  bridge,  and  his  left  abreast  of  the  town. 
Thomas,  on  his  left,  facing  Camp  Creek,  and  Scho^ 
field,  forcing  his  way  through  a  dense  forest,  came  in 
on  the  extreme  left. 

The  enemy  had  evacuated  Dalton  and  was  now 
concentrated  at  Resaca.  Howard  occupied  Dalton 
and  hung  upon  the  enemy's  rear.  May  14  the  battle 
of  Resaca  commenced:  May  15  it  continued.  The 
same  night  the  enemy  was  flying  toward  the  Eto- 
wah. The  whole  army  followed  in  pursuit.  May  19 
Sherman  held  all  of  the  country  north  of  the  Etowah 
and  several  crossings  of  that  stream.  May  23  the 
whole  army  was  moving  upon  the  flank  of  the  ene- 
my's position  in  the  Allatoona  Mountains.     May  ;*5, 


Hooker  whipped  the  enemy  near  New  Hope  Church. 
On  May  28,  McPherson  killed  and  wounded  about 
five  thousand  of  the  enemy  near  Dallas.  June  6  the 
enemy  was  in  hasty  retreat  to  his  next  position  at 
Kenesaw  Mountains.  June  8,  Blair  arrived  at  Ack- 
wordi  with  the  fresh  troops  of  the  Seventeenth  corps. 
June  II  the  sounds  of  Sherman's  artillery  reverbera- 
ted among  the  rugged  contortions  of  Kenesaw.  July 
3  the  enemy  was  pressing  for  the  Chattahoochee.  The 
mountains  and  Marietta  were  occupied  by  our  forces 
the  same  day. 

The  Gallant  McPlierson's  Death. 

The  enemy  had  a  tete-du-pont  and  formidable  works 
on  the  Chattahoochee  at  the  railroad  crossinor.  Sher- 
man  advanced  boldly  with  a  small  force  on  the  front. 
July  7,  Schofield  had  possession  of  one  of  the  enemy's 
pontoons  and  occupied  the  south  side  of  the  Chatta- 
hoochee. By  July  9,  Sherman  held  three  crossings. 
Johnston  abandoned  his  tete-du-pont,  and  there  was  no 
enemy  north  or  west  of  the  Chattahoochee  July  10. 
July  17  the  whole  army  was  in  motion  across  the 
Chattahoochee.  July  18,  Atlanta  was  cut  off  from  the 
east.  Rousseau,  with  an  expeditionary  cavalry  force, 
was  operating  within  the  enemy's  lines.  July  20  all 
the  armies  closed  in  upon  Atlanta.  The  same  after- 
noon the  enemy  attacked  Hooker  and  was  driven 
into  his  intrenchments.  On  July  22,  Johnston  was 
relieved,  and  Hood,  in  command  of  the  enemy,  sud- 
denly attacked  McPherson's  extreme  left  with  over- 
powering numbers.     Giles  A.  Smith  held  the  position 



first  attacked  with  a  division  of  McPherson  s  troops. 
First  he  fought  from  one  side  of  the  parapet,  when, 
being  attacked  in  the  rear,  he  fought  from  the  other. 
McPherson's  whole  army  soon  became  engaged.  The 
battle  was  the  most  desperate  of  the  campaign.  Mc- 
Pherson was  killed  when  the  contest  was  the  thickest. 
His  last  order  saved  the  army.  Logan  succeeded  to 
command.  "  McPherson  and  revenge  !  "  rang  along 
the  lines.  The  effect  was  electric,  and  victory  closed 
in  with  the  night.  The  battle  footed  up  nine  thousand 
of  the  enemy  against  four  thousand  of  our  own  troops 
killed  and  wounded — a  balance  in  our  favor  of  five 
thousand  dead  and  mangled  bodies. 


From  Atlanta  to  the  Sea.— Thrilling  Story  of 
One  of  the  Greatest  Feats  in  Military  His- 

After  Vicksburg,  Sherman  was  soon  to  be  heard 
from  among  the  mountains  of  Tennessee.  Rose- 
crans,  having  encountered  Bragg  in  the  tremendous 
battle  of  Chickamauga,  had  fallen  back  into  Chatta- 
nooga and  was  virtually  under  siege.  Grant,  sum- 
moned thither  from  Vicksburg  to  take  command, 
hurried  Sherman,  who  had  succeeded  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  to  the  rescue. 

Arriving  at  Chattanooga  from  the  long  march, 
Sherman  took  post  on  Grant's  left  at  Tunnel  Hill, 
and  when  all  was  ready  engaged  the  enemy  hotly ; 
while  Thomas,  with  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland, 
''  forming  on  the  plain  below  with  the  precision  of 
parade,"  swept  magnificently  across  Mission  Ridge 
and  drove  Bragg  back  into  Georgia.  Meanwhile, 
Burnside  had  been  besieged  by  Longtreet  at 
Knoxville,  and  was  in  great  stress.  Without  a 
pause  for  rest,  Sherman  was  sent  to  his  relief,  but 
Bragg's  disaster  had  broken  up  the  siege,  and  Sher- 
man marched  back  to  Chattanooga.  Congress  voted 
thanks  to  him  and  his  men  ''  for  their  gallant  and 
arduous  services  in  marching  to  the  relief  of  the 



Army  of  the  Cumberland,  and  for  their  gallantry  and 
heroism  in  the  battle  of  Chattanooga,  which  con- 
tributed in  a  great  degree  to  the  success  of  oui  urms 
in  that  glorious  victory." 


Early  in  1864,  General  Sherman  was  invested  with 
the  command  of  the  entire  South-west,  and  on  the 
19th  of  April  he  received  his  final  instructions  from 
General  Grant   for  the   movement   against   Atlanta. 


Starting  from  Ringgold,  in  front  of  Chattanooga, 
with  nearly  one  hundred  thousand  men,  including 
Thomas's  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  over  sixty 
thousand  strong,  McPherson's  army  of  the  Ten- 
nessee, and  Schofield's  Army  of  the  Ohio,  Sherman 
drove  back  his  opponent,  the  wary  and  skilful  Gen- 
eral J.  E.  Johnston,  in  a  series  of  remarkable  move- 
ments, now  fighting  and  now  flanking  him.  Sherman 
came  up  with  Johnston  at  Dalton,  turned  his  position 
at  Buzzard's  Roost,  assaulted  him  at  Resaca,  flanked 
him  again  and  threw  him  back  to  Cassville  and  the 
Etowah,  and  fought  him  again  at  New  Hope  Church 
and  on  the  heights  of  the  Kenesaw,  finally  compel- 
ling him  to  fall  back  on  Atlanta,  with  all  of 
Northern  Georgia  at  the  mercy  of  the  victorious 

Thanks  from  President  Lincoln. 

In  the  meantime  Hood  superseded  Johnston,  but 
he  lost  in  quick  succession  the  battles  of  Peach  Tree 
Creek,  Ezra  Church,  opposite  Atlanta,  and  Jonesboro, 
twenty  miles  away,  after  which  the  victorious  army 
entered  the  city,  where  Sherman  received  from  Presi- 
dent Lincoln  the  thanks  of  the  nation  "  for  the  dis- 
tinguished ability  and  perseverance  displayed  in 
the  campaign  in  Georgia,  which,  under  Divine  favor, 
has  resulted  in  the  capture  of  Atlanta.  The  marches, 
battles,  sieges,  and  other  military  operations  that  have 
signalized  the  campaign  must  render  it  famous  in  the 
annals  of  war." 

The  occasion  of  this  distinguished  praise  is  found 

IFROM    ATLA.NTA    TO   THE   SEAo  81 

in  Sherman's  famous  march  and  conquests,  which  we 
now  proceed  to  descnbe„ 

There  was  Htde  of  the  vivid  interest  then  attached 
to  the  fiercely-contendlnor  armies  in  Virginia  in  Sher» 
man's  famous  march  to  ihe  sea.  However,  it  was  far 
more  brilHant,  showed  greater  mastery  of  the  art  of 
war,  and  was  fraught  with  more  important  results  than 
were  dreamed  of  at  the  time. 

Illustrious  Commanders. 

Sherman  had  met  Grant  at  Nashville  in  the  middle 
of  March,  and  had  accompanied  him  to  Cincinnati 
during  which  time  the  plans  of  the  campaign  were 
matured.  He  was  in  command  of  the  principal 
Western  armies— the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  under 
McPherson ;  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  under 
Thomas  ;  and  the  Army  of  the  Ohio,  under  Schofield. 
All  were  officers  of  the  regular  army  and  graduates 
of  West  Point.  All  had  long  served  with  the  Western 
armies,  and  had  received  their  promotion  after  dis- 
tinguished services.  Thomas,  older  than  his  brother- 
generals,  a  Virginian  by  birth,  had  never  faltered  in 
his  allegiance  to  the  Union,  and  had  quickly  arrived 
at  high  command  in  the  West.  At  the  disastrous 
battle  of  Chickamauga  he  alone  had  achieved  renown 
when  others  had  suffered  defeat  and  disgrace.  Mc- 
Pherson had  won  each  successive  step  of  his  promo- 
tion by  brilliant  services  from  Fort  Donelson  to  Vicks- 
burg.  Schofield,  the  youngest  of  the  three  and  class- 
mate of  McPherson  and  of  his  later  Confederate 
opponent,  Hood,  had  shown  administrative  capacity 


and  military  ability  of  a  high  order  when  in  command 
of  the  Department  of  the  Missouri. 

Such  were  the  generals  under  Sherman's  immediate 
command,  In  whom  he  had  complete  confidence  and 
which  tbey  In  turn  fully  reciprocated. 

The  Confederate  forces  were  also  led  by  men  edu- 
cated at  West  Point,  and  who  had  seen  service  in 
the  regular  army.  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  was 
in  chief  command,  while  Hardee,  Hood,  and  Polk 
commanded  the  divisions  under  him.  The  entire  Con- 
federate force  throughout  Tennessee,  Northern  Ala- 
bama, and  Mississippi  numbered  about  one  hundred 
and  eighty  thousand,  while  the  available  force  under 
Johnston  at  the  outset  of  the  great  march  numbered 
less  than  fifty  thousand,  with  headquarters  at  Chatta- 
nooga. Sherman's  force  started  with  a  total  of  ninety- 
eight  thousand  eighi  hundred,  which  a  month  later 
was  increased  by  Blair's  corps  to  one  hundred  and 
twelve  thousand  eight  hundred  men. 

The  Start  for  the  Sea. 

Notwithstanding  Johnston's  Inferiority  of  force,  the 
authorities  at  Richmond  expected  him  to  assume  the 
offensive,  and  promised  reinforcements  as  he  should 
advance.  Johnston  wanted  all  his  reinforcements  first, 
and  thus,  at  the  very  beginning  of  the  campaign,  there 
was  neither  harmony  nor  good  feeling  between  him 
and  President  Davis. 

Meantime,  the  5th  of  May  came,  and  in  accordance 
with  Grant's  general  orders  Sherman  set  his  army  In 
motion  for  Dalton,     And  now  followed  a  campaign 


which  has  had  no  parallel  in  modern  wai*.  It  re- 
sembles more  the  old  ''  War  of  Positions "  of  the 
days  of  Gustavus  Adolphus  and  Turenne,  when  both 
armies,  protecting  themselves  on  their  fighting  ground, 
sought  for  advantage  in  either  outflanking  the  enemy 
or  cutting  off  his  supplies.  From  Dalton  to  Atlanta 
it  was  a  campaign  of  siege  and  counter-siege  the 
whole  way.  Sherman  pressed  forward  on  the  prin- 
ciple of  an  advance  against  fortified  positions.  The 
whole  country  passed  through  was  an  interminable 
line  of  forts,  connected  by  fifty  miles  of  trenches,  with 
abattis  and  finished  batteries.  Even  the  skirmishers 
learned  to  cover  themselves  by  the  simplest  and  best 
forms,  such  as  rails  or  logs  piled  up  to  make  a  simple 
lunette,  covered  on  the  outside  by  earth  thrown  up. 

In  all  this  work  of  throwing  up  intrenchments  or 
making  rifle-pits  the  men  of  both  armies  became  ex- 
tremely skilful,  because  each  man  could  realize  its 
importance  to  himself.  As  soon  as  a  brigade  fancied 
a  position  it  would  set  to  work  with  a  will,  and  would 
construct  an  impregnable  position  in  a  night.  To 
lighten  the  labors  of  his  men  in  this  respect  Sherman 
organized  a  pioneer  corps  of  freedmen,  two  hun- 
dred of  whom  were  assigned  to  every  division,  re- 
ceiving regular  pay  and  rations. 

I  Sherman's  greatest  problem  was  to  supply  his  army, 
and  it  was  a  source  of  continual  anxiety  to  him.  The 
country  was  entirely  impoverished,  and  he  was  de- 
pendent on  the  preservation  of  the  railway,  which  he 
w^s  obliged  to  rebuild  as  he  advanced.    The  displace- 


ment  of  a  rail  would  hinder  communication  for  a  con- 
siderable time,  while  the  frequent  attacks  made  on  the 
trains  by  the  guerillas  necessitated  strong  guards 
along  the  line.  Nevertheless,  the  supplies  came  and 
Sherman  moved  steadily  forward. 
Hard  Figlitiug". 

On  the  8th  of  May  the  hostile  armies  first  came  in 
contact  at  Dalton,  where  heavy  skirmishing,  followed 
by  an  unsuccessful  assault  under  General  Thomas 
against  Rock  Hill  Ridge,  convinced  General  Sherman 
at  the  start  that  direct  attacks  on  intrenched  positions 
could  not  yield  good  results.  He  then  moved  Mc- 
Pherson  around  by  the  right  against  Johnston's  rear, 
and  the  latter  was  obliged  to  fall  back  upon  Resaca, 
to  fortifications  already  prepared  there.  On  the  14th 
of  May  the  Federal  forces  found  nothing  in  their  front 
at  Dalton  and  moved  on  to  Resaca.  Here  some  hard 
fighting  took  place,  in  which  Palmer's  corps  of 
Thomas's  army  and  Judah's  division  of  Schofield^s 
played  a  conspicuous  part,  but  no  serious  impression 
could  be  made  on  the  Confederate  lines.  Again  Mc- 
Pherson  moved  around  by  the  right,  and  again  John- 
ston was  obliged  to  retire,  nor  could  he  find  a  suitable 
place  to  make  a  stand  until  he  reached  the  Etowah 
River,  forty  miles  south  of  Resaca  and  ninety-six  miles 
from  Chattanooga.  He  was  immediately  followed  by 
Sherman,  who  sent  forward  two  cavalry  divisions  in 
pursuit,  supported  by  a  division  of  infantry,  the  main 
army  advancing  in  parallel  lines  in  three  columns. 

Sherman's  march  was  necessarily  slow,  because  he 


■was  obliged  to  rebuild  the  railroads  as  he  advanced. 
Johnston  had  crossed  the  Etowah  River,  and  now 
held  A  strong  position  at  Allatoona  Pass,  in  the 
Etowah  Mountains.  Here  and  at  New  Hope,  called 
by  the  soldiers  "  Hell  Hole,"  there  was  very  hard 
fighting,  but  again  Sherman's  flanking  movement  by 
the  right  proved  successful,  and  Johnston  on  the  4th 
of  June  fell  back  to  Marietta,  and  Allatoona  was  left 
in  our  possession.  Before  advancing  farther  Sherman 
finished  the  railroad  up  to  Allatoona,  and  strongly 
fortified  that  place  and  made  it  a  secondary  base  of 
supplies.  His  army,  too,  needed  some  rest  after 
nearly  a  month  of  incessant  fighting  and  fortifying. 

In  the  Georgia  Mountains. 

On  the  9th  of  June,  Sherman  again  moved  forward 
in  the  direction  of  Marietta.  Johnston  held  an  unas- 
sailable position  in  the  mountain-ranges  which  under 
the  names  of  Kenesaw,  Pine  Hill,  and  Lost  Mountain 
divide  the  tributaries  of  the  Etowah  from  those  of  the 
Chattahoochee.  The  conical  summits  of  the  chestnut- 
covered  mountains  were  crowned  wdth  signal-stations, 
while  along  their  sides  and  among  the  ravines  breast- 
works and  abattis  completely  barred  the  further 
•progress  of  the  Federal  troops. 

Here,  at  last,  it  seemed  that  Sherman's  farther 
advance  must  be  stayed.  In  person  he  reconnoitred 
the  position,  exposing  himself  fearlessly  as  he  directed 
the  firing  of  batteries  for  the  purpose  of  drawing  the 
fire  of  the  enemy  to  ascertain  the  strength  of  the 
various  positions. 


A  series  of  engagements  now  ensued  for  the 
possession  of  these  mountains,  on  one  of  which 
General  Polk,  while  overlooking  the  action,  was 
killed.  Thus  Louisiana  lost  its  bishop  and  the  Con- 
federates an  able  soldier.  On  the  27th  of  June, 
Sherman  ordered  a  direct  assault  against  the  fortified 
position  on  the  Kenesaw,  but  his  troops  were  repulsed 
with  ereat  slaughter.  Three  thousand  fell  on  that 
hardly-contested  slope,  while  the  defenders  lost  little 
more  than  five  hundred.  In  his  memoirs  Sherman 
has  justified  this  assault.  "Failure  as  it  was,"  he 
says,  "and  for  which  I  assume  the  entire  responsi- 
bility, I  yet  claim  it  produced  good  fruits,  as  it  was 
demonstrated  to  General  Johnston  that  I  would 
assault,  and  that  boldly." 

Johnston  Driven  Back. 

Satisfied  that  his  former  strategy  was  best  adapted 
to  the  capabilities  of  his  army,  Sherman  proceeded  to 
turn  the  position  he  had  failed  to  force,  and,  again 
extending  his  right,  he  threatened  Johnston's  com- 
munications with  Atlanta. 

These  operations  were  completed  by  the  3d  of  July, 
and  Johnston  was  compelled  to  retire  to  the  Chatta- 
hoochee River.  Thomas  and  Schofield  followed  his 
retreat,  passing  through  Atlanta  and  advancing  rapidly 
with  the  hope  of  falling  on  the  retiring  army  while 
crossinor  the  river.  But  the  strenorth  of  the  Confed- 
erate  defences  in  front  of  the  river  forbade  attack, 
and  again  Sherman  resorted  to  his  accustomed  tactics 
of  operating  on  the  flanks.     A  succession  of  compli- 



cated  and  well-timed  movements  of  the  three  Federal 
armies,  successfully  executed,  secured  command  of 
the  Chattahoochee,  and  Johnston  again  retired  and 
entered  the  defences  of  Atlanta.  He  had  retreated 
over  one  hundred  miles,  but  he  had  inflicted  heavy 
losses  on  his  enemy,  and  had  compelled  him  to  con- 
sume two  months  in  making  his  advance. 

But  his  Fabian  generalship  by  no  means  found 
favor  with  the  Richmond  Government.  All  through 
the  campaign  he  had  been  constandy  urged  to  take 
the  offensive,  to  throw  himself  on  Sherman's  pro- 
longed line,  and  to  force  him  to  retreat.  He  believed 
his  own  policy  to  be  best,  and  steadfastly  adhered  to  it. 

General  Hood  in  Command. 

It  is  said  that  he  intended  to  try  the  issue  of  an 
offensive  battle  before  the  fortifications  of  Atlanta, 
and  when  Sherman  should  have  the  Chattahoochee  in 
his  rear ;  but  on  the  same  day  that  the  armies  of  the 
Ohio,  the  Cumberland,  and  the  Tennessee  poured 
over  the  bridges  and  across  the  fords  of  that  river 
Johnston  was  superseded,  and  the  command  of  the 
Western  army  conferred  upon  General  Hood.  He 
was  to  take  the  offensive,  and  brilliant  results  at  his 
hand  were  confidently  expected. 

Johnston  undoubtedly  deserves  high  praise  for  the 
conduct  of  the  campaign,  and  General  Grant  has  ap- 
proved of  his  policy  and  commended  his  ability.  In- 
deed, It  needs  but  little  argument  to  show  that  he  was 
right  In  refusing  to  rush  wildly  forward  into  Tennes- 
see to  court  such  disaster  as  Hood  afterward  met 


with.  What  he  might  have  accomplished  had  he  been 
opposed  to  a  less  wary  and  less  able  commander  than 
Sherman,  a  commander  who  would  have  hurled  his 
troops  at  impregnable  breastworks  as  Grant  did  in 
Virginia,  is  mere  matter  of  conjecture.  As  things 
actually  were  disposed,  and  under  the  circumstances 
in  which  he  was  placed,  Johnston  merits  a  place  at 
least  in  the  second  rank  of  great  generals. 

Before  Atlanta  at  Last. 

Atlanta  was  very  strongly  intrenched  in  a  con^plete 
circle  about  a  mile  and  a  half  outside  the  city.  Be- 
yond, there  were  advanced  intrefichments  which  must 
be  taken  before  a  close  siege  could  be  commenced. 
But  Hood  did  not  intend  to  abide  a  siege.  As  the 
three  Federal  armies  converged  on  Atlanta  he  moved 
out  on  the  20th  of  July  and  attacked  the  Army  of  the 
Cumberland  most  furiously.  Hooker's  corps  and 
Newton's  and  Johnston's  divisions  were  the  principal 
ones  engaged  in  this  contest.  After  a  fierce  struggle 
the  Confederates  were  repulsed  and  retired  to  their 
intrenchments,  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  on 
the  field.  It  was  in  this  battle  that  General  Gresham, 
now  judge  of  the  United  States  Circuit  Court,  was 
very  severely  wounded. 

But  Hood  did  not  intend  to  abandon  offensive  op- 
erations. On  the  night  of  the  21st  he  moved  out 
again  to  make  an  attack  on  the  left  of  the  Federal 
line.  About  noon  of  the  2  2d  the  battle  commenced 
with  an  assault  by  Hardee  upon  Blair's  corps,  which 
he  pressed  heavily.     Our  left  was  turned,  and  it  was 

'from  ATLANTA   TO  THE   SEAc  ^^ 

with  great  difficulty  that  an  immense  wagon-train  was 
saved.  Sherman  and  his  able  lieutenants  proved 
fully  equal  to  the  emergency  in  the  end,  and,  though 
the  fighting  was  at  first  very  much  in  favor  of  the 
Confederates,  before  night  fell  they  were  driven  back 
into  the  city.  It  was  during  this  battle  that  the  brave 
McPherson  was  killed.  This  was  the  battle  of  At- 
lanta, and  on  the  score  of  having  captured  thirteen 
guns  and  some  prisoners  Hood  claimed  a  great 

Disastrous  Victory. 

But,  nevertheless,  Sherman  held  his  ground,  and 
prepared  by  new  combinations  to  press  forward  his 
operations  against  the  city.  Hood  had  suffered  the 
severest  losses,  and  such  victories  would  prove  as 
disastrous  as  defeats.  For  the  next  six  weeks  he 
kept  mainly  on  the  defensive.  To  carry  the  city  by 
an  assault  was  beyond  the  power  of  the  invading 
army,  and  to  approach  it  by  regular  siege  and  invest- 
ment equally  impossible. 

Sherman's  only  resource  was  either  to  destroy  or 
occupy  the  great  railway  arteries  which  brought  sup 
plies  to  the  army  and  to  the  people.  The  work  was 
tedious  and  the  lines  to  be  maintained  were  very 
long,  but  slowly  and  surely  through  the  months  of 
July  and  August  the  work  went  on.  Several  exten- 
sive cavalry  raids  were  organized.  One  of  these, 
under  General  Stonem--.^  numbering  about  one 
thousand  men,  was  captured,  and  the  others  did 
not  accomplish  nearly  so  much  as  was  expected.     It 


remained  then  for  the  infantry  to  carry  out  more 
slowly  the  plan  of  separating  Hood's  army  from  its 
base  of  supplies. 

Daring-  Cavalrj^  Movements. 

Nor  was  the  Confederate  cavalry  idle.  General 
Wheeler  moved  upon  the  railroad  north  of  Resaca 
and  destroyed  it  nearly  up  to  Dalton,  cutting  Sher- 
man off  from  communication  with  the  North  for  sev- 
eral days.  But  neither  raids  nor  assaults  availed  to 
retard  Sherman's  movements  to  seize  all  the  com- 
munications leading  to  Atlanta.  Many  sharp  engage- 
ments took  place,  but  Sherman  never  loosened  a  grip 
once  firmly  taken. 

Finally,  on  August  25,  he  commenced  his  last  and 
final  flank  movement,  by  which  he  swung  his  whole 
army,  except  one  corps,  on  Hood's  communications 
south  of  Atlanta,  compelling  him  to  leave  his  in- 
trenchments  and  to  fiofht  a  decisive  battle  or  to 
retreat.  To  do  this  Sherman  had  to  cut  loose  from 
his  own  communications,  and  to  depend  for  subsist- 
ence upon  such  stores  as  he  could  carry  or  gather 
from  the  country.  It  was  bold  strategy,  but  its  suc- 
cess proved  that  the  details  had  been  carefully  studied 
out,  and  that  it  was  a  fittino-  conclusion  to  the  cam- 
paign  of  Atlanta.  All  the  movements  of  the  various 
corps  were  made  Avith  precision  and  accomplished  as 

On  August  30  and  31  sharp  engagements  occurred 
with  the  Confederates  under  Hardee  at  Jonesboro, 
twenty   miles    south    of  Atlanta.     On    September   1, 


Sherman  had  complete  possession  of  the  Macon 
railroad.  During  diat  night  our  army  heard  great 
explosions  in  the  direction  of  Adanta  and  Jonesboro. 
Hood  had  found  himself  compelled  to  yield  the  city 
at  last.  He  blew  up  his  military  works,  and  fell  back 
southward,  toward  Macon.  On  the  following  morning 
General  Slocum,  who  had  remained  with  his  corps 
north  of  the  city,  marched  in  and  took  possession. 

The  campaign  had  lasted  four  months,  and  is  one 
of  the  most  memorable  of  the  war.  The  aggregate 
loss  from  the  force  in  killed,  wounded,  and  missing 
amounted  to  31,687  men.  During  the  same  period 
the  loss  inflicted  on  the  Confederate  army  amounted 
to  34,779  men. 

This  campaign  abundantly  proved  Sherman's  com- 
manding genius  for  war.  He  could  execute  as  well 
as  conceive.  He  understood  the  discipline  of  armies 
in  its  fullest  extent.  He  knew  how  to  select  and  em- 
ploy his  officers. 

Why  He  did  Not  g-o  to  Aug-usta. 

The  question,  "Why  didn't  General  Sherman  go  to 
Augusta  instead  of  to  Savannah  when  he  made  the 
great  march  through  Georgia  ?  "  has  been  often  asked 
and  commented  upon.  General  Sherman  himself  an- 
swered it  two  years  ago.  "  The  march  to  the  sea  from 
Atlanta,"  said  he,  "  was  resolved  on  after  Hood  had 
got  well  on  his  way  to  Nashville.  I  then  detached  to 
General  Thomas  a  force  sufficient  to  whip  Hood, 
which  he,  In  December,  1864,  very  handsomely  and 
conclusively  did.     Still,  I  had  left  a  very  respectable 


army  and  resolved  to  join  Grant  at  Richmond.  The 
distance  was  one  thousand  miles,  and  prudence  die-  i 
tated  a  base  at  Savannah  or  Port  Royal.  Our  enemy 
had  garrisons  at  Macon  and  Augusta.  I  figured  on 
both,  and  passed  between  to  Savannah.  Then,  start- 
ing northward,  the  same  problem  presented  itself  in 
Augusta  and  Charleston.  I  figured  on  both,  but 
passed  between. 

"  I  did  not  want  to  drive  out  their  p^arrisons  ahead 
of  me  at  the  crossings  of  the  Santee,  Catawba,  Pedee, 
Cape  Fear,  etc.  The  moment  I  passed  Columbia  the 
factories,  powder-mills,  and  the  old  stuff  accumulated 
at  Augusta  were  lost  to  the  only  two  Confederate 
armies  left — Lee's  and  Hood's.  So,  if  you  have  a 
military  mind,  you  will  see  I  made  a  better  use  of 
Augusta  than  if  I  had  captured  it  with  its  stores,  for 
which  I  had  no  use.  I  used  Augusta  twice  as  a  buffer; 
its  garrison  was  just  where  it  helped  me. 

"Sherman's  Bummers." 

"  If  the  people  of  Augusta  think  I  sligiited  them  in 
the  winter  of  1864-65  by  reason  of  personal  friend- 
ship formed  in  1844,  they  are  mistaken,  or  if  they 
think  I  made  a  mistake  in  strategy,  let  them  say  so, 
and  with  the  President's  consent  I  think  I  can  send  a 
detachment  of  one  hundred  thousand  or  so  of  'Sher- 
man's bummers'  and  their  descendants,  who  will  finish 
up  the  job  without  charging  Uncle  Sam  a  cent.  The 
truth  is,  these  incidents  come  back  to  me  in  a  humor- 
ous vein.  Of  course  the  Civil  War  should  have  ended 
with  Vicksburg  and  Gettysburg.     Every  sensible  man 


on  earth  must  have  then  seen  there  could  be  but  one 
result.  The  leaders  of  the  South  took  good  care  not 
to  'die  in  the  last  ditch,'  and  left  brave  men  like 
Walker,  Adams,  Pat  Cleburne,  etc.,  to  do  that." 

After  resting  at  Savannah  and  refitting  his  army, 
he  moved  northward  February  i.  Columbia  was  oc- 
cupied on  the  1 7th  ;  Cheraw,  March  3d  ;  Fayetteville, 
March  1 1  th ;  the  battle  of  Averysboro  was  fought 
March  i6th;  that  of  Bentonville,  March  19th,  20th; 
Goldsboro  was  occupied  March  22d;  Raleigh,  April 
13th;  and  April  i8th,  at  Durham  Station. 

By  marching  through  the  heart  of  South  Carolina 
instead  of  skirting  the  sea,  Sherman  pierced  the  State 
in  its  most  vital  part.  It  was  the  boast  of  Davis  and 
Breckenridge  that  the  sea  was  not  necessary  to  the 
South.  Their  strength  lay  inland.  Sherman  marched 
inland,  shutting  up  one  Confederate  general  in  Au- 
gusta, another  in  Branchville,  a  third  in  Charleston, 
and  a  fourth  in  Columbia.  These  generals  never 
knew  where  the  blow  would  fall,  and  it  never  fell 
where  they  thought  it  likely  to.  As  Sherman  moved 
up  northward,  leaving  Charleston  on  the  right,  Beau- 
regard was  confident  that  he  would  have  to  assault 
Branchville,  a  great  railway-centre  and  a  post  from 
which  he  could  equally  menace  Charleston  and  Au- 
gusta. Branchville  was  accordingly  strengthened 
with  guns  and  occupied  in  force.  But  Sherman  cut 
the  railway-lines  and  compelled  the  enemy  to  abandon 
their  works  and  guns.  Branchville  passed  and 
Columbia  gained,  Charleston  fell. 


Sherman  accepted  the  surrender  of  Johnston's 
army  on  a  "  basis  of  agreement "  which  was  rejected 
by  the  Government,  but  on  the  26th  received  the 
surrender  on  the  terms  accorded  to  Lee  by  Grant. 
Resuming  his  march,  Washington  was  reached  May 
24,  1865,  where,  after  the  grand  review,  his  army 
was  dissolved.  On  the  27th  of  June,  1865,  he  was 
appointed  to  command  the  mihtary  division  of  the 
Mississippi ;  was  promoted  to  be  heutenant-general 
July  25,  1866,  and  August  11  assigned  to  command 
the  military  division  of  the  Missouri.  On  the  acces- 
sion of  General  Grant  to  the  Presidency  he  became 
general  (March  4,  1869).  ^^  1871-72  he  made  an 
extended  tour  in  Europe  and  the  East.  In  October,. 
1874,  the  headquarters  of  the  army  were  removed 
from  Washington  to  St.  Louis,  but  in  April,  1876, 
were  re-established  at  Washington.  He  published 
in  1875  Memoirs  of  General  W.  T.  Sherman,  by  Him- 


Important  Letter  of  General  Sherman. — The 
Country  Deluded  in  the  Early  Part  of  the 
War. — Strange  Charge  of  Lunacy. 

A  LETTER  written  by  General  Sherman  while  he  was 
at  Memphis  to  his  brother,  Senator  John  Sherman, 
shows  how  accurately  he  understood  the  gravity  of 
the  situation,  and  how  crazy  they  were  who  pro- 
nounced him  wild  and  visionary.  The  story  was 
actually  circulated  that  he  was  out  of  his  mind,  and 
so  fully  was  it  believed  that  for  a  brief  period  his 
command  was  taken  away  from  him.  The  country 
soon  discovered  that  no  man  was  more  sane  on  war 
questions  than  he  was.     The  letter  is  as  follows : 

Memphis,  Tenn,,  Aug,  13,  1862. 

My  Dear  Brother  :  I  have  not  written  to  you  for 
so  long  that  I  suppose  you  think  I  have  dropped  the 
correspondence.  For  six  weeks  I  was  marching  along 
the  road  from  Corinth  to  Memphis,  mending  roads, 
building  bridges,  and  all  sorts  of  work.  At  last  I  got 
here,  and  found  the  city  contributing  gold,  arms,  pow- 
der, salt,  and  everything  the  enemy  wanted.  It  was 
a  smart  trick  on  their  part  thus  to  give  up  Memphis, 
that  the  desire  of  gain  to  our  Northern  merchants 
should  supply  them  with  the  things  needed  in  war.     I 


Stopped  this  at  once,  and  declared  gold,  silver.  Treas- 
ury notes,  and  salt  as  much  contraband  of  war  as 
powder.  I  have  one  man  under  sentence  of  death 
for  smuggling  arms  across  the  lines,  and  hope  Mr. 
Lincoln  will  approve  it. 

But  the  mercenary  spirit  of  our  people  is  too 
much,  and  my  orders  are  reversed  and  I  am  ordered 
to  encourage  the  trade  in  cotton,  and  all  orders  pro- 
hibiting gold,  silver,  and  notes  to  be  paid  for  it  are 
annulled  by  orders  from  Washington.  Grant 
promptly  ratified  my  order,  and  all  military  men 
here  saw  at  once  that  gold  spent  for  cotton  went 
to  the  purchase  of  arms  and  munitions  of  war.  But 
what  are  the  lives  of  our  soldiers  to  the  profits  of  the 
merchants  ? 

Great  Call  for  Men. 

After  a  whole  year  of  bungling  the  country  has 
at  last  discovered  that  we  want  more  men.  All  knew 
it  last  fall  as  well  as  now,  but  it  was  not  popular. 
Now  one  million  three  hundred  thousand  men  are 
required,  when  seven  hundred  thousand  were  deemed 
absurd  before.  It  will  take  time  to  work  up  these 
raw  recruits,  and  they  will  reach  us  in  October,  when 
we  should  be  in  Jackson,  Meridian,  and  Vicksburg.^ 
Still,  I  must  not  growl.  I  have  purposely  put  backj 
and  have  no  right  to  criticise,  save  that  I  am  glad  the 
papers  have  at  last  found  out  we  are  at  war  and  hav( 
a  formidable  enemy  to  combat. 

Of  course   I  approve   the    Confiscation   Act,  an( 
would  be  willing  to  revolutionize  the  Government  s( 


as  to  amend  that  article  of  the  Constitution  which 
forbids  the  forfeiture  of  land  to  the  heirs.  My  full 
belief  is  we  must  colonize  the  country  de  novo,  begin- 
ning with  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  and  should  re- 
move four  million  of  our  people  at  once  south  of  the 
Ohio  River,  taking  the  farms  and  plantations  of  the 
rebels.  I  deplore  the  war  as  much  as  ever,  but  if 
the  thing  has  to  be  done  let  the  means  be  adequate. 
Don't  expect  to  overrun  such  a  country  or  subdue 
such  a  people  In  one,  two,  or  five  years.  It  is  the 
task  of  half  a  century.  Although  our  army  is  thus 
far  south,  it  cannot  stir  from  our  garrisons.  Our 
men  are  killed  or  captured  within  sight  of  our  lines. 
I  have  two  divisions  here — mine  and  Hurlbut's, 
about  thirteen  thousand  men — am  building  a  strong 
fort,  and  think  this  Is  to  be  one  of  the  depots  and 
bases  of  operations  for  future  movements. 

Too  Many  Heads. 

The  loss  of  Halleck  is  almost  fatal.  We  have  no 
one  to  replace  him.  Instead  of  having  one  head,  we 
have  five  or  six,  all  Independent  of  each  other.  I  ex- 
pect our  enemies  will  mass  their  troops  and  fall  upon 
our  detachment?^  before  new  reinforcements  come.  I 
cannot  learn  7h^l  there  are  any  large  bodies  of  men 
near  us  here.  There  are  detachments  at  Holly 
Springs  and  Senatobia,  the  present  termini  of  the 
railroads  from  the  South,  and  all  the  people  of  the 
country  are  armed  as  guerillas.  Curtis  is  at  Helena, 
eighty  miles  south,  and  Grant  at  Corinth,  Bragg*s 
army  from  Tripoli  has   moved  to   Chattanooga,  and 



proposes  to  march  on  Nashville,  Lexington,  and 
Cincinnati.  They  will  have  about  seventy-five  thou- 
sand men. 

Buell  is  near  Huntsville  with  about  thirty  thousand, 
and  I  suppose  detachments  of  the  new  levies  can  be 
put  in  Kentucky  from  Ohio  and  Indiana  in  time.  The 
weather  is  very  hot,  and  Bragg  can't  move  his  forces 
very  fast;  but  I  fear  he  will  give  trouble.  My  own 
opinion  is,  we  ought  not  to  venture  too  much  into  the 
interior  until  the  river  is  safely  in  our  possession, 
when  we  could  land  at  any  point  and  strike  inland. 
To  attempt  to  hold  all  the  South  would  demand  an 
army  too  large  even  to  think  of.  We  must  colonize 
and  settle  as  we  go  south,  for  in  Missouri  there  is  as 
much  strife  as  ever.  Enemies  must  be  killed  or  trans- 
ported to  some  other  country. 

Your  affectionate  brother, 

W.  T.  Sherman. 

From  the  outset  Sherman  looked  for  a  great  war, 
and  he  regarded  President  Lincoln's  first  call  for 
seventy-five  thousand  men  in  April,  1861,  as  trifling 
with  a  serious  matter.  To  him  the  Secessionists  were 
not  merely  an  armed  mob  to  be  put  down  by  a  few 
holiday  soldiers.  Very  early  in  the  war  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  give  his  views  ofificlal  expression.  Made  a 
bricradier-eeneral  of  volunteers,  he  was  assio^ned  to 
the  Department  of  the  Cumberland,  under  General 
Roben:  Anderson,  whom  he  soon  succeeded,  General 
Anderson's  health  havino-  failed. 


He  soon  astounded  the  Washington  optimists,  who 
were  going  to  put  down  the  revolt  in  sixty  days,  by 
declaring  that  to  retake  the  Mississippi  Valley  would 
require  two  hundred  thousand  men.  It  was  expected 
by  the  Government  that  all  the  men  needed  to  keep 
Kentucky  in  the  Union  could  be  raised  in  that  State, 
but  for  that  work  alone  Sherman  declared  that  sixty 


thousand  would  be  needed.  The  country  was  dis 
posed  to  look  upon  this  sagacity  as  lunacy,  and  tli(s. 
Government  shared  in  the  public  distrust  of  Sherman, 
as  was  shown  by  the  fact  that  he  was  relieved  of  his 
command  on  the  12th  of  November  by  General  Buell, 
and  ordered  to  report  to  General  Halleck,  by  whom 
he  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  Benton  Barracks. 
I    This  singular  proceeding  was  brought  about  by  Mr. 


Cameron,  Secretary  of  War,  mentioning-  to  General 
Thomas  what  he  called  Sherman's  insane  request  for 
two  hundred  thousand  men.  Some  newspaper-man 
got  hold  of  it,  and  the  news  was  trumpeted  abroad 
that  Sherman  was  •'  insane,  crazy,"  etc.  The  occasion 
of  Mn  Cameron's  remark  was  the  following  letter: 

Headquarters  Department  of  the  Cumberland,    ■ 
Louisvr.LE,  Kentucky,  October  22,  1861.        ^ 

To  General  L.  Thomas,  Adjutant-  General,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.  : 

Sm:  On  my  arrival  at  Camp  Dick  Robinson,  I 
found  General  Thomas  had  stationed  a  Kentucky 
regiment  at  Rock  Casde  Hill,  beyond  a  river  of  the 
same  name,  and  had  sent  an  Ohio  and  an  Indiana  regi- 
ment forward  in  support.  He  was  embarrassed  for 
transportation,  and  I  authorized  him  to  hire  teams  and 
to  move  his  whole  force  nearer  to  his  advance-guard, 
so  as  to  support  it,  as  he  had  information  of  the  ap- 
proach of  Zollicoffer  toward  London.  I  have  just 
heard  from  him  that  he  had  sent  forward  General  I 
Schoepf  with  Colonel  Wolford's  cavalry,  Colonel 
Steadman's  Ohio  regiment,  and  a  battery  of  artillery, 
followed  on  a  succeeding  day  by  a  Tennessee  brigade. 
He  had  still  two  Kentucky  regiments,  the  Thirty-  j 
eighth  Ohio,  and  another  battery  of  artillery,  with 
which  he  was  to  follow  yesterday.  This  force,  if  con- 
centrated, should  be  strong  enough  for  the  purpose; 
at  all  events,  it  is  all  he  had  or  I  could  give  him. 

\  explained  to  you  fully,  when   here,  the  supposed 


position  of  our  adversaries,  among  whom  was  a  force 
in  the  valley  of  Big  Sandy,  supposed  to  be  advancing 
on  Paris,  Kentucky.  General  Nelson  at  Maysville 
was  instructed  to  collect  all  the  men  he  could,  and 
Colonel  Gill's  regiment  of  Ohio  volunteers.  Colonel 
Harris  was  already  in  position  at  Olympian  Springs, 
and  a  regiment  lay  at  Lexington,  which  I  ordered  to 
his  support.  This  leaves  the  line  of  Thomas's  opera- 
tions exposed,  but  I  cannot  help  it.  I  explained  so 
fully  to  yourself  and  the  Secretary  of  War  the  con- 
dition of  thinors  that  I  can  add  nothintr  new  until 
further  developments.  You  know  my  views,  that  this 
great  centre  of  our  field  is  too  weak,  far  too  weak, 
and  I  have  begged  and  implored  till  I  dare  not  say 

Buckner  still  is  beyond  Green  River.  He  sent  a 
detachment  of  his  men,  variously  estimated  at  from 
two  to  four  thousand,  toward  Greensburg.  General 
Ward,  with  about  one  thousand  men,  retreated  to 
Campbellsburg,  where  he  called  to  his  assistance  some 
partially-formed  regiments  to  the  number  of  about 
two  thousand.  The  enemy  did  not  advance,  and  Gen- 
eral Ward  was  at  last  dates  at  Campbellsburg.  The 
officers  charged  with  raising  regiments  must  of  neces- 
sity be  near  their  homes  to  collect  men,  and  for  this 
reason  are  out  of  position  ;  but  at  or  near  Greens- 
burg and  Lebanon  I  desire  to  assemble  as  large  a 
force  of  the  Kentucky  volunteers  as  possible. 

This  organization  is  necessarily  Irregular,  but  the 
necessity  is    so    great    that  I   must   have    them,  and 


therefore  have  issued  to  them  arms  and  clothing  dur- 
ing the  process  of  formation.  This  has  faciHtated 
their  enhstment ;  but  inasmuch  as  the  Legislature  has 
provided  money  for  organizing  the  Kentucky  volun- 
teers, and  entrusted  its  disbursement  to  a  board  of 
loyal  gentlemen,  I  have  endeavored  to  co-operate  with 
them  to  hasten  the  formation  of  these  corps. 

The  great  difficulty  is,  and  has  been,  that  as  vol- 
unteers offer  we  have  not  arms  and  clothing  to  give 
them.  The  arms  sent  us  are,  as  you  cilready  know, 
European  muskets  of  uncouth  pattern,  ivhich  the  vol- 
imteers  will  not  touch. 

General  McCook  has  now  three  brigades — John- 
son's, Wood's,  and  Rousseau's.  Negley's  brigade  ar- 
rived to-day,  and  will  be  sent  out  at  once.  The  Min- 
nesota regiment  has  also  arrived,  and  will  be  sent  for- 
ward. Hazzard's  regiment  of  Indiana  troops  I  have 
ordered  to  the  mouth  of  Salt  Creek,  an  important 
point  on  the  turnpike-road  leading  to  Elizabethtown. 

I  again  repeat  that  our  force  here  is  out  of  all  pro- 
portion to  the  importance  of  the  position.  Our  defeat 
would  be  disastrous  to  the  nation,  and  to  expect  of 
new  men,  who  never  bore  arms,  to  do  miracles,  is 
not  right. 

I  am,  with  much  respect,  yours  truly, 
W.  T.  Sherman, 

Brigadier-  General  commanding. 

This  letter  was  characteristic  of  its  author — saga- 
cious,   honest,   outspoken,    and    right   to   the    point 


Sherman  knew  the  magnitude  of  the  fight  the  country 
had  on  hand ;  he  wished  others  to  know  it  too. 

The  Facts  in  the  Case. 

It  is  important  to  the  unsuUied  fame  of  General 
Sherman  that  the  pubHc  should  have  a  plain  state- 
ment of  the  facts  concerning  this  remarkable  episode 
in  his  history.  In  an  interview  with  Mr.  Cameron  he 
urged  the  necessity  of  raising  more  troops,  expressing 
views  similar  to  those  stated  in  his  letter  to  Adjutant- 
General  Thomas.  Cameron  was  astonished  at  the 
demand  for  troops,  and  exclaimed,  "  Where  are  they 
to  come  from  ?  "  Sherman  supposed  his  conversation 
with  Cameron  was  confidential,  and  had  occasion  to 
complain  afterward  that  it  was  made  public  and  was 
used  to  his  disadvantage. 

After  the  war  was  over  General  Thomas  J.  Wood, 
then  in  command  of  the  district  of  Vicksburg,  prepared 
a  statement  addressed  to  the  public,  describing  the  in- 
terview with  the  Secretary  of  War,  which  he  calls  a 
"  council  of  war."  Sherman  did  not  then  deem  it 
necessary  to  renew  a  matter  which  had  been  swept 
into  oblivion  by  the  v^ar  itself ;  but,  as  it  is  evidence  by 
an  eye-witness,  it  is  worthy  of  insertion  here. 

Statement  of  General  Wood. 

"  On  the  nth  of  October,  1861,  the  writer,  who  had 
been  personally  on  mustering  duty  in  Indiana,  was 
appointed  a  brigadier-general  of  volunteers  and 
ordered  to  report  to  General  Sherman,  then  in  com- 
mand of  the  Department  of  the  Cumberland,  with  his 
headquarters  at  Louisville,  having  succeeded  General 


Robert  Anderson,  When  the  writer  was  about  leav- 
ing IndianapoHs  to  proceed  to  Louisville,  Mr.  Cameron, 
returning  from  his  famous  visit  of  inspection  to  Gen- 
eral Fremont's  department  at  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
arrived  at  Indianapolis,  and  announced  his  intention 
to  visit  General  Sherman. 

"The  writer  was  invited  to  accompany  the  party  to 
Louisville.  Taking  the  early  morning  train  from  In- 
dianapolis to  Louisville  on  the  i6th  of  October,  1861, 
the  party  arrived  in  Jeffersonville  shortly  after  mid- 
day. General  Sherman  met  the  party  ir  Jeffersonville, 
and  accompanied  it  to  the  Gait  House  in  Louisville,  the 
hotel  at  which  he  was  stopping. 

Behind  Closed  Doors. 

"  During  the  afternoon  General  Sherman  inforhied 
the  writer  that  a  council  of  war  was  to  be  held  im- 
mediately in  his  private  room  in  the  hotel,  and  desired 
him  to  be  present  at  the  council.  General  Sherman 
and  the  writer  proceeded  directly  to  the  room.  The 
writer  entered  the  room  first,  and  observed  in  It  Mr. 
Cameron,  Adjutant-General  L.  Thomas,  and  some 
other  persons,  all  of  whose  names  he  did  not  know, 
but  whom  he  recognized  as  beine  of  Mr.  Cameron's 
party.  The  name  of  one  of  the  party  the  writer  had 
learned,  which  he  remembers  as  Wilkinson  or  Wil- 
kerson,  and  who  he  understood  was  a  writer  for  the 
New  York  Tribune  newspaper.  The  Hon.  James 
Guthrie  was  also  in  the  room,  having  been  invited,  on 
account  of  his  eminent  position  as  a  citizen  of  Ken- 
tucky, his  high  civic  reputation,  and  his  well-known 


devotion  to  the  Union,  to  meet  the  Secretary  of  War 
in  the  council.  When  General  Sherman  entered 
the  room  he  closed  the  door  and  turned  the  key  in 
the  lock. 

"  Before  entering  on  the  business  of  the  meet- 
ing. General  Sherman  remarked  substantially:  *  Mr. 
Cameron,  we  have  met  here  to  discuss  matters  and 
interchange  views  which  should  be  known  only  by 
persons  high  in  the  confidence  of  the  Government. 
There  are  persons  present  whom  I  do  not  know,  and 
I  desire  to  know,  before  opening  the  business  of  the 
council,  whether  they  are  persons  who  may  be  prop- 
erly allowed  to  hear  the  views  which  I  have  to  submit 
to  you.'  Mr.  Cameron  eplied,  with  some  little  testi- 
ness  of  manner,  that  the  persons  referred  to  belonged 
to  his  party,  and  there  was  no  objection  to  their 
knowing  whatever  might  be  communicated  to  him  on 
a  matter  so  important. 

The  Forces  Insuflftcient. 

"Certainly  the  legitimate  and  natural  conclusion 
from  this  remark  of  Mr.  Cameron's  was  that  what- 
ever views  might  be  submitted  by  General  Sherman 
would  be  considered  under  the  protection  of  the  seal 
of  secrecy,  and  would  not  be  divulged  to  the  public 
till  all  apprehension  of  injurious  consequences  from 
such  disclosure  had  passed.  And  it  may  be  remarked, 
further,  that  justice  to  General  Sherman  required  that 
if,  at  any  future  time,  his  conclusions  as  to  the  amount 
of  force  necessary  to  conduct  the  operations  com- 
mitted  to   his   charge   should   be   made   public,   the 


grounds  on  which  his  conclusions  were  based  should 
be  made  public  at  the  same  time,  that  there  might  be 
no  misapprehension. 

"  Mr.  Cameron  then  asked  General  Sherman  what 
his  plans  were.  To  this  General  Sherman  replied 
that  he  had  no  plans  ;  that  no  sufficient  force  had 
been  placed  at  his  disposition  with  which  to  devise 
any  plan  of  operations  ;  that  before  a  commanding 
general  could  project  a  plan  of  campaign  he  must 
know  what  amount  of  force  he  would  have  to  operate 

"  The  general  added  that  he  had  views  which  he 
would  be  happy  to  submit  for  the  consideration  of  the 
Secretary.  Mr.  Cameron  desired  to  hear  General 
Sherman's  views. 

Sliernian  Speaks  for  Kentucky. 

"  General  Sherman  began  by  giving  his  opinion  of 
the  people  of  Kentucky  and  the  then  condition  of  the 
State.  He  remarked  that  he  believed  a  very  large 
majority  of  the  people  of  Kentucky  were  thoroughly 
devoted  to  the  Union,  and  loyal  to  the  Government, 
and  that  the  Unionists  embraced  almost  all  the  older 
and  more  substantial  men  in  the  State  ;  but,  unfor- 
tunately, there  was  no  organization  nor  arms  among 
the  Union  men  ;  that  the  rebel  minority,  thoroughly 
vindictive  in  its  sentiments,  was  organized  and  armed 
(this  having  been  done  in  advance  by  their  leaders), 
and,  beyond  the  reach  of  the  Federal  forces,  overawed 
and  prevented  the  Union  men  from  organizing ;  that, 
in  his   opinion,  if  Federal  protection  w^ere  extended 


throughout  the  State  to  the  Union  men,  a  large  force 
could  be  raised  for  the  service  of  the  Government. 

*•' General  Sherman  said  that  the  information  in  his 
possession  indicated  an  intention,  on  the  part  of  the 
rebels,  of  a  general  and  grand  advance  toward  the 
Ohio  River.  He  further  expressed  the  opinion  that 
if  such  advance  should  be  made  and  not  checked,  the 
rebel  force  would  be  swollen  by  at  least  twenty  thou- 
sand recruits  from  the  disloyalists  in  Kentucky.  His 
low  computation  of  the  organized  rebel  soldiers  then 
in  Kentucky  fixed  the  strength  at  about  thirty-five 
thousand.  Add  twenty  thousand  for  reinforcements 
gained  in  Kentucky,  to  say  nothing  of  troops  drawn 
from  other  rebel  States,  and  the  effective  rebel  force 
in  the  State,  at  a  low  estimate,  would  be  fifty-five 
thousand  men. 

Difliculties  Ahead, 

"  General  Sherman  explained  forcibly  how  largely 
the  difficulties  of  suppressing  the  rebellion  would  be 
enhanced  if  the  rebels  should  be  allowed  to  plant 
themselves  firmly,  with  strong  fortifications,  at  com- 
manding points  on  the  Ohio  River.  It  would  be  facile 
for  them  to  carry  the  war  thence  into  the  loyal  States 
north  of  the  river. 

*'To  resist  an  advance  of  the  rebels.  General  Sher- 
man stated  that  he  did  not  have  at  that  time  in  Ken- 
tucky more  than  some  twelve  to  fourteen  thousand 
effective  men.  The  bulk  of  this  force  was  posted  at 
Camp  Nolin,  on  the  Louisville  and  Nashville  railway, 
fifty  miles  south  of  Louisville.     A  part  of  it  was  in 


Eastern  Kentucky,  under  General  George  H.  Thoma?, 
and  a  very  small  force  was  in  the  lower  valley  of 
Green  River. 

"  General  Sherman  next  presented  a  r^esunie  of  the 
information  in  his  possession  as  to  the  number  of  the 
rebel  troops  in  Kentucky.  Commencing  with  the 
force  at  Columbus,  Kentucky,  the  reports  varied, 
giving  the  strength  from  ten  to  twenty  thousand.  It 
was  commanded  by  Lieutenant-General  Polk.  Gen- 
eral Sherman  fixed  it  at  the  lowest  estimate,  say,  ten 
thousand.  The  force  at  Bowling  Green,  commanded 
by  General  A.  S.  Johnston,  supported  by  Hardee, 
Buckner,  and  others,  was  variously  estimated  at  from 
eighteen  to  thirty  thousand.  General  Sherman  esti- 
mated this  force  at  the  lowest  figures  given  to  it  by 
his  information — eighteen  thousand. 

The  Enemy  lias  the  Advaiitag-e. 

"He  explained  that  for  purposes  of  defence  these 
two  forces  ought,  owing  to  the  facility  with  which 
troops  might  be  transportv^d  from  one  to  the  other 
by  the  network  of  railroads  in  Middle  and  West 
Tennessee,  to  be  considered  almost  as  one.  General 
Sherman  remarked  also  on  the  facility  with  which 
reinforcements  could  be  transported  by  railroad  to 
Bowling  Green  from  the  other  rebellious  States. 

"  The  third  organized  body  of  rebel  troops  was  in 
Eastern  Kentucky,  under  General  Zollicoffer — esti- 
mated, according  to  the  most  reliable  information,  at 
six  thousand  men.  This  force  threatened  a  descent, 
if  unrestrained,  on  the  Blue-grass  region  of  Kentucky, 


including  the  cities  of  Lexington  and  Frankfort,  the 
capital  of  the  State,  and,  if  successful  in  its  primary 
movements,  as  it  would  gather  head  as  it  advanced, 
might  endanger  the  safety  of  Cincinnati. 

"  This  disposition  of  the  force  had  been  made  for 
the  double  purpose  of  watching  and  checking  the 
rebels  and  protecting  the  raising  and  organization 
of  troops  among  the  Union  men  of  Kentucky. 

Defensive  Operations  Useless. 

''Having  explained  the  situation  from  the  defer.- 
sive  point  of  view,  General  Sherman  proceeded  to 
consider  it  from  the  offensive  standpoint.  The  Gov- 
ernment had  undertaken  to  suppress  the  rebellion  ; 
the  onus  facieiidi,  therefore,  lested  on  the  Govern- 
ment. The  rebellion  could  never  be  put  down,  the 
authority  of  the  paramount  Government  asserted, 
and  the  union  of  the  States  declared  perpetual  by 
force  of  arms,  by  maintaining  the  defensive;  to  ac- 
complish these  grand  desiderata  it  was  absolutely 
necessary  the  Government  should  adopt  and  main- 
tain until   the  rebellion   was  crushed  the  offensive. 

"For  the  purpose  of  expelling  the  rebels  from 
Kentucky,  General  Sherman  said  that  at  least  sixty 
thousand  soldiers  were  necessary.  Considering  that 
the  means  of  accomplishment  must  always  be  propor- 
tioned to  the  end  to  be  achieved,  and  bearing  in  mind 
the  array  of  rebel  force  then  in  Kentucky,  every  sen- 
sible man  must  admit  that  the  estimate  of  the  force 
given  by  General  Sherman  for  driving  the  rebels  out 
of  the  State  and  re-establishing  and  maintaining  the 


authority  of  the  Government  was  a  very  low  one. 
The  truth  is,  that  before  the  rebels  were  driven  from 
Kentucky  many  more  than  sixty  thousand  soldiers 
were  sent  into  the  State. 

Number  of  Troops  Required. 

"Ascendine  from  the  consideration  of  the  narrow 
question  of  the  political  and  military  situation  in 
Kentucky,  and  the  extent  of  force  necessary  to  re- 
deem the  State  from  rebel  thraldom,  forecasting  in 
his  sagacious  intellect  the  grand  and  daring  opera- 
tions which  three  years  afterward  he  realized  in  a 
campaign,  taken  in  its  entirety,  without  a  parallel  in 
modern  times,  General  Sherman  expressed  the 
opinion  that  to  carry  the  war  to  the  Gulf  of  Mex- 
ico and  destroy  all  armed  opposition  to  the  Govern- 
ment in  the  entire  Mississippi  Valley,  at  least  two 
hundred  thousand  troops  were  absolutely  requisite. 

*'  So  soon  as  General  Sherman  had  concluded  the 
expression  of  his  views  Mr.  Cameron  asked,  with 
much  warmth  and  apparent  irritation,  '  Where  do  you 
suppose.  General  Sherman,  all  this  force  is  to  come 
from  ? '  General  Sherman  replied  that  he  did  not 
know — that  it  was  not  his  duty  to  raise,  organize,  and 
put  the  necessary  military  force  into  the  field ;  that 
duty  pertained  to  the  War  Department.  His  duty 
was  to  organize  campaigns  and  command  the  troops 
after  they  had  been  put  into  the  field. 

Sherman's  Views  Indorsed. 

"At  this  point  of  the  proceedings  General  Sher- 
man suggested  that  it  might  be  agreeable  to  the  Sec- 


retary  to  hear  the  views  of  Mr.  Guthrie.  Thus  ap- 
pealed to,  Mr.  Guthrie  said  he  did  not  consider 
himself,  being  a  civilian,  competent  to  give  an 
opinion  as  to  the  extent  of  force  necessary  to  carry 
the  war  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico ;  but,  being  well  in- 
formed of  the  condition  of  things  in  Kentucky,  he 
indorsed  fully  General  Sherman's  opinion  of  the 
force  required  to  drive  the  rebels  out  of  the  State. 

"  The  foregoing  is  a  circumstantial  account  of  the 
deliberations  of  the  council  that  were  of  any  im- 

''  A  good  deal  of  desultory  conversation  followed 
on  immaterial  matters,  and  some  orders  were  issued 
by  telegraph  by  the  Secretary  of  War  for  small  re- 
inforcements to  be  sent  to  Kentucky  immediately 
from  Pennsylvania  and  Indiana. 

"A  short  time  after  the  council  was  held — the  ex- 
act time  is  not  now  remembered  by  the  writer — an 
imperfect  narrative  of  it  appeared  in  the  New  York 
Tidbune.  This  account  announced  to  the  public  the 
conclusions  uttered  by  General  Sherman  in  the 
council,  without  giving  the  reasons  on  which  his  con- 
clusions were  based.  The  unfairness  of  this  course 
to  General  Sherman  needs  no  comment.  All  military 
men  were  shocked  by  the  gross  breach  of  faith  which 
had  been  committed. 

"Th.  J.  Wood,  Major- General  Volunteers. 
"ViCKSBURG,  Mississippi,  y^z<;^z/j/ 24,  1866." 

General  Wood's  account  of  w^hat  passed  between 
Mr.  Cameron  and  General  Sherman  shows  how  base- 


less  were  the  grounds  upon  which  Sherman  was  judged 
to  be  incompetent  and  crazy.  No  man  comprehended 
the  appalHng  situation  more  fully  than  he  did.  Events 
immediately  transpiring  proved  the  correctness  of  his 
judgment.  He  knew  the  magnitude  of  the  great 
Southern  uprising;  his  keen  eye  saw  the  hosts  mar 
shalling  for  the  fray.  To  be  deceived  and  ignore  facts 
plain  and  undeniable  was  lunacy:  the  lunacy  was  not 
his.  He  was  nervous,  excited,  terribly  in  earnest ;  his 
soul  was  up  in  arms.  To-day  we  know  what  solemn 
occasion  he  had  for  believing  that  the  "  unpleasant- 
ness" was  something  more  than  a  bubble  soon  to 

He  was  relieved  of  his  command  for  a  short  time, 
but  his  country  called;  her  voice  was  imperative;  the 
grandest  man  in  the  field — in  many  respects  the 
grandest — must  come  to  the  front.  He  came,  and 
brilliant  history  in  illuminated  letters  has  recorded  his 


After  the  War. — Not  a  Candidate  for  the  Presi- 
dency.— Sketch  of  the  Hero. — Life  in  New 

Preliminary  to  the  disbandment  of  the  national 
armies  they  passed  in  review  before  President  John- 
son and  Cabinet  and  Lieutenant-General  Grant — the 
Army  of  the  Potomac  on  May  23d,  and  General  Sher- 
man's army  on  the  24th.  Sherman  was  particularly 
observed  and  honored.  From  June  27,  1865,  to 
March  3,  1869,  he  was  in  command  of  the  military 
Division  of  the  Mississippi,  with  headquarters  at 
St.  Louis,  embracing  the  Departments  of  the  Ohio, 
Missouri,  and  Arkansas. 

Upon  the  appointment  of  Grant  as  general  of  the 
army  on  July  25,  1866,  Sherman  was  promoted  to  be 
lieutenant-ofeneral,  and  when  Grant  became  President 
of  the  United  States,  March  4,  1869,  Sherman  suc- 
ceeded him  as  general,  with  headquarters  at  Wash- 
ington. From  November  10,  1871,  to  September  17, 
1872,  he  made  a  professional  tour  in  Europe,  and  was 
everywhere  received  with  the  honors  due  to  his  dis- 
tinguished rank  and  service.  At  his  own  request,  and 
in  order  to  make  Sheridan  general-in-chief,  he  was 
placed  on  the  retired  list,  with  full  pay  and  emolu- 
ments, on  February  8,   1884. 

8  113 


Upon  Sherman's  retirement  from  the  active  list, 
President  Arthur  issued  an  order  in  which  he  said: 
"The  announcement  of  the  severance  from  the  com- 
mand of  the  army  of  one  who  has  been  for  so  many 
years  its  distinguished  chief  can  but  awaken  in  the 
minds,  not  only  of  the  army,  but  of  the  people  of  the 
United  States,  mingled  emotions  of  regret  and  grati- 
tude— regret  at  the  withdrawal  from  active  military 
service  of  an  officer  whose  lofty  sense  of  duty  has 
been  a  model  for  all  soldiers  since  he  first  entered  the 
army,  in  July,  1840,  and  gratitude,  freshly  awakened, 
for  the  services  of  incalculable  value  rendered  by  him 
in  the  war  for  the  Union,  which  his  great  military 
genius  and  daring  did  so  much  to  end.  The  President 
deems  this  a  fitting  occasion  to  give  expression  to  the 
gratitude  felt  toward  General  Sherman  by  his  fellow- 
citizens,  and  to  hope  that  Providence  may  grant  him 
many  years  of  health  and  happiness  in  the  relief  from 
the  active  duties  of  his  profession." 

General  Sherman  received  many  honors,  among 
which  may  be  mentioned  the  degree  of  LL.D.  from 
Dartmouth,  Yale,  Harvard,  Princeton,  and  other  uni- 
versities, and  membership  in  the  Board  of  Regents  of 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  1871  to  1883. 

Slierinan  and  Blaine. 

Every  reader  will  peruse  with  interest  the  following^ 
written  by  General  Sherman  for  the  North  American 
Review  of  December,  1888: 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord,  1884,  there  was  to  be  a 
sharp  contest  for   the  nomination  in  Chicago  for  a 


AFTEK  THE  WAR.  115 

Presidential  candidate  of  the  Republican  party.  The 
press  and  the  people  generally  believed  that  Blaine 
wanted  it,  and  everybody  turned  to  him  as  the  man 
best  qualified  to  execute  the  policy  to  accomplish  the 
result  aimed  at.  Still,  abnegating  himself,  he  wrote 
to  me  from  Washington  this  letter : 

Confidential t  strictly  and  absolutely  se. 

Washington,  D.  C,  May  25,  1884. 

My  Dear  General: 

This  letter  requires  no  answer.  After  reading  it 
file  it  away  in  your  most  secret  drawer  or  give  it  to 
the  flames. 

At  the  approaching  convention  at  Chicago  it  is 
more  than  possible — it  is,  indeed,  not  improbable — 
that  you  may  be  nominated  for  the  Presidency.  If 
so,  you  must  stand  your  hand,  accept  the  responsi- 
bility, and  assume  the  duties  of  the  place  to  which  you 
will  surely  be  chosen  if  a  candidate. 

You  must  not  look  upon  it  as  the  work  of  the  poli- 
ticians. If  it  comes  to  you  it  will  come  as  the  ground- 
swell  of  popular  demand,  and  you  can  no  more  refuse 
than  you  could  have  refused  to  obey  an  order  when 
you  were  a  lieutenant  in  the  army.  If  it  come  to 
you  at  all,  it  will  come  as  a  call  of  patriotism.  It 
would  in  such  an  event  injure  your  great  fame  as 
much  to  decline  it  as  it  would  for  you  to  seek  it. 
Your  historic  record,  full  as  it  is,  would  be  rendered 
still  more  glorious  by  such  an  administration  as  you 
would  be  able  to  give  the  country.    Do  not  say  a 


word  in  advance  of  die  convendon,  no  matter  who 
may  ask  you.  You  are  with  your  friends  who  will 
jealously  guard  your  honor  and  renown.  Your 
friend,  James  G.  Blaine. 

Sherman's  Remarkable  Answer. 

To  which  I  replied : 

912  Garrison  Ave,,  St.  Louis,  Mo.  | 
May.  28,  i88d.  j 

Hon.  James  G.  Blaine,  Washington,  D.  C.  : 

My  Dear  Friend:  I  have  received  your  letter  of 
the  25th;  shall  construe  it  as  absolutely  confidential, 
not  intimating  even  to  any  member  of  my  family  that 
I  have  heard  from  you  ;  and,  though  you  may  not 
expect  an  answer,  I  hope  you  will  not  construe  one 
as  unwarranted.  I  have  a  great  many  letters  from 
all  points  of  the  compass  to  a  similar  effect,  one  or 
two  of  which  I  have  answered  frankly,  but  the  great 
mass  are  unanswered. 

I  ought  not  to  submit  myself  to  the  cheap  ridicule 
of  declining  what  is  not  offered,  but  it  is  only  fair  to 
the  many  really  able  men  who  rightfully  aspire  to  the 
high  honor  of  being  President  of  the  United  States  to 
let  them  know  that  I  am  not,  and  must  not  be  con- 
strued as,  a  rival.  In  every  man's  life  occurs  an 
epoch  when  he  must  choose  his  own  career,  and 
when  he  may  not  throw^  off  the  responsibility  or 
tamely  place  his  destiny  in  the  hands  of  friends. 
Mine  occurred  in  Louisiana  when,  in  1861,  alone  in 
the  midst  of  a  people  blinded  by  supposed  wrongs, 
I  resolved  to  stand  by  the  Union  as  long  as  a  frag- 

AFTER  THE  WAR.  117 

ment  of  it  survived  on  which  to  cling.  Since  then, 
through  faction,  tempest,  war,  and  peace,  my  career 
has  been  all  my  family  and  friends  could  ask. 

We  are  now  in  a  good  house  of  our  own  choice, 
with  reasonable  provisions  for  old  age,  surrounded 
by  kind  and  admiring  friends,  in  a  community  where 
Catholicism  is  held  in  respect  and  veneration,  and 
where  my  children  will  naturally  grow  up  in  contact 
with  an  industrious  and  frugal  people.  You  have 
known  and  appreciated  Mrs.  Sherman  from  child- 
hood, have  also  known  each  and  all  the  members  of 
my  family,  and  can  understand  without  an  explanation 
from  me  how  their  thouo^hts  and  feelings  should  and 
ought  to  influence  my  action.  But  I  will  not  even 
throw  off  on  them  the  responsibility. 

I  will  not  in  any  event  entertain  or  accept  a  nomi- 
nation as  a  candidate  for  President  by  the  Chicago 
Republican  Convention  or  any  other  convention,  for 
reasons  personal  to  myself.  I  claim  that  the  Civil 
War,  in  which  I  simply  did  a  man's  fair  share  of  work, 
so  perfectly  accomplished  peace  that  military  men  have 
an  absolute  rieht  to  rest,  and  to  demand  that  the  men 
who  have  been  schooled  in  the  arts  and  practice  of 
peace  shall  now  do  their  work  equally  well. 

Any  Senator  can  step  from  his  chair  at  the  Capitol 
into  the  White  House  and  fulfil  the  office  of  President 
with  more  skill  and  success  than  a  Grant,  Sherman,  or 
Sheridan,  who  were  soldiers  by  education  and  nature, 
who  filled  well  their  office  when  the  country  was  in 
danger,   but  were   not  schooled  in   the  practice   by 


which  civil  communities  are  and  should  be  governed. 
I  claim  that  our  experience  since  1865  demonstrates 
the  truth  of  this  my  proposition.  Therefore  I  say 
that  patriotism  does  not  demand  of  me  what  I  con- 
strue as  a  sacrifice  of  judgment,  of  inclination,  and 
of  self-interest. 

I  have  my  personal  affairs  in  a  state  of  absolute 
safety  and  comfort.  I  owe  no  man  a  cent,  have  no 
expensive  habits,  envy  no  man  his  wealth  or  power, 
no  complications  or  indirect  liabilities,  and  would  ac- 
count myself  a  fool,  a  madman,  an  ass,  to  embark 
anew  at  sixty-five  years  of  age  in  a  career  that  may 
become  at  any  moment  tempest-tossed  by  perfidy,  the 
defalcation,  the  dishonesty,  or  neglect  of  any  single 
one  of  a  hundred  thousand  subordinates  utterly  un- 
known to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  not  to 
say  the  eternal  worriment  of  a  vast  host  of  impecu- 
nious friends  and  old  military  subordinates.  Even  as 
it  is  I  am  tortured  by  the  charitable  appeals  of  poor, 
distressed  pensioners,  but  as  President  these  would 
be  multiplied  beyond  human   endurance.  J 

I  remember  well  the  experience  of  Generals  Jack- 
son, Harrison,  Taylor,  Grant,  Hayes,  and  Garfield,  all 
elected  because  of  their  military  services,  and  am 
warned,  not   encouraged,  by  their   sad    experiences. 

The  civilians  of  the  United  States  should  and  must 
buffet  with  this  thankless  office,  and  leave  us  old 
soldiers  to  enjoy  the  peace  we  fought  for  and  think 
we  earned.     With  profound  respect,  your  friend, 

W.  T.  Shermak. 

AFTEH  THE  WAR.  119 

These  letters  prove  absolutely  that  Mr.  Blaine, 
though  qualified,  waived  to  me  personally  a  nomina- 
tion which  the  world  still  believes  he  then  coveted  for 

For  copies  of  these  letters  I  believe  I  have  been 
importuned  a  thousand  times,  but  as  a  soldier  I  claim 
the  privilege  of  unmasking  my  batteries  when  I 

In  giving  to  the  North  American  Review  at  this 
late  day  these  letters,  which  thus  far  have  remained 
hidden  in  my  private  files,  I  commit  no  breach  of  con- 
fidence, and  to  put  at  rest  a  matter  of  constant  inquiry 
referred  to  in  my  letter  of  May  28,  1884,  I  here  record 
that  my  immediate  family  are  strongly  Catholic.  I  am 
not  and  cannot  be.  That  is  all  the  public  has  a  right 
to  know ;  nor  do  I  wish  to  be  construed  as  departing 
from  a  resolve  made  forty  years  ago  never  to  embark 
in  politics.  The  brightest  and  best  youth  of  our  land 
have  been  drawn  into  that  maelstrom,  and  their 
wrecked  fortunes  strew  the  beach  of  the  ocean  of 
time.  My  memory,  even  in  its  short  time,  brings  up 
names  of  victims  by  the  hundreds,  if  not  thousands. 

W.  T.  Sherman. 

Nothing  could  swerve  the  general  from  his  purpose 
to  avoid  a  public  life.  He  had  won  his  fame,  and  was 
satisfied.  At  this  time,  when  his  name  was  promi- 
nently mentioned  for  the  Presidency,  and  when  he 
might  have  got  the  nomination,  he  said  to  a  particular 
friend,  speaking  about  it:  "I  wouldn't  be  devilled  by 


that  horde  of  Congressmen  if  I  could  be  President  for 

Sketch  of  the  General. 

Those  three  heroes,  Grant,  Sheridan,  and  Sherman, 
after  the  war  lived  for  many  years  at  the  National 
Capital  and  became  identified  with  its  society.  It  was 
here  that  they  were  the  best  known  and  appreciated. 
General  Sherman  came  in  closer  touch  with  society 
at  large  than  the  other  two  generals.  He  was  fonder 
of  general  company  and  was  more  ready  to  become 
acquainted  with  strangers.  Grant  was  companionable 
only  with  his  intimates.  The  same  could  be  said  of 
Sheridan.  He  was  even  more  retiring  than  Grant. 
He  detested  going  out  in  general  society,  while 
society  was  the  atmosphere  which  General  Sherman 
needed  in  order  to  live. 

The  latter  was  fond  of  gatherings  of  any  kind.  He 
loved  to  be  the  centre  of  a  bright,  cheerful  group.  He 
had  sympathies  which  reached  out  in  every  direction. 
While  he  had  strong  likes  and  dislikes,  he  had  few 
prejudices.  Like  all  of  the  leading  men  who  fought 
in  the  Union  army,  he  had  more  sympathy  for  the 
South  than  any  of  the  Northern  politicians.  Yet  he 
believed  that  sterner  measures  should  have  been  em- 
ployed during  the  period  of  reconstruction. 

As  a  friend  to  the  South  he  believed  that  It  w^ould 
have  been  better  If  the  laws  had  been  more  rigidly 
enforced  by  the  Federal  authority,  and  if  the  States 
had  not  recovered  local  self-control  so  early.  They 
should  have  received  back  their  old  rights  only  when 

AFTER  THE  WAR.  121 

they  had  given  the  most  solemn  guarantee  to  enforce 
the  laws  passed  for  the  protection  of  the  rights  of  the 
colored  people.  Even  then  this  authority  should  have 
been  granted  only  temporarily,  and  only  made  per- 
manent when  it  was  clear  that  the  State  was  going  to 
act  throughout  in  good  faith. 

A  Masterly  Intellect. 

General  Sherman  had  more  brilliant  intellectual 
qualities  than  his  two  great  associates.  In  this  we  do 
not  speak  of  him  as  a  soldier,  but  as  a  man.  His 
position  as  a  soldier  has  been  long  ago  determined  by 
the  first  military  critics  of  the  world.  The  intellectual 
advantage  that  he  had  over  his  associates  was  in  his 
readiness  of  expression.  He  was  an  easy  and  elegant 
writer  upon  almost  any  topic  of  the  day. 

He  was  also  a  ready  speaker.  He  had  a  directness 
of  style  and  a  blunt  eloquence  which  always  captivated 
an  audience.  He  was  so  direct  and  so  honest  as  to 
produce  with  the  simplest  phrases  the  profoundest  im- 
pression. He  was  one  of  the  most  upright  of  men. 
He  was  patriotic  to  the  verge  of  passion.  No  one 
who  has  been  in  the  public  life  of  this  country  was 
ever  more  devoted  to  its  highest  and  best  interests. 
Upon  this  subject  he  was  always  eloquent. 

His  character  was  noted  for  its  strong  quality  of 
common  sense.  At  the  height  of  his  popularity  as 
a  general  of  the  army  he  was  never  tempted  for  a 
moment  by  any  of  the  flattering  offers  of  the  politicians 
to  permit  his  great  name  to  be  used  in  politics.  He 
said  often  that  this  was  the  mistake  which  Grant  made. 


When  Grant  came  out  of  the  war  he  was  at  the  highest 
pinnacle  of  success.  When  he  resigned  from  the 
army  and  became  President,  General  Sherman  always 
said  he  began  a  career  of  misfortune. 

Ambition  Satisfied. 

General  Sherman  would  often  say  to  the  politi- 
cians: "I  am  a  soldier  out  and  out.  For  that  I  am 
trained,  and  for  that  career  I  am  fitted.  I  have  to-day 
arrived  at  the  climax  of  my  ambition.  I  am  general 
of  the  army,  and  at  its  head.  I  desire  nothing  more. 
I  do  not  propose  to  risk  my  name  and  fame  in  the 
field  of  partisan  politics.  I  want  to  leave  my  reputa- 
tion free  from  tarnish  to  my  children." 

From  this  resolution  General  Sherman  never 
swerved.  He  was  never  more  sorely  tempted  than 
during  the  period  of  the  Chicago  Convention  which 
nominated  Mr.  Blaine.  The  politicians  then  came 
to  him  and  said :  "  With  your  name  we  can  carry 
the  convention." 

The  combination  which  came  to  the  general  was  a 
strong  one.  It  controlled  certainly  enough  votes  to 
have  tempted  any  man  with  Presidential  ambitions, 
but  General  Sherman  said  "  No "  from  the  first. 
The  committee  which  called  on  him  told  him  fiady 
and  frankly  that  they  should  not  consider  his  refusal, 
but  that  they  should  go  ahead  and  use  their  own 
judgment.  It  was  then  that  the  general  sat  down 
and  dictated  that  brusque  letter  which  ex-Senator 
Henderson  caused  to  be  read  to  the  convention,  and 
which  showed  clearly  to  every  one  that  no  possible 

AFTEB  THE  WAU.  123 

combination   of   circumstances    could    force   General 
Sherman  to  accept  a  nomination. 

**Go  Ahead!" 

The  general  was  hot-tempered.  He  despised  petty 
technicalities.  When  he  was  in  the  War  Department 
the  bureau  people  fretted  him  with  the  endless  red 
tape  which  of  necessity  came  to  him  when  he  took 
charge  of  the  great  army  machine.  He  would  often 
write  orders  for  the  direction  of  affairs  In  the  West 
which  would  be  in  direct  conflict  with  the  civil  law. 
Once,  when  his  attention  was  called  to  this  by  the 
adjutant-general  in  some  particular  order  issued  by 
the  general  concerning  Indian  territory,  the  general 
replied  to  the  assertion  that  this  was  against  the  law, 
"So  much  the  worse  for  the  law.     Go  ahead !  " 

It  was  only  with  difficulty  that  he  was  coaxed  into 
changing  the  order.  While  he  was  imperious  and 
high-tempered,  he  was  withal  one  of  the  kindest- 
hearted  and  most  just  of  men.  He  would  apologize 
for  any  hasty  word  with  the  earnest  vigor  of  a  manly 
man  convicted  of  having  made  a  mistake.  The 
bureau  people  apparently  took  great  pleasure  in 
fretting  the  general,  and  two  or  three  of  them, 
whom  It  is  needless  to  name  now,  were  responsible 
for  the  celebrated  controversy  he  had  with  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  under  Hayes. 

«*A  Plain,  Blunt  Man." 

General  Sherman  could  not  reconcile  himself  to 
the  fact  that  a  civilian  Secretary  of  War  should  be 
his  superior  in  purely  military  matters.     It  was   no 


wonder  that  he  held  this  view.  Mr.  McCrary,  who 
was  Secretary  of  War  at  that  time,  was  a  respectable 
ex-member  of  Congress  from  Iowa.  He  knew  no 
more  about  military  matters  than  any  one  who  had 
always  been  occupied  with  civil  affairs.  When  he 
came  into  the  Department  the  small  bureau  people 
who  loved  to  fret  General  Sherman  were  continually 
forcing  the  secretary  to  show  his  authority.  Sherman 
would  say:  "What  does  this  Iowa  chap  mean  by 
always  interfering?"  He  was  too  blunt  and  out- 
spoken to  get  along.  He  was  too  impatient  to  be 
diplomatic,  and  so  he  challenged  outright  the  authority 
of  the  secretary.  Technically,  the  Secretary  of  War 
was  correct,  and  the  President  was  obliged  to  sustain 

If  Mr.  McCrary  had  been  a  greater  man,  he  would 
undoubtedly  have  seen  some  way  to  avoid  a  con- 
troversy with  this  distinguished  general.  Any  right- 
minded  secretary  would  have  been  only  too  glad  to 
give  General  Sherman  full  sway.  Mr.  McCrary,  how- 
ever, was  of  the  type,  dogged  and  dull,  which  is  as 
relentless  as  fate  in  adhering  to  some  small  technical 
right,  and  consequently  the  breach  between  him  and 
the  general  was  made  complete  when  the  President 
sustained  the  secretar}'.  General  Sherman  never 
called  on  him  after  that.  He  made  one  appeal  to  the 
President,  and  that  was  to  be  permitted  to  remove 
the  headquarters  of  the  army  to  St.  Louis.  This 
permission  was  given  him,  to  the  great  despair  of  his 
staff  officers.     He  packed  up  the  whole  establishment 

AFTER  THE  WAR.  125 

and  for  the  first  time  since  the  close  of  the  war  the 
headquarters  of  the  army  were  in  another  place  than 
at  the  Capital. 

After  several  years  of  exile  in  St.  Louis,  where 
he  was  unhappy  and  discontented,  General  Sherman 
was  persuaded  to  bring  back  the  headquarters  of  the 
army  with  him,  but  only  after  Mr.  McCrary  had 
retired.  Conflicts  have  always  existed  since  the  war 
between  the  general  of  the  army  and  the  Secretary 
of  War.  But  no  one  ever  made  such  an  energetic 
protest  as  General  Sherman. 

Personal  Appearance. 

General  Sherman  was  of  a  tall  and  spare  figure. 
He  had  what  is  called  an  iron  constitution.  He  never 
showed  signs  of  fatigue,  and  was  tireless  in  going 
about  seeking  amusement  and  entertainment  when 
not  engaged  in  the  performance  of  his  duties.  At 
the  War  Department  he  was  a  close  worker.  He 
had  great  energy  and  great  decision  of  character. 
He  could  transact  business  rapidly.  He  had  keen 
intuitions  and  formed  impressions  as  rapidly  as  a 
woman.  He  was  a  strange  combination  of  iron  self- 
control  and  passionate  emotional  capabilities. 

The  general  was  over  six  feet  in  height.     He  was 

broad-shouldered.      There  ^  as  a  ereat  resemblance 


between  him  and  his  brothe  ,  Senator  John  Sherman. 
General  Sherman  had  all  the  ruoreedness  of  feature 
of  a  man  who  lived  out  of  doors,  while  the  Senator's 
features  are  refined  by  indoor  life  and  the  study  of 
books,    The  general  had  a  broad  forehead,  dark  eyes 


deeply  set,  a  large  Roman  nose,  a  face  marked  and 
seamed  in  its  upper  part  and  hidden  in  the  lower  part 
by  a  short,  gray  beard  and  mustache.  He  had  a  deep 
voice.  He  was  fond  of  young  people.  He  loved  to 
go  to  the  theatre. 

He  rarely  prepared  himself  for  any  speech-making. 
Nearly  all  of  his  remarks  were  off-hand,  the  ideas  of 
which  were  suggested  to  him  through  the  stimulus  of 
the  occasion.  He  was  fond  of  attending  Grand  Army 
gatherings.  At  their  meetings,  called  camp-fires,  he 
used  to  appear  at  his  best.  Surrounded  by  his  old 
associates,  he  would  recount  in  a  most  spirited  and 
entertaining  manner  stories  and  experiences  of  his 
campaigns.  He  was  a  man  of  extreme  simplicity  of 
manners,  thoroughly  devoid  of  any  pretence.  He 
was  a  manly  man.  He  was  in  sympathetic  touch  with 
the  plain  people.  He  knew  all  parts  of  this  country 
well.  He  was  especially  interested  in  the  West  and 
its  development. 

Graphic  Pictures  of  the  War. 

One  of  the  most  important  chapters  of  his  life  after 
the  war  was  the  writing  of  his  memoirs.  He  wrote 
this  book  too  soon  after  the  war  for  his  own  personal 
comfort.  He  had  to  speak  of  the  actors  in  the  War 
of  the  Rebellion  while  the  greater  number  of  them 
were  still  living.  He  wrote  as  plainly  concerning 
them  as  if  they  had  been  dead  and  buried.  His  blunt 
criticisms  brought  out  many  protests.  But  in  the  end 
these  memoirs  will  live  as  one  of  the  most  correct 
pictures  of  the  period  through  which  he  passed,    Th^ 

AFTEE  THE  WAK.  127 

books  written  by  the  three  great  generals  form  a 
splendid  basis  for  an  estimate  of  their  characters. 
Sherman  Is  more  brilliant,  more  slashing,  and  enter- 
taining.    This  is  his  character. 

Very  Gallant. 

He  had  the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  most 
gallant  men  in  the  army.  His  gallantry,  however, 
was  kindly  and  commendable  throughout  his  whole 
long  life.  His  great  name  was  never  touched  by 
scandal.  He  had  a  fatherly,  kindly  air  which  made  a 
welcome  for  him  in  every  house  in  Washington.  His 
favorite  companion  in  Washington  days  was  General 
Van  Vliet.  Arm  in  arm  they  used  to  go  about  from 
one  house  to  another,  greeted  everywhere  with  the 
smiles  and  bright  looks  of  the  young  ladies  of  Wash- 
ino-ton,  who  vied  with  each  other  in  strewinof  social 
roses  in  the  path  of  this  most  distinguished  and  most 
charmlnof  veteran. 

The  resolution  and  strong  purpose  and  grim  gravity 
exhibited  by  his  features  In  repose  would  Indicate  to 
the  stranger  a  lack  of  the  softer  and  more  humane 
qualities,  but  when  he  was  animated  In  social  conver- 
sation such  an  estimate  was  changed  at  once,  and  in 
his  bright  and  sympathizing  smile  one  was  reminded 
of  Richard's  words : 

"  Grim-visaged  War  has  smoothed  his  wrinkled  front." 

His  association  with  his  friends  and  comrades  was 
always  exceedingly  cordial,  and  his  affection  for  those 
allied  to  him  as  tender  as  that  of  a  woman,     Jn  May, 


1888,  when  he  presided  for  the  last  time  at  a  dinner 
of  the  Loyal  Legion,  he  declined  a  re-election,  and 
when  he  arose,  at  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  to  say 
good-bye,  an  almost  death-like  stillness  prevailed. 

A  Pathetic  Farewell. 

The  general  spoke  with  feeling  of  the  extraordinary, 
scene.  He  said  it  was  delightful  to  see  such  a  body  of 
men  togther,  so  strong  physically  and  mentally,  and  to 
hear  such  speeches.  He  was  sure  no  European  country 
could  produce  such  a  gathering,  yet  he  had  seen  sim- 
ilar meetings  all  over  this  land,  from  Maine  to  Puget's 
Sound,  even  in  New  Orleans  and  in  Atlanta.  The 
lessons  of  patriotism  and  loyalty  to  the  flag  inculcated 
here  he  begged  companions  to  carry  home  with  them 
and  teach  them  to  their  children  and  grandchildren ; 
and  with  this  he  said  farewell,  asking  the  commandery 
to  join  in  singing  "  America." 

General  Sherman  had  to  fight  some  battles  after 
the  war,  and  was  attacked  repeatedly  and  in  many 
ways.  But  he  always  seemed  to  take  a  grim  satis- 
faction in  the  blows  both  given  and  received,  and  it 
was  never  said  of  him  that  he  ran  away  from  his 

In  November,  1871,  he  obtained  leave  of  absence 
for  twelve  months,  and  travelled  extensively  in  the 
East  and  in  Europe,  being  received  everywhere  with 
many  honors.  The  Khedive  of  Egypt  caused  a 
good  deal  of  comment  by  sending  to  the  general's 
daughter   Minnie  a  valuable  present  of  diamonds. 

The  general's  family  consisted  of  his   wife,  Ellen 


Boyle  Ewing,  and  six  children,  two  sons  and  four 
daughters.  He  was  married,  as  already  stated,  in 
1850,  when  thirty  years  of  age,  and  his  active  mil- 
itary life,  which  began  ten  years  later,  involved  the 
necessary  separation  from  his  family  a  great  portion 
of  the  time  until  the  close  of  the  war.  This  was  not 
according  to  his  liking,  but  he  was  too  good  a  patriot 
and  soldier  to  grumble  or  find  fault  while  battles 
were  to  be  fought  and  won.  On  his  retirement  he 
removed  from  Washington  to  St.  Louis,  where  he 
had  resided  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  war.  Here  he 
intended  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his  life,  but  two 
years  later  was  induced  by  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Fitch, 
to  move  to  New  York,  where  he  continued  to  reside 
until  his  death. 

Hoviseliold  Circle. 
The  first  two  or  three  years  of  his  residence  in 
New  York  he  spent  with  his  wife  at  the  Fifth  Avenue 
Hotel,  but,  preferring  home  to  hotel  life,  he  removed 
in  the  latter  part  of  1888  to  a  modest  house  on  Sev- 
enty-first street,  where  he  passed  his  closing  years. 
Here  his  wife  died  of  heart  disease  November  28, 
1888,  at  the  age  of  sixty-four.  After  her  death  his 
two  unmarried  daughters,  Lizzie  and  Rachel,  pre- 
sided over  the  affairs  of  his  household.  His  other 
children  are  Thomas  Ewing  Sherman,  a  Catholic 
priest;  Tecumseh  Sherman,  a  member  of  the  bar  in 
New  York  City  ;  Elenor  M.,  the  wife  of  Lieutenant 
Thackara  of  the  navy ;  and  Mrs.  T.  W.  Fitch  of 


Mrs.  Sherman  was  a  devout  Catholic,  who  trained 
her  children  in  her  own  faith,  and  through  whose 
influence  her  eldest  son  became  a  member  of  the 
priesthood.  His  choice  of  a  religious  life  was  a  great 
disappointment  to  his  father,  who  had  marked  out  for 
him  a  brilliant  career  in  another  channel.  General 
Sherman  was  too  good  a  father  to  oppose  his  son's 
choice,  while  regretting  it,  as  he  was  too  good  a  hus- 
band to  oppose  his  wife,  although  not  a  Catholic  him- 
self. His  own  religious  faith  is  best  expressed  in  his 
own  reverent  words  on  one  occasion  when  asked  the 
question.  "  I  believe  in  God  the  Almighty  ;  that  is  as 
far  as  I  have  got,"  said  the  grim-visaged  soldier. 

Army  Treasures. 

At  his  home  in  New  York  his  closing  years  were 
far  from  idle.  An  early  riser,  methodical  in  his  habits 
and  work,  after  a  light  breakfast  he  was  accustomed 
to  resort  at  once  to  the  library  on  the  parlor  floor  of 
his  house.  It  contained  a  comparatively  large  collec 
tion  of  books,  not  entirely  of  a  military  character. 
There  were  few  men  who  were  better  posted  on  the 
literary  and  historical  records  of  this  and  other  lands. 
A  large  amount  of  the  space  in  his  library  was  taken 
up  by  the  maps  which  were  drawn  by  himself  and  his 
generals  during  the  Civil  War. 

He  had  the  original  copies  of  the  maps,  and  there 
was  scarcely  a  day  when  he  was  not  called  upon  to 
settle  by  reference  some  disputes  as  to  a  military 
manoeuvre  made  by  himself  or  some  other  general. 
These  maps  were  his  hobby,  and  very  valuable  they 


are,  too,  viewed  from  any  standpoint.  Then,  too,  he 
had  an  enormous  correspondence,  made  up  largely 
cf  uivitations  to  speak  before  Grand  Army  posts  and 
to  contribute  to  all  sorts  of  periodicals.  He  passed 
through  the  evening  of  his  life  in  a  calm  and  quiet 
manner,  beloved  and  honored  by  the  whole  country, 
and  blessed  with  a  fuller  share  of  happiness  than  falls 
to  the  lot  of  most  men. 

In  the  summer  of    1878  a  great  disappointment  fell 

upon  the  general.     His   eldest  son,  Thomas  Ewing 

Sherman,  named  after  the  kind  foster-father  and  the 

idol  of  his  father,  whom  the   general   had  hoped  to 

make  a  soldier,  but  finding  this  impossible  had  fitted 

for  the  study  of  the  law,  decided  after  long  hesitation 

'  to  devote  his   life  to  the   priesthood.     This   decision 

'almost  broke  the  general's  heart,  and  he  refused  to 

'lend  the  slightest  countenance  to  the  step. 

In  a  letter  dated  June  i,  1878,  from  young  Sherman 
to  his  friend  Samuel  Elbers  of  St.  Louis,  which  was 
published  with  his  consent,  he  stated  what  he  pro- 
posed to  do  and  besought  his  father's  friends  not  to 
question  the  latter  about  it. 

'  "Father,"  the  young  man  wrote,  **gave  me  a  com- 
plete education  for  the  Bar  at  Georgetown  College 
and  the  Scientific  School  at  Yale.  On  me  rests  the 
entire  responsibility  for  taking  this  step.  I  go  with- 
out his  sanction,  approval,  or  consent." 
'  At  the  same  time  he  expressed  his  sorrow  for  caus- 
ng  such  grief  and  disappointment  to  the  father  whom 
le  loved.     The  greatest  cross  of  General  Sherman's 


was  that  no  son  of  his  followed  him  into   the  army. 
That  has  always  been  his  first  and  greatest  love. 

General  Sherman  showed  his  belief  in  a  future  life 
in  a  letter  which  he  wrote  on  his  return  from  burying 
his  wife.  "  I  expec  ed  to  go  first,"  he  wrote,  "  as  I  am 
much  older  and  have  been  more  severely  tried,  but  it 
was  not  to  be.  But  I  expect  to  resume  my  place  at 
her  side  some  day." 



Reminiscences  of  the  Renowned  Commander. 
—  Ardent  Friendship  for  Grant. — Interesting 
Facts  and  Anecdotes. 

Like  all  men  of  strong  and  intense  American  per- 
sonality,   General    Sherman    had    some    peculiarities 
that  were  quite  his  own.     Akin  to  Grant's  taciturnity 
I  was  Sherman's    brusqueness.     He   was   not  exactly 
'  discourteous  (though  none  held  in  greater  contempt 
the  ceremonial   insincerities   of  what  is  called  polite 
life),  but  he  had  the  bluntness  of  the  soldier  to  ex- 
cess.    If  anything  was   said  that  did  not  meet  with 
his  approval,  he  was  quick  to  say  so  in  most  forcible 
terms,  and  he  did  not  care  how  it  was  taken.     Even 
in  private  life  he  was  the  fighter,  and  it  was  this  ag- 
j  gressiveness  and   pugnacity  of  his    nature    and  his 
I  way  of  hitting  out  straight  from  the  shoulder  that  got 
him  into  so  many  disputes  in  St.  Louis   about  seem- 
ing trifles,  and  led  him  to  finally  shake  the  dust  of 
the  city  from  his  feet  for  ever. 

If  he  did  not  like  people  he  did  not  hesitate  to  tell 
them  so,  and  he  was  very  quick  and  decided  in  his 
likes  and  dislikes.  Very  often  it  took  strangers  some 
time  to  get  accustomed  to  him,  he  was  so  thoroughly 
sincere  and  free  from  the  stereotyped  convention- 
alities.    Like  many  another  great  soldier,  he  was  for- 


cible  in  his  language  and  found  strong  expletives 
convenient  to  express  his  feelings.  These  usually 
came  thick  and  fast  whenever  politics  was  broached, 
though  it  was  the  subject  he  did  not  like.  He  had 
an  odd  antipathy  to  Congressmen,  and  as  a  class 
spoke  of  them  in  terms  far  from  complimentary. 

In  February,  1862,  Grant  was  assigned  to  the 
command  of  the  new  military  District  of  West  Ten- 
nessee, with  ''  limits  not  defined."  At  the  same  time 
Sherman,  who  was  then  a  brigadier-general,  was  put 
in  command  of  the  District  of  Cairo.  They  had 
both  been  at  West  Point  together,  but  Sherman  had 
been  graduated  three  years  earlier,  and  up  to  1862 
no  intimacy  had  existed  between  them.  Fortune,  in 
fact,  had  set  them  thousands  of  miles  apart,  and  be- 
sides there  was  a  considerable  difference  in  their 
wordly  condition.  Grant  was  then,  as  a  rule,  very 
poor,  while  Sherman,  if  not  rich,  was  at  least  com- 

Congratulating"  Grant. 

The  first  official  intercourse  of  the  two  men  who 
were  destined  to  win  the  highest  renown  in  the  army 
took  place  during  the  siege  of  Fort  Donelson,  when 
Sherman  sent  troops  and  supplies  to  Grant  with  ex 
traordinary  rapidity.  Sherman  was  then  the  senior, 
but  he  wrote  to  Grant :  *'  I  will  do  everything  in  my 
power  to  hurry  forward  your  reinforcements  and  sup- 
plies, and  if  I  could  be  of  service  myself  would  gladly 
come,  without  making  any  question  of  rank  with  your- 
self or  General  Smith."     There  was  not  a  particle  of 


envy  in  Sherman's  nature,  and  he  never  intrigued  for 
place  or  position. 

When  Donelson  fell,  Sherman  was  one  of  the  first 
to  congratulate  General  Grant  on  his  success.  "  I 
feel  under  many  obligations  to  you,"  wrote  General 
Grant  in  reply,  "  for  the  kind  terms  of  your  letter,  and 
hope  that  should  an  opportunity  occur  you  will  earn 
for  yourself  that  promotion  which  you  are  kind  enough 
to  say  belongs  to  me.  I  care  nothing  for  promotion 
so  long  as  our  arms  are  successful  and  no  political 
appointments  are  made."  Many  years  passed  before 
the  pleasant  relations  that  existed  then  between  the 
two  soldiers  were  disclosed.  The  war  had  gone  into 
history,  but  when  at  length  the  story  was  told  the 
country  could  understand  for  the  first  time  why  it  was 
there  was  victory  in  the  West  and  so  much  disaster  in 
the  East. 

"This,"  says  Badeau  in  \kv^  Military  History  of  U, 
S.  Grant,  "  was  the  beginning  of  a  friendship  destined 
thereafter  never  to  flag ;  to  stand  the  test  of  apparent 
rivalry  and  public  censure  ;  to  remain  firm  under 
trials  such  as  few  friendships  were  ever  subjected  to; 
to  become  warmer  as  often  as  it  was  sought  to  be  in- 
terrupted, and  in  hours  of  extraordinary  anxiety  and 
responsibility  and  care  to  afford  a  solace  and  a  sup- 
port that  were  never  lacking  when  the  need  arose." 

Noble  Words  from  Grant. 

Early  in  1864,  General  Grant  was  made  lieutenant- 
general  and  assumed  command  of  all  the  armies  of 
^^  United  States.      Immediately  on   receiving  this 


promotion,  with  characteristic  generosity  he  wrote  as 
follows  to  Sherman  : 

"While  I  have  been  eminently  successful  in  this 
war,  in  at  least  gaining  the  confidence  of  the  public, 
no  one  feels  more  than  I  how  much  of  this  success  is 
due  to  the  energy,  skill,  and  the  harmonious  putting 
forth  of  that  energy  and  skill,  of  those  whom  it  has 
been  my  good  fortune  to  have  occupying  subordinate 
positions  under  me. 

"  There  are  many  officers  to  whom  these  remarks 
are  applicable  to  a  greater  or  less  degree,  propor- 
tionate to  their  ability  as  soldiers  ;  but  what  I  want  is 
to  express  my  thanks  to  you  and  McPherson  as  the 
men  to  whom,  above  all  others,  I  feel  indebted  for 
whatever  I  have  had  of  success.  How  far  your 
advice  and  suggestions  have  been  of  assistance  you 
know.  How  far  your  execution  of  whatever  has 
been  given  you  to  do  entitles  you  to  the  reward  I  am 
receiving  you  cannot  know  as  well  as  I  do.  I  feel  all 
the  gratitude  this  letter  would  express,  giving  it  the 
most  flattering  construction." 

The  reply  of  General  Sherman  to  what  he  well 
called  a  "characteristic  and  more  than  kind"  letter  is 
worth  quoting  in  part,  to  show  the  relations  which 
existed  between  these  two  eminent  soldiers  fighting 
in  a  common  cause. 

'*I  repeat,  you  do  General  McPherson  and  myself 
too  much  honor.  At  Belmont  you  manifested  your 
traits,  neither  of  us  being  near;  at  Donelson  also  you 
illustrated  your  whole  character.     I  was  not  near,  and 


General  McPherson  was  in  too  subordinate  a  capacity 
to  influence  you. 

"  Until  you  had  won  Donelson,  I  confess  I  was 
almost  cowed  by  the  terrible  array  of  anarchical 
elements  that  presented  themselves  at  every  point; 
but  that  victory  admitted  the  ray  of  light  which  I  have 
followed  ever  since. 

*'  I  believe  you  are  as  brave,  patriotic,  and  just  as 
the  great  prototype  Washington  ;  as  unselfish,  kind- 
hearted,  and  honest  as  a  man  should  be ;  but  the 
chief  characteristic  in  your  nature  is  the  simple  faith 
in  success  you  have  always  manifested,  which  I  can 
liken  to  nothing  else  than  the  faith  a  Christian  has  in 
his  Saviour." 

Among  General  Sherman's  photographs  was  a  cen- 
tral group  of  three  pictures.  The  middle  one  of  these 
was  a  full-length  likeness  of  Ulysses  S.  Grant  stand- 
ing in  an  easy  pose,  with  the  left  hand  thrust  into  the 
breast  of  a  fatigue  coat  and  the  right  deep  down  in 
the  trousers  pocket.  To  the  left  of  this  was  a  picture 
of  Phil  Sheridan  in  full  uniform,  and  to  the  right  was 
a  picture  of  General  Sherman  himself,  also  in  full 
uniform.  He  was  especially  fond  of  these  pictures 
of  Grant  and  Sheridan.  He  was  wont  to  say  that  he 
knew  of  no  other  likeness  of  Grant  that  showed  so 
clearly  the  repose  of  the  man.  It  had  been  taken  at 
the  close  of  the  war,  when  Grant  was  down  to  fight- 
ing weight,  as  the  general  expressed  it,  and  before  he 
had  become  fleshy  and  taken  on  the  heavy  look  that 
appears  in  some  of  his  later  pictures.     The  picture 


of  Sheridan  had  been  selected  by  General  Sheridan 
out  of  many  hundreds,  and  on  this  account  General 
Sherman  preferred  it  to  all  others.  He  used  to  say 
that  he  loved  these  pictures  because  they  recalled  to 
him  the  men  as  he  had  known  them  best.  These  pho- 
tographs were  among  his  valuable  treasures. 

Porter's  Description  of  Sherman. 

Admiral  Porter  got  down  to  Memphis,  where  Sher- 
man was  awaiting  him,  in  a  week  or  ten  days,  and 
sent  word  to  Sherman  that  he  would  call  on  him. 
Admiral  Porter,  in  one  of  his  books,  gives  a  racy 
account  of  the  meeting  and  a  good  portrait  of  Sher- 
man. They  had  never  before  met.  "Thinking,"  says 
the  admiral,  "  that  Sherman  would  be  dressed  in  full 
feather,  I  put  on  my  uniform  coat,  the  splendor  of 
which  rivalled  that  of  a  drum-major.  Sherman,  hear- 
ing that  I  was  indifferent  to  appearances  and  generally 
dressed  in  working  clothes,  thought  he  would  not 
annoy  me  by  fixing  up,  and  so  kept  on  his  blue  flannel 
suit,  and  we  met,  both  a  little  surprised  at  the  appear- 
ance of  the  other. 

"'Halloo,  Porter!'  said  the  general,  'I  am  glad  to 
see  you  ;  you  got  here  sooner  than  I  expected,  but 
we'll  get  off  to-night.'  (They  were  preparing  for  the 
second  attack  on  Vicksburg.)  '  Devilish  cold,  isn't  it? 
Sit  down  and  warm  up.'  And  he  stirred  up  the  coal 
in  the  grate. — '  Here,  captain,'  to  one  of  his  aides, 
*  tell  General  Blair  to  get  his  men  on  board  at  once. 
Tell  the  quartermaster  to  report  as  soon  as  he  has 
six    hundred    thousand    rations    embarked.' — '  Here 


Dick,'  to  his  servant,  'put  me  up  some  shirts  and 
underclothes  in  a  bag,  and  don't  bother  me  with  a 
trunk  and  traps  enough  for  a  regiment.' — '  Here, 
captain,'  to  another  aide,  '  tell  the  steamboat  captains 
to  have  steam  up  at  six  o'clock,  and  to  lay  in  plenty 
of  fuel,  for  I'm  not  going  to  stop  every  few  hours  to 
cut  wood.  Tell  the  officer  in  charge  of  embarkation 
to  allow  no  picking  and  choosing  of  boats — the  gen- 
erals in  command  must  take  what  is  given  them. 
There  !  that  will  do. — Glad  to  see  you,  Porter ;  how's 
Grant  ?'  " 

Could  not  Perforin  Impossibilities. 
The  embarkation  took  place  December  19,  the  boats 
steaming  down  to  Helena.  The  failure  of  that  expe- 
dition is  a  matter  of  history.  The  obstacles  and  mis- 
haps were  too  great  for  even  Sherman  to  overcome, 
and  he  retired,  surrendering  the  command  to  McCler- 
nand,  who  had  been  personally  appointed  by  Presi- 
dent Lincoln.  "  My  relief  on  the  heels  of  a  failure," 
says  Sherman,  "  raised  the  usual  cry  at  the  North  of 
'repulse,  failure,  and  bungling.'  There  was  no  bung- 
ling on  my  part,  for  I  never  worked  harder  or  with 
more  intensity  of  purpose  in  my  life,  and  General 
Grant,  long  after,  in  his  report  of  the  operations  of 
the  siege  of  Vicksburg,  gave  us  all  full  credit  for  the 
skill  of  the  movement  and  described  the  almost  im- 
pregnable nature  of  the  ground  ;  and,  although  in  my 
official  reports  I  assumed  the  whole  responsibility,  I 
have  ever  felt  that  had  General  Morgan  promptly  and 
skilfully  sustained  the  lead  of  Frank  Blair's  brigade 


on  that  day,  we  should  have  broken  the  rebel  line  and 
effected  a  lodgment  on  the  hills  behind  Vicksburg." 

Sherman's  wonderful  faculty  for  comprehending 
topographical  details,  developed,  of  course,  by  his  war 
experience,  often  astonished  those  with  whom  he  was 
well  acquainted.  He  would  go  for  a  drive  where  he 
had  never  been  before,  and  startle  those  around  him 
bv  tellino-  them  where  this  and  that  road  started,  the 
length  of  stream,  what  was  planted  before  growth  ap- 
peared, and  even  telling  what  would  be  encountered 
ahead  that  was  not  in  sight.  All  this  he  did  by  his 
keen  observation,  his  wonderful  intuition  and  reason- 
ing powers,  and  the  experience  he  had  given  to  such 
matters  for  a  Hfetime.  He  said  himself  once,  in 
speaking  of  his  march  to  the  sea,  that  he  already 
knew  before  he  started  some  of  the  States  better  than 
anybody  who  lived  in  them. 

liiving"  Over  Old  Campaigns. 

General  Sherman's  house  was  a  war-ofhce  in  mini- 
ature. In  his  basement  he  had  a  big  office  fitted  up 
with  war  maps  and  documents  of  tremendous  value, 
including  duplicates  of  those  in  use  at  Washington. 
Here  he  passed  many  happy  hours,  living  over  the  old 
campaigns  with  the  maps  before  his  eyes,  and  plan- 
ning how  he  might  have  done  otherwise  if  he  had  it 
all  to  do  over  again,  and  what  the  result  of  this  or 
that  movement  would  have  been. 

The  office  was  a  rendezvous  for  military  men  when 
they  were  in  New  York,  who  always  were  certain  of 
meetinor  with  a  warm  welcome,  and  it  was  much  fre- 


quented  by  historical  writers  in  search  of  material  and 
documentary  evidence. 

A  friend,  in  speaking  of  the  general,  said :  "  The 
old  fighter  is  peculiar  in  one  respect.  The  girl  that 
opens  his  door  for  visitors  never  has  to  go  and  ask 
him  if  he  is  in.  At  the  first  she  tells  one  that  '  the 
general  is  in,'  or  he  is  not.  That  settles  it.  If  he  is 
in  he  will  see  you.  If  you  are  a  bore,  as  a  good  many 
of  his  callers  are,  look  out  for  squalls,  and  under  any 
circumstances  it  is  not  well  to  be  prolix.  General 
Sherman  likes  one  to  get  to  the  point  at  once.  If  the 
visitor  is  not  able  to  do  this,  he  is  likely  to  be  inter- 

*'  There  is  one  sort  of  a  caller  who  is  always  received 
with  warmth,  and  that  is  one  of  General  Sherman's 
old  soldiers,  or  his  'boys,'  as  he  calls  them.  Just  how 
much  assistance  General  Sherman  gives  to  old  and 
unfortunate  soldiers  it  would  be  hard  to  say.  No  one 
but  himself  knows,  and  he  won't  tell.  But  these  are 
among  the  more  numerous  of  the  visitors  at  his  house. 
Besides  them  there  are  all  sorts  and  conditions  of 
callers  at  his  house." 

The  California  Drummer. 

General  Sherman  had  a  wonderful  memory.  This 
was  illustrated  by  an  incident  that  occurred  in  Phila- 
delphia. He  was  visiting  his  daughter,  and  while 
sitting  at  the  open  window  smoking  one  midsummer 
night  he  saw  the  policeman  pass,  and  as  the  patrol- 
man halted  a  moment  the  general  was  noticed  to  give 
him  a  keen  glance  and  utter  an  exclamation. 


The  next  evening  he  told  some  one  that  when  the 
policeman  on  the  beat  passed  again  to  say  he  wanted 
to  speak  to  him.  When  the  officer  entered  he 
straightened  up  and  gave  General  Sherman  the  re- 
gular military  salute. 

"Ah,  ha!"  said  the  general,  *' I  thought  so.  Now, 
where  was  it  I  saw  you  before  ?     Do  you  know  me  ?  " 

"Oh  yes,"  said  the  bearded  patrolman,  "I  knew 
you  when  you  were  a  lieutenant.  I  was  your  drum- 
mer in  California." 

"  Ha,  ha,  I  thought  so ;  and  wait  a  bit.  So  you 
were  that  little  drummer-boy,  and  your  name — your 
name's  Hutchinson." 

Sure  enough,  the  general  of  the  United  States 
army,  who  had  seen  thousands  of  drummers,  had 
recognized  in  a  passing  policeman  the  drummer-boy 
who  was  with  his  company  in  the  Mexican  War. 

Dates,  names,  figures,  and  the  greatest  intricacy  of 
details  could  not  escape  General  Sherman's  marvel- 
lous memory.  He  remembered  them  all,  and  could 
call  them  up  after  the  lapse  of  many  years.  He 
remembered  everything  about  California  just  before 
and  at  the  time  it  was  admitted  to  the  Union  as 
though  it  had  been  yesterday.  He  was  in  command 
of  a  portion  of  the  United  States  forces  there  then. 

Sherman's  Hiimoroiis  Side. 

The  men  who  served  with  or  under  General  Sher- 
man in  any  of  his  numerous  and  brilliant  campaigns 
are  now  telling  anecdotes  illustrative  of  that  wonderful 
personality  that  has  made  so  deep  an  impress  upon 


American  history  during  the  third  of  a  century  past. 
It  was  in  the  presence  of  his  old  army  friends,  when 
the  civiHan  world  was  shut  out,  that  he  was  at  his 
best,  and  the  flow  of  his  spirits  ran  unchecked  and 
joke  and  story  ran  into  each  other,  sometimes  at  the 
expense  of  his  neighbor  and  as  often  at  the  expense 
of  himself.  No  conceit  gave  him  more  amusement 
than  that  his  friend  General  Howard  was  a  convivial 
spirit,  given  to  the  bowl  and  kindred  pursuits,  whereas 
the  hero  of  the  one  arm  is  the  most  temperate  of 
men.  It  was  this  fact  that  gave  point  to  the  joke,  and 
Sherman  was  never  more  happy  than  when  he  could 
corner  Howard  at  one  of  their  little  Loyal  Legion 
dinners  and  lecture  him  upon  the  errors  of  his  ways. 

That   Seidlitz   Powder. 

Perhaps  Sherman  never  forgot  a  great  practical 
joke  which  Howard  unconsciously  played  upon  him 
back  in  the  days  when  the  Union  army  was  resting 
upon  its  arms  at  Goldsborough.  Sherman  paid  a  visit 
to  Howard's  tent,  where  neither  wine  nor  anything 
more  invigorating  than  cold  water  was  kept.  As  luck 
would  have  it.  Dr.  James  Moore,  the  medical  director, 
dropped  into  Howard's  tent.  Here  was  a  man  Sher- 
man could  depend  upon  in  an  emergency  like  this. 

Sherman  gave  Moore  a  wink  when  Howard's  back 
was  turned  and  said,  "  Doctor,  have  you  a  seidlitz 
powder  in  your  quarters  ?  I  don't  feel  just  right,  and 
I  know  one  would  do  me  good."  Moore  had  not  sup- 
plemented a  liberal  college  education  by  several  years 
in  the  army  in  vain.     He  was  equal  to  any  drug  clerk 


of  New  York  in  his  knowledge  of  the  meaning  of  a 

*'A  seidlitz  powder,  general?      Certainly.      Come 
right  over  to  my  quarters  and  I  can  fix  you  out  imme 

General  Howard  sprang  to  his  feet,  "That  won't 
be  necessary,  doctor,"  said  he.  "  I  have  plenty  of 
powders  here,  and  good  ones,  too.  I  will  get  the  gen- 
eral one." 

Sherman  had  little  desire  and  less  need  for  a  seid- 
litz just  then,  and  he  followed  Howard  to  his  feet. 
"  Never  mind,"  said  he,  "  I  can  get  along  very  well 
without  it." 

"  No  trouble  at  all,"  Howard  answered,  as  he  began 
to  get  the  powder  and  the  glasses  ready.  Sherman 
turned  to  Moore  for  relief,  but  that  gentleman  was 
busy  in  examining  the  landscape  as  an  aid  to  keeping 
his  face  straight. 

When  that  was  accomplished  he  turned  about  and 
gravely  said:  "By  the  way,  general,  I  don't  believe  I 
have  one  about  the  premises,  and  you  had  better 
take  the  one  Howard  has  prepared."  Moore  was 
something  of  a  joker  himself,  and  knew  a  joke  when 
he  saw  one. 

Sherman  was  a  soldier  to  the  backbone  and  would 
not  retreat  in  the  face  of  an  enemy.  When  Howard 
came  up  with  the  glasses  he  bravely  took  them  and 
swallowed  the  foaming  stuff  But  he  never  again 
complained  of  needing  medicine  when  in  Howard's 


A  Joke   on   the   General. 

A  joke  as  good,  but  of  a  different  character,  was 
that  almost  unconsciously  perpetrated  on  Sherman  by 
an  Indian  chief.  Out  at  Fort  Bayard  there  lay  for  a 
long  time  an  old  cannon  of  no  use  to  any  one,  but 
which  had  greatly  taken  the  fancy  of  an  old  Apache 
chief.  He  daily  asked  the  commander  for  it,  but  was 
put  off  with  the  excuse  that  it  belonged  to  the  Gov- 
ernment and  could  not  be  given  away.  One  day  Gen- 
eral Sherman  arrived  at  the  fort,  and  the  request  of 
the  chief  was  referred  to  him.  He  examined  the  can- 
non, saw  that  it  was  worthless,  and  told  the  Indian  he 
might  have  it.  Then,  putting  on  a  grave  air,  he  said 
to  the  chief:  "I  am  afraid  you  want  that  gun  so  that 
you  can  turn  it  on  my  soldiers  and  kill  them." 

"Umph!  no,"  was  the  unexpected  reply.  "Can- 
non kill  cowboys.     Kill  soldiers  with  club." 

General  Hickenlooper  of  Ohio  tells  a  story  illus- 
trating Sherman's  dry  wit,  rather  at  the  expense  of 
General  Corse.  In  the  fight  at  Allatoona  a  rifle-ball 
took  Corse  alongside  the  head,  making  a  slight  wound 
that,  at  the  time,  was  thought  to  be  a  great  deal  more 
dangerous  than  it  really  was.  When  the  word  reached 
Sherman  it  had  been  greatly  magnified,  and  he  was 
informed  that  Corse's  ear  and  cheek  were  gone,  but 
that  he  would  still  hold  his  position  and  fight  it  out. 

Meanwhile,  Corse  had  tied  up  his  head  and  gone  on 
with  the  business  he  had  been  sent  there  to  do.  As 
soon  as  possible  Sherman  hurried  over,  full  of  anxiety 
as  to  the  amount  of  damage  done  his  officer.    Nothing 



would  do  but  that  the  bandage  must  come  off,  so  that 
he  might  judge  of  the  damage  for  himself.  The  sur- 
geon carefully  took  off  the  cloths  and  revealed  a  slight 
gash  across  the  face  and  a  hole  through  the  ear. 
Sherman  looked  for  a  moment  and  then  dryly  said : 
"  Why,  Corse,  they  came  mighty  near  missing  you, 
didn't  they !" 

**  Going  just  Where  I  Please.'* 

Many  are  the  stories  told  of  that  march  to  the  sea, 
and  occasionally  the  general  would  tell  one  himself. 
Here  is  one  of  his  own  narration  :  On  one  occasion  he 
had  halted  for  rest  on  the  piazza  of  a  house  by  the 
roadside,  when  it  came  into  the  mind  of  an  old  Con- 
federate who  was  present  that  he  might  pick  up  a  bit 
of  valuable  information  by  a  little  careful  quizzing. 
He  knew  by  Sherman's  dress  that  he  was  an  officer, 
but  had  no  suspicion  as  to  his  rank.  When  he  heard 
a  staff  officer  use  the  title  of  "  General"  he  turned 
to  Sherman  in  surprise  and  said:  "Are  you  a  gen- 

"Yes,  sir,"  was  the  response. 

"  What  is  your  name  ?" 

"  Sherman." 

"  Sherman  !     You  don't  mean  General  Sherman  ?" 

"That's  who  I  mean." 

"  How  many  men  have  you  got  ?" 

"  Oh,  over  a  million." 

"Well,  general,  there's  just  one  question  I'd  like  to 
ask,  if  you  have  no  objection." 

"  Go  ahead." 


"  Where  are  youns  agoing  to  go  when  you  go  away 
from  here  ?" 

"  Well,  that's  a  pretty  stiff  question  to  ask  an  entire 
stranger  under  these  circumstances,  but  if  you  will 
give  me  your  word  to  keep  it  a  secret  I  don't  mind 
telling  you." 

"  I  will  keep  it  a  secret ;  don't  have  no  fear  of  me." 

"  But  there  is  a  great  risk,  you  know.  What  if  I 
should  tell  you  my  plans,  and  they  should  get  over  to 
the  enemy?" 

"  I  tell  you  there  is  no  fear  of  me." 

"You  are  quite  sure  I  can  trust  you  ?" 

"As  your  own  brother." 

The  general  slowly  climbed  into  his  saddle  and 
leaned  over  to  the  expectant  Confederate,  who  was 
all  eyes  and  ears  for  the  precious  information :  "  I 
will  tell  you  where  I  am  going.  I  am  going — just 
where  I  please."  And  he  did,  and  there  was  not 
enough  power  in  the  South  to  stop  him. 

The  Brave  Drummer-Boy. 

Sherman  never  forgot  that  little  drummer-boy  who 
came  to  him  in  the  hot  fight  at  the  rear  of  Vicksburg, 
and  when  it  came  in  his  power  he  had  the  youngster 
appointed  to  the  Naval  Academy  at  Annapolis.  The 
troops  were  in  the  heat  of  the  engagement  when 
Sherman  heard  a  shrill,  childish  voice  calling  out  to 
him  that  one  of  the  regiments  was  out  of  ammuni 
tion,  and  that  the  men  would  have  to  abandon  their 
position  unless  he  sent  to  their  relief.  He  looked 
down,  and  cnere  by  the  side  of  his  horse  was  a  mite 


of  a  boy  with  the  blood  running  from  a  wound  in  his 


"  All  right,  my  boy,"  said  the  general ;  "  I'll  send 
them  all  they  need,  but  as  you  seem  to  be  badly  hurt, 
you  had  better  go  and  find  a  surgeon  and  let  him  fix 
you  up." 

The  boy  saluted  and  started  to  the  rear,  while 
Sherman  prepared  to  give  the  required  order  for  the 
needed  ammunition.  But  he  once  more  heard  the 
piping  voice  shouting  back  at  him :  "  General,  calibre 
fifty-eight,  calibre  fifty-eight."  Glancing  back,  he 
saw  the  litde  fellow,  all  unconscious  of  his  wound, 
running  aeain  toward  him  to  tell  of  the  character  of 
the  ammunition  needed,  as  another  size  would  have 
been  of  no  use  and  left  the  men  as  badly  off  as  be- 
fore. Sherman  never  could  speak  too  highly  of  the 
little  fellow's  pluck  ;  he  asked  him  his  name,  compli- 
mented him,  and  promised  to  keep  an  eye  upon  him; 
which  he  did.  He  often  related  the  story,  and  always 
with  praises  for  the  little  soldier's  bravery. 

A  good  story  is  told  of  one  who  was  on  Kenesaw 
Mountain  during  Sherman's  advance.  A  group  of 
Confederates  lay  in  the  shade  of  a  tree  overlooking 
the  Union  camps  about  Big  Shanty.  One  soldier 
remarked  to  his  fellows :  *'  Well,  the  Yanks  will  have 
to  git  up  and  git  now,  for  I  heard  General  Johnston 
himself  say  that  General  Wheeler  had  blown  up 
the  tunnel  near  Dalton,  and  that  the  Yanks  would 
have  to  retreat  because  they  could  get  no  more 


"Oh,  !  "  said   a    listener.     "Don't   you  know 

that  old  Sherman  carries  a  duplicate  tunnel  along?" 

One  day,  looking  back,  the  men  saw  a  line  of 
bridges  in   their  rear  in  flames. 

"  Guess,  Charley,"  said  a  trooper,  "  Uncle  Billy  has 
set  the  river  on  fire." 

Charley's  reply  was,  "  Well,  if  he  has,  I  reckon  it's 
all  right." 

A  Capital  Host. 

General  Sherman  was  always  a  most  delightful 
host.  His  welcome  was  cordial  and  hospitable,  and 
the  guests  felt  at  once  at  ease  while  realizing  the 
honor  and  the  privilege  of  the  association.  As  a 
raconteitr  he  was  admirable.  He  had  lived  so  long, 
had  seen  so  much,  and  had  done  so  much,  that  the 
least  suggestion  brought  forth  from  him  stories  that 
were  both  instructive  and  entertaining.  On  his 
seventieth  birthday,  which  he  celebrated  by  a  little 
dinner  in  his  home  on  the  evening  of  February  8, 
1890,  he  said:  "Yes,  I  am  seventy  years  old  to-day, 
the  time  allotted  for  man  to  live,  but  1  can  truly  say 
that  I  have  not  felt  better  at  any  time  within  ten 
years.  Seventy  years  is  a  long  time,  and  it  seems 
a  great  while  since  I  was  a  boy.  Still,  I  can  recall 
incidents  that  happened  when  I  was  not  more  than 
four  years  of  age."  His  memory  was  astonishing 
in  detail  and  his  mind  was  wonderful  in  vigor.  He 
could  recall  the  minutiae  of  incidents  almost  from 
infancy  and  throughout  his  eventful  career. 

The    partiality    of  the    grizzled    old    war-hero    for 


ladies'  society  is  well  known,  and  at  school  reunions 
and  many  such  occasions  his  friendly  and  cordial 
notice  of  many  a  rosy  miss  who  had  never  seen  him 
before  is  familiarly  remembered. 

His  love  for  the  theatre  was  prodigious.  He  was 
deeply  interested  in  all  that  pertained  to  the  stage, 
and  he  valued  certain  actors  and  actresses  as  his 
dearest  friends.  He  used  to  tell  how  he  had  come  to 
New  York  when  he  was  sixteen  years  old,  and  had 
then  visited  the  old  Park  Theatre,  on  Park  Row, 
between  Beekman  and  Ann  streets.  In  those  days, 
he  said,  there  were  great  star  actors,  but  the  general 
average  of  theatrical  people  was  not  high,  and  the 
possibility  of  an  actress  being  received  in  social  circles 
was  not  considered.  He  gloried  in  the  change  that 
had  taken  place  in  the  interim,  and  it  was  a  delight 
to  him  to  recognize  the  fact  that  many  of  our  actresses 
to-day  might  grace  any  parlor  with  their  presence. 
He  maintained  that  it  was  the  duty  of  all  public  men 
to  foster  and  encourage  an  institution  so  worthy  as 
the  stage. 

Opinion  of  Dinners. 

In  attending  public  dinners,  of  which  he  averaged 
far  more  than  any  other  man  of  his  age.  General 
Sherman  was  very  particular  as  to  what  he  ate.  He 
confined  himself  on  such  occasions  to  the  plainest 
dishes,  and  was  wont  to  drink  only  a  little  sauterne 
or  sherry.  He  never  touched  champagne,  and  had 
no  use  for  the  heavier  wines.  Of  all  things,  he 
abhorred    what    he    called    those    mixed-up    French 


dishes  which  might  be  anything  or  nothing.  "  Half 
the  time,"  he  used  to  say,  '*  these  concoctions  are  only 
turkey  or  chicken  hash  fixed  up  with  some  kind  of 
sauce  and  called  a  croquette  or  something  of  the  kind. 
I  have  no  use  for  them."  He  had  his  own  theories 
about  dining  both  in  private  and  in  public. 

He  disliked  exceedingly  the  prevalent  custom  of 
late  dinners.  He  declared  that  all  private  dinners 
should  be  given  at  such  an  hour  as  to  enable  the 
diners  to  attend  the  theatre  afterward.  His  great 
love  for  the  theatre  probably  had  more  to  do  with 
this  position  than  his  dislike  for  late  dinners.  He  also 
advocated  plain  food  for  public  dinners,  and  deplored 
the  costliness  of  modern  banquets,  declaring  that  it 
was  absurd  to  pay  twenty-five  dollars  a  plate  for  a 
dinner.  Most  people  could  not  eat  such  dinners,  and 
those  that  could  paid  the  penalty  of  sickness  for  their 
rashness.  Fond  as  General  Sherman  was  of  public 
banquets,  he  loved  his  home  better.  He  was  hap- 
piest when  he  could  gather  about  him  a  choice  circle 
of  intimate  friends  and  entertain  them  in  his  own 

Birthday  iEpisode. 

When  he  attained  his  seventieth  birthday  the  Union 
League  Club  proposed  to  honor  the  event  by  a  ban- 
quet to  him  in  its  club-house.  He  thanked  them  for 
the  kindness  intended,  but  refused  on  the  ground  that 
he  had  arranged  and  preferred  a  little  dinner  in  his 
own  dining-room,  which  could  seat  but  sixteen  people. 
And  so  he  told  the  members  of  the  Union  League 


that  they  would  have  to  postpone  theii  proposed  ban- 
quet or  else  abandon  it  altogether.  He  was  going  to 
dine  at  home  that  night,  and  with  him  he  would  have 
his  brother  John,  the  United  States  Senator  from 
Ohio,  and  General  Schotield,  General  Howard,  and 
General  Slocum,  who  had  been  his  three  division 
commanders  at  the  close  of  the  war.  It  afforded 
General  Sherman  the  greatest  happiness  that  these 
three  distinguished  soldiers  should  be  with  him  that 
night,  and  all  in  excellent  health.  Mr.  Depew  was 
very  anxious  to  have  General  Sherman  come  around 
to  the  Union  League  Club  that  night  after  the  dinner 
in  his  own  house,  but  the  general  replied  to  this  sug- 
gestion:  "How  can  I  do  that,  Chauncey ?  I  can't 
hurry  up  my  guests  in  order  to  go  to  somebody  else's 
entertainment.  You  will  have  to  give  up  this  Union 
League  scheme  of  yours."  And  so  Mr.  Depew  sub- 
mitted gracefully  to  the  inevitable,  but  a  month  later 
a  grand  banquet  was  given  by  the  Union  League  in 
honor  of  General  Sherman's  birthday,  and  at  this  ban- 
quet were  present  many  of  the  most  noted  men  in 
the  United  States,  all  eager  to  honor  the  old  chieftain. 

The  General's  **Fad." 

Thousands  of  his  friends  have  interesting  stories  to 
tell  of  Sherman.  So  democratic  were  his  manners, 
and  so  easy  for  all  sincere  travellers  was  the  road  to 
his  heart,  that  of  his  friends  and  admirers,  numerous 
as  they  were,  each  feel  as  if  he  had  in  his  particular 
custody  some  bit  of  history  or  anecdote  of  the  great 
commander  which  the  world  could  not  afford  to  lose. 


The  general's  fondness  for  kissing  pretty  girls  was 
the  subject  for  stories  innumerable.  How  that  fond- 
ness, which  may  have  been  latent  in  his  earlier  career, 
for  all  we  know,  developed  with  him  into  a  fad  in  the 
satisfaction  of  which  his  efforts  were  untiring,  and,  it 
must  be  confessed,  exceedingly  popular,  is  not  gen- 
erally known.  Here  are  the  facts  as  related  by 

"Some  time  after  Grant  was  elected  President  I 
went  to  call  on  him  at  the  White  House.  I  had  been 
struck  with  the  number  and  speed  of  his  horses,  and 
with  the  delight  it  seemed  to  give  him  to  be  in  their 
company.  So  I  said  to  him,  '  General,  fine  horses 
seem  to  have  become  a  fad  with  you.' 

"  'Well,  Sherman,'  said  he,  *we  all  must  have  our 
fads  these  days.  It  seems  to  have  become  the  fash- 
ionable thing.  I  have  all  my  life  been  intensely  fond 
of  good  horseflesh.  In  my  youth  I  hadn't  the  means 
to  indulge  this  fancy.  Later  in  life  I  had  not  the 
time.  Now,  when  for  the  first  time  I  have  both  the 
money  and  the  leisure,  I  am  indulging  it  and  enjoying 
it  to  the  full.' 

Kissing-  the  Pretty  Girls. 

"  'Well,  general,'  said  I,  'I  suppose  I'll  have  to  be 
getting  a  fad  myself  I  never  have  had  one,  and  if  I 
have  one  now  I  don't  know  it.  Let  me  see — let  me 
see :  what  shall  it  be  ?  I  have  it !  You  may  drive 
your  fast  horses,  and  I  will  kiss  all  the  pretty  girls. 
Ha !  ha !  that  shall  be  my  fad.'  " 

General    Sherman    was    some   years    afterward   a 

164  ©ENERAl.  SHERMAN. 

guest  at  Congress  Hall,  Saratoo^a,  where  a  well- 
known  lady  was  a  conspicuous  ficrure  with  her  dia- 
monds and  her  costumes.  Not  the  least  interesting 
of  her  possessions  was  a  very  charming  daughter 
about  fifteen  years  of  age,  just  blushing  into  the  first 
beauty  of  maidenhood,  and  as  plump  and  as  fasci- 
nating a  little  creature  as  the  eye  might  light  upon 
in  a  long  day.  There  was  a  children's  ball  that 
evening  at  Congress  Hall,  and  General  Sherman, 
who  seemed  to  be  in  an  excellent  humor,  strolled 
into  the  ball-room  about  the  time  the  music  struck 
up,  in  company  with  the  wife  of  the  gentleman  who 
is  the  authority  for  these  incidents. 

Rebuffed  by  a  Little  Maid. 

There  were  scores  and  scores  of  pretty  young 
misses  ranged  around  the  walls  and  waiting  for  the 
dance.  As  General  Sherman,  on  the  arm  of  his  fair 
companion,  promenaded  past  this  array  of  juvenile 
pulchritude,  a  smile  of  unmistakable  satisfaction  came 
to  his  face,  and  his  eye  wandered  from  one  bud  to 
another  with  intense  and  respectful  appreciation. 
When  he  reached  the  young  lady  referred  to,  after 
having  bestowed  a  series  of  rattling  salutations  on 
the  most  attractive  little  maids,  he  interrupted  his 
triumphal  progress  and  reached  out  his  arms  to 
salute  her  tempting  lips,  but  she  would  none  of  it. 

"Thank  you,  sir,"  she  said  with  a  profound 
courtesy.  "I  cannot  kiss  any  one  without  my 
mother's  permission.'* 

The    general    was    delighted.     '*  My    dear    young 


friend,"  he  said,  with  a  cordial  laugh,  "you  are  quite 
right ;  but  allow  me  to  say  that  I  must  insist  upon 
your  continuing  to  keep  this  excellent  rule  of  con- 
duct. Promise  me  now  that  never,  as  long  as  you 
live,  will  you  kiss  any  man  who  is  not  specially 
designated  and  approved  of  by  your  mother." 
Whether  she  did  or  did  not  make  the  promise  is 
not  a  matter  of  history,  but  the  incident  was  an 
exceedingly  diverting  one  to  all  who  witnessed  it. 

Florida  Experiences. 

General  Sherman  and  General  Carleton,  the  father 
of  Henry  Guy  Carleton,  were  lieutenants  together  in 
the  army  under  General  Harney,  the  famous  Indian 
fighter,  down  in  the  Seminole  War.  General  Sher- 
man's experiences  at  that  time  in  Florida  were  a 
fruitful  source  of  anecdote  in  his  after  life.  One  story 
in  particular  he  told  with  great  gusto  of  an  interview 
between  himself  and  a  very  respectable-looking  young 
white  man  taken  prisoner  by  the  troops  from  the 
ranks  of  ''Billy  Bowlegs's "  disreputable  followers. 
He  said  it  showed  how  accident  made  or  marred  a 

"I  said  to  this  young  man,"  General  Sherman  used 
to  say,  "  that  it  was  difficult  for  me  to  understand  how 
he  got  into  such  bad  company." 

"Lieutenant,"  said  he,  ''  I  am  here  as  the  victim  of 
one  of  the  most  unfortunate  accidents  that  ever  hap- 
pened. My  father  and  mother  are  excellent  citizens 
of  the  State  of  Kentucky,  where  on  the  farm  near 
Paris  I  spent  a  happy  boyhood.     The  bright  dreams 


of  my  youth  were  clouded  over  by  an  untoward  en- 
counter with  a  jackass.  That  whole  region  in  which 
we  live  was  infested  by  those  half-wild  'jacks'  which 
had  been  Imported  into  the  State  by  thousands.  Ken- 
tucky was  the  great  mule-producer  among  the  States, 
and  when  the  old  discarded  jacks  were  turned  out 
worthless  we  boys  used  to  lasso  them  and  ride  them 
out  into  the  woods  on  our  expeditions  after  chestnuts 
and  walnuts. 

"  One  day  I  secured  the  raggedest,  longest-eared, 
and  deepest-voiced  brute  you  ever  saw,  and  hid  him  in 
the  smoke-house,  intending  to  start  off  before  day  the 
next  morning  on  a  nutting  expedition.  Now,  I  had  a 
maiden  aunt  who  lived  in  the  family  who  had  a  strong 
and  earnest  conviction  of  the  existence  of  a  personal 
devil.  The  Evil  One  was  to  her  just  such  an  awful 
creature  as  Bunyan  showed  his  to  be  in  his  Pilgrhn  s 
Progress.  Down  on  a  farm  in  Kentucky  people  get 
up  before  day,  anyway,  and  when  my  aunt  went  out 
to  the  smoke-house  the  next  mo:.nJng  to  get  some 
bacon  to  fry  for  breakfast,  it  was  still  pitch  dark. 

His  Sataiuc  Majesty. 

"As  she  opened  the  smoke-house  door,  she  said  after- 
ward, she  saw  the  horrible  face  of  the  arch  enemy 
himself  popped  suddenly  out  at  her  through  the  dark- 
ness, set  off  by  two  long  and  hideous  'horns.'  No 
sooner  had  the  jack  spied  my  respected  relative  than 
he  broke  forth  into  a  series  of  the  most  diabolic,  ear- 
piercing,  nerve-tearing  hee-haws  that  ever  desolated 
the  stillness  of  a  country  landscepe,      My  aunt  went 


off  into  a  succession  of  fits,  and  when  she  came  to  she 
swore  by  all  that  was  holy  that  she  had  seen  the  devil. 
I  had  slept  calmly  through  the  whole  disturbance,  but 
the  offence  was  promptly  laid  at  my  door,  and,  enter- 
ing my  room  while  1  was  yet  asleep,  my  father  wore 
out  a  leather  strap  on  me. 

"  But  for  this  apparently  trivial  incident  I  might  to- 
day be  a  respected  citizen  of  the  great  State  which  raises 
pretty  girls,  blue  grass,  mules,  and  bourbon,  for,  smart- 
ing, under  a  sense  of  wrong  and  the  lively  application 
of  the  strap,  I  put  two  shirts  into  a  handkerchief,  and 
without  waiting  to  say  good-bye,  made  a  bee-line  South. 
I  never  stopped  until  I  got  into  the  Florida  swamps, 
where  I  have  just  been  taken  prisoner." 

"Old  Bill." 

This  was  a  favorite  story  of  General  Sherman's,  as 
showing  how  a  man's  whole  career  could  be  swerved 
by  a  trifling  incident.  There  is  another  story  which 
he  used  to  tell  to  his  intimates  which  illustrates  the 
serious  side  of  his  mind,  and  betrays  by  a  touch  the 
gende  and  affectionate  nature  which  became  toward 
the  end  of  his  life  his  most  marked  characteristic. 

"  When  I  went  back  to  Washington,"  he  used  to 
say,  "  after  the  war  was  over  and  took  part  in  the  grand 
review,  I  was  struck  during  the  first  day  by  the  dis- 
order and  confusion  in  the  procession  caused  by  the 
antics  of  some  of  the  fiery  chargers  ridden  by  the 
officers.  On  the  first  day  the  Army  of  the  Potomac 
filed  by.  Many  gallant  troopers  had  changed  off  their 
old  war-horses,  and  that  day  for  the  first  time  rode 


animals  unaccustomed  to  such  surroundings.  Th^ 
immense  masses  of  humanity,  the  blare  of  the  bands, 
and  the  glitter  of  the  landscape  in  general  frightened 
these  beasts,  so  that  they  interfered  seriously  with  the 
general  effect  of  the  spectacle.  The  morning  of  the; 
next  day,  when  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee  was  ta 
march  by  in  review,  my  old  body-servant  came  to  me 
and  said : 

"  *  General,  what  horse  do  you  want  to  ride  to- 

'-Old  Bill,'  said  I. 

" '  Why,  general,'  said  my  servant,  *  Old  Bill  isn't 
the  kind  of  a  horse  you'd  want  to  ride  to-day,  sure.< 
Why,  he's  got  no  life  and  spirit  about  him,  and  won't 
make  any  show  at  all.' 

"  Now,"  continued  the  general,  "  that  was  the  very 
reason  why  I  wanted  to  ride  old  Bill.  I  knew  there 
was  no  nonsense  in  him.  In  fact,  he  might  have  been 
called  sheepish.  A  cannonade  itself  would  not  have 
excited  him,  and  I  was  looking  out  for  my  own  com- 
fort, not  for  display.  So  that  morning  I  got  on  the 
old  charger  and  rode  quietly  along  through  that  im- 
pressive scene.  The  old  fellow  never  phazed  and  ex- 
hibited about  as  much  style  as  a  plough-horse.  But 
we  got  through  very  comfortably. 

"  After  passing  about  one  hundred  yards  beyond 
the  grand  stand  I  rode  old  Bill  to  the  sidewalk  and 
dismounted.  He  was  led  away,  where  I  do  not  know, 
and  I  have  never  seen  the  old  fellow  since.  I  never 
knew  what  they  did  with  him,  and  it  has  always  been 


a  genuine  sorrow  to  me   that  I  hadn't  been  able  to 
keep  him  near  me  during  the  rest  of  our  Hves." 
His  Versatility. 

Colonel  L.  M.  Dayton,  who  came  on  from  Cincin- 
nati to  attend  General  Sherman's  funeral,  was  eight 
years  on  his  staff,  serving  with  him  during  the  entirx:^ 
war  and  for  nearly  five  years  afterward.     The  intimacy 
of  the  relations  which  Colonel  Dayton  in  such  a  posi- 
tion  necessarily  sustained   to   the  great  commander 
gave  him  a  peculiar  insight  into  the  operations  of  his 
mind.     He  tells    the    following   story  of  an   incident 
which  could  have  happened  in  the  military  experience 
of  no  other  o-eneral  durino-  the  war,  and  which  illus- 
trates  admirably  the  boldness   of  Sherman's  military 
operations  and  the  extraordinary  foresight  with  which 
he  planned  out  a  campaign  even  beyond  what  might 
seem  to  many  its  objective  point. 
1       "What  amazed   me   most,"   said   Colonel   Dayton, 
I  "was    the   versatility   of  that    extraordinary   soldier. 
1  I  cannot  help  but  believe  that  as  a  general  he  was 
greater    than    any    other    the    war    produced.     He 
I  planned    a    campaign    to    its    uttermost  limit    before 
j  he    began   active    operations.     For    instance,   in    the 
\  Vicksburg    campaign,    while    General    Grant    might 
not   have    figured    out   his    movements    beyond    the 
actual   capture   of  that  city  itself,  General   Sherman 
in   his    place   would    have    outlined    clearly   what  he 
would   do   with   his    men   after    the    siege   and   what 
disposition    he    would    make    of   the    baggage    and 


"  When  we  started  out  from  Atlanta  on  the  march 
to  the  sea,  nobody  knew  what  our  objective  point 
on  the  Atlantic  coast  was,  except  a  few  members  of 
the  staff  and  the  authorities  at  Washington.  Every- 
body else  simply  knew  that  we  were  going  to  march 
across  Georgia  to  the  coast.  When  General  Sherman 
reached  Savannah — which  of  course  was  all  alongf 
known  to  the  authorities  as  our  objective  point — 
he  was  greatly  surprised  to  find  that  a  gunboat 
had  been  despatched  down  the  coast  to  meet  him 

"I  Won't  do  Anything  of  the  Kind." 

"The   captain   of  this  gunboat  had  succeeded  in  i 
ascending  Ossabaw  Sound  and  the  Ogeechee  River,  , 
which  lies  just  back  of  Savannah,  and  made  instant  t 
communication    with    the    general.      An    important  i 
official   document  which  had   been  brought  down  in  i 
this  way  was    handed    to   General    Sherman   in  my , 
presence.     When  he  received  it  he  got  excited  and  ] 
seemed  vexed  about  something.     I  noticed  his  color  i| 
rising  and  a  look  of  irritation  in  his  eye,  as  well  as 
the  nervous  motion  of  the  left  arm  which  character- 
ized  him  when   anything   annoyed   him.     It  seemed, 
for  instance,  as  if  he  was   pushing  something  away 
from  him. 

"'Come  here,  Dayton,'  said  he;  and  we  went  into 
the  inner  room  of  the  building  where  he  made  his 
headquarters.  As  soon  as  we  got  inside  I  could  see 
that  he  was  greatly  opposed  to  the  suggestions  that 
had    apparently    been    contained    in    the   document. 



*I  won't  do  It/  he  would  say  to  himself  several  times 
over — '  I  won't  do  anything  of  the  kind.' 

''The  document  was  an  official  order  from  Secre- 
tary Stanton,  approved  by  General  Grant,  for  General 
Sherman  to  wait  with  his  army  at  Savannah  for  trans- 
ports which  had  been  sent  down  the  coast  to  convey 
them  by  sea  to  the  mouth  of  the  James,  and  then  to 
ascend  that  river  to  co-operate  with  Grant.  General 
Sherman  had  all  along  Intended  to  march  his  army  up 
the  coast  across  the  country,  and  he  sat  down  at  once 
and  wrote  a  letter  to  General  Grant  explaining  to 
him  why  he  was  opposed  to  taking  a  sea-voyage  with 
his  men  ;  how  he  thought  such  an  experience  would 
demoralize  them  with  sea-sickness,  confinement  in 
close  quarters  and  lack  of  exercise;  and  how  he  had 
decided  to  take  all  the  responsibility  and  march  them 
up  by  land  in  accordance  with  his  original  plans. 
He  said  he  would  be  at  Goldsboro,  N.  C.,  on  the 
2 1st  day  of  March,  1865,  and  that  If  any  other  orders 
were  sent  to  him  there,  they  would  reach  him 
promptly.  So  closely  did  he  calculate  that  on  the  23d 
of  March  he  was  In  possession  of  Goldsboro. 

"  As  Sherman  had  at  that  time  practically  an  army 
of  a  hundred  thousand  men,  which  could  easily  anni- 
hilate any  opposition  he  might  meet  with  on  his  march, 
the  wisdom  of  his  course  was  at  once  apparent  to  the 
authorities,  and  no  attempt  was  made  to  interfere 
with  his  execution  of  his  plans.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
he  did  encounter  Joe  Johnston  on  the  way  up  the 
coast  and  defeated  him  at  Bentonvllle.  That,  I  believe, 


was  his  last  battle.  No  other  general  would  have 
dared  to  do  what  Sherman  did  in  this  instance.  The 
boldness  of  his  military  genius  and  his  keen  insight 
into  the  future  were  admirably  illustrated  by  it. 

How  He  met  Jennie  Lind. 

"  It  was  in  Florence,"  he  said  ;  "  I  received  a  card  to 
a  miisicale,  as  they  called  it,  and  Jennie  Lind  sent  me 
with  this  card  a  note  saying  how  much  she  would  feel 
honored,  and  all  that.     So  I  went. 

"  Lord  !  but  it  was  awful ! 

"They  lived  on  the  top  floor  of  an  old  palace. 
Jennie  Lind  looked  like  a  washwoman,  and  Gold- 
schmidt,  her  husband,  was  a  little  black,  weazened 
fellow.  There  was  a  daughter,  too,  I  remember.  She 
was  freckled  mighty  bad ! 

"  It  was  an  awful  time.  The  refreshments  were 
ice-cream  and  jumbles.  I  got  away  as  soon  as  I  could 
— it  made  my  heart  ache  to  remember  that  woman  so 
different  and  see  her  now  so  contented  with  the  change. 
I'd  have  jumped  out  of  a  four-story  window  to  have 

"  She  was  a  good  woman,  too,"  he  went  on  musingly. 
"They  were  very  poor  at  this  time.  She  had  spent 
all  the  money  she  had  made  in  America  in  Swedish 
charities.  I  think  she  might  better  have  kept  some  of 
it,  anyhow." 

Hated  to  be  Photographed. 

"  My !  how  I  hate  to  be  photographed,"  the  general 
exclaimed  one  day,  ''because  in  pictures  by  that  pro- 
cess I  always  look  stern  ;  don't  like  to  look  stern,  My 


Tiood  is  pleasant  and  friendly  to  all,  though  I  have 
3een  told  that  when  I'm  in  a  fight  I  look  like  the  very 
levil.  That  is  because  my  nature  is  one  that  concen- 
rates  itself,  heart  and  soul,  fire  and  will,  into  one  ter 
•ible  focus.  No  half  measures  for  me.  I  take  aftei 
ny  mother  in  that." 

He  tells  of  a  Speech  by  Grant. 

The  following  characteristic  anecdote  of  General 
jrant  was  told,  and  illustrated  with  exquisite  humor, 
)y  General  Sherman  at  a  little  dinner: 

"Grant  and  I  were  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  after  the 
)attle  of  Chattanooga.  Our  quarters  were  in  the  same 

"  One  day  Grant  came  into  the  room  that  I  used  for 
n  office.  I  was  very  busy,  surrounded  with  papers, 
luster-rolls,  plans,  specifications,  etc.,  etc.  When  I 
:>oked  up  from  my  work  I  saw  he  seemed  a  good 
eal  bothered,  and,  after  standinor  around  a  while 
>ith  his  shoulders  thrown  up  and  his  hands  deep 
own  in  his  trousers  pockets,  he  said  : 

"  '  Look  here,  there  are  some  men  here  from  Galena.' 

"  '  Well  ?'   I  said. 

"Looking  more  uncomfortable  every  minute,  he 
.^ent  on: 

;  "  '  They've  got  a  sword  they  want  to  give  me  ;'  and, 
)oking  over  his  shoulder  and  jerking  his  thumb  in 
1  the  same  direction,  he  added  : 

'*  'Will  you  come  in?  ' 

"  He  looked  quite  frightened  at  the  idea  of  going 
)  face  them  alone,  so   I  put  some  weights  on  my 


several  piles  of  papers  to  keep  them  from  blowing  ; 
around,  and   went  into  the  next   room,    followed  by 
Grant,  who  by  this   time  looked  as   he  might  if  he'd 
been  going  to  be  court-martialled.     There  we  found 
the  mayor  and  some  members  of  the  board  of  coun- 
cilmen  of  Galena.     On  a  table  in  the  middle  of  the  : 
room  was  a   handsome  rosewood  box    containing  a ; 
magnificent  gold-hilted  sword,  with   all  the  appoint-; 
ments  equally  splendid. 

Grant  ^Nonplussed. 

"The  mayor  stepped  forward  and  delivered  what, 
was  evidently  a  carefully  prepared  speech,  setting: 
forth  that  the  citizens  of  Galena  had  sent  him  to  pre-; 
sent  to  General  Grant  the  accompanying  sword,  not* 
as  a  testimonial  to  his  greatness  as  a  soldier,  but  as  a; 
slight  proof  of  their  love  and  esteem  for  him  as  a; 
man  and  their  pride  in  him  as  a  fellow-citizen. 

"After  delivering  the  speech  the  mayor  produced 
a  large  parchment  scroll,  to  which  was  attached  by  a 
long  blue  ribbon  a  red  seal  as  big  as  a  pancake,  and 
on  which  was  inscribed  a  set  of  complimentary  reso- 
lutions. These  he  proceeded  to  read  to  us,  not  omit- 
ting a  single  '  whereas '  or  '  hereunto.'  And  after 
finishing  the  reading  he  rolled  it  up  and  with  great 
solemnity  and  ceremony   handed  it  to  Grant. 

"  General  Grant  took  it,  looked  ruefully  at  It,  and 
held  it  as  if  it  burnt  him.  Mrs.  Grant,  who  had  been 
standing  beside  her  husband,  quietly  took  it  from 
him,  and  there  was  dead  silence  for  several  minutes. 
Then    Grant,    sinking   his    head  lower   on  his   chest 


and  hunching  his  shoulders  up  higher  and  looking 
thoroughly  miserable,  began  hunting  In  his  pockets, 
diving  first  in  one  and  then  In  another,  and  at  last 
said:  'Gentlemen,  I  knew  you  were  coming  here  to 
give  me  this  sword,  and  so  I  prepared  a  short 
speech  ; '  and  with  a  look  of  relief  he  drew  from  his 
trousers  pocket  a  crooked,  crumpled  piece  of  paper 
and  handed  it  to  the  mayor  of  Galena,  adding,  '  and, 
gentlemen,  here  it  is! '  " 

The  Geueral  and  Mrs.  Cleveland. 

To  those  who  appreciated  General  Sherman's 
genial  nature  It  Is  superfluous  to  say  that  he  regarded 
his  extensive  acquaintance  with  the  "ladies  of  the 
White  House"  with  peculiar  gratification.  This  he 
specially  referred  to  on  one  occasion  when  he  had 
been  introduced  to  Mrs.  Cleveland,  then  but  a  short 
time  a  bride.     The  general  said  : 

"The  other  day,  when  I  was  In  Washington,  I 
received  a  note  from  Mrs.  Endlcott  telllnor  me  that 


the  President  and  Mrs.  Cleveland  were  to  dine  at  her 
house  that  evening,  and  begging  me  to  join  them.  I 
wrote  her  a  very  polite  reply — said  I  had  two  or  three 
engagements  I  must  keep,  but  if  Mrs.  Endlcott  would 
reserve  me  a  place  I  would  slip  in  quietly  and  take  up 
my  dinner  at  the  point  at  which  I  arrived. 

"When  I  got  there  they  were  at  the  table,  and  I 
found  that  the  seat  at  Mr.  Endlcott's  left  had  been 
reserved  for  me,  Mrs.  Cleveland  being  on  his  right. 
Well,  we  just  shoved  Endlcott  to  one  side,  and  sailed 
jin  and  had  a  good  time.     After  a  while  the  ladies  left 


US,  and  then   after  a  little  we  went  into  Endicott*s 
room  for  a  smoke.     Then,  about  11.30,  we  went  up 
to  the  ladies.     It  was  rather  late,  and  very  soon  Mrs. 
Cleveland  made  a  move  to  go,  and  of  course  several 
gentlemen    surrounded    her,    helping    her   with   her 
wraps;  and  she  turned  to  me  and  said  very  quietly,, 
*  General,  I  am  very  glad  to  have  met  you,  and  I  want, 
you  to  come  and  see  me.'     I  smiled  and  said,  *  You 
know  that  such  an  invitation  is  a  command.'     And^ 
she    smiled   back  and   said,   '  When  will   you  come  ? 
To-morrow?     Shall    we   say  one   o'clock?'     Well,  I 
went,  and  she  came  in  to  meet  me  plainly  and  simply 
dressed,  and  was  just  sweet  and  girlish — but  bright!: 
and  shrewd  ! 

The  Finest  L*ady  at  the  White  House. 

"She  wanted  to  know  all  about  the  ladies  that  have 
presided  in  the  White  House.  I  have  known  'em 
all  since  Jackson's  time,  and  she  made  me  tell  her^ 
about  them.  I  consider  Harriet  Lane,  Buchanan's 
niece,  the  finest  lady  that  ever  did  the  honors  of  the 
White  House,  though  she  was  cold  and  impassive ; 
but  her  tact  and  suavity  of  manner  were  perfect.  I 
believe  Mrs.  Cleveland  has  taken  Harriet  Lane  for 
her  model,  and  she  is  as  clever  and  sweet  a  lady  as 
Miss  Lane  was. 

''The  sweetest  woman  I  ever  met  presiding  there 
was  Kitty  Taylor,  General  Taylor's  daughter,  after- 
ward Mrs.  Dr.  Dandridofe.  But  none  of  them  was 
brighter  and   more   beautiful   than   Mrs.  Cleveland." 

Youth  and  beauty  General  Sherman  loved — indeed, 


I  think  the  only  subject  on  which  I  ever  heard  him 
speak  with  deep  regret,  says  a  friend,  was  that  of  lost 
youth.  One  day  he  remarked,  "  Ah,  how  I  envy  the 
young  their  hopes  and  dreams  and  aspirations !  I 
envy  the  beggar  on  the  street  if  he  is  young — who 
can  tell  what  lies  before  him  ?  Yes,  yes,  I  know,  but 
there's  no  fun  in  looking  back;  it's  an  old  story^ 
you've  heard  it  over  and  over  again,  but  the  future 
may  hold  all  sorts  of  surprises.  I  went  into  my  club 
the  other  night,  and  a  young  fellow  came  over  to  me 
and  said,  '  General,  I  am  very  proud  and  happy  to 
meet  you  ;  you've  been  a  landmark  to  me  all  my  life. 
I've  read  about  you  in  history.'  Lord !  he  looked  at 
me  with  reverence  and  bowed  down  before  me,  and  it 
was  all  I  could  do  to  be  civil  to  him.  Read  about  me 
in  his  history,  indeed !  as  if  I  were  Moses !" 

At  the  time  of  the  death  of  General  Sheridan  he 
was  lamenting  the  rapid  thinning  of  the  ranks  of  his 
contemporaries,  and,  shaking  his  head,  said  sadly^ 
"  There  we  go,  one  after  another.  Grant  and  Sheri- 
dan, and  soon,  I  suppose,  I  shall  join  the  procession. 
Well,  that  will  be  the  last  of  the  race — there  will  b^ 
no  generals  left  when  I'm  gone." 

Excuses  for  Swearing^. 

On  one  occasion  when  visiting  his  sister,  Mrs. 
Ewing,  General  Sherman  met  four  or  five  clergymen, 
and  his  patience  was  rather  severely  tried  by  their 
religious  discussions,  and  what  seemed  to  him  their 
intolerant  and  one-sided  views.  One  of  them  chal- 
lenged him  to  offer  any  excuse  for  swearing,  meeting 


him  with  the  clinching  statement  that  there  could  be 
no  redemption  for  blasphemers. 

"Were  you,"  inquired  the  young  soldier,  *' ever  at 
sea  in  a  heavy  gale,  with  spars  creaking  and  sails  flap- 
ping, and  the  crew  cowardly  and  incompetent?" 

"  No." 

"  Did  you  ever,"  he  continued  gravely,  "  try  to  drive 
a  five-team  ox-cart  across  the  prairie  ?" 

"  No." 

"Then,"  said  Captain  Sherman,  "  you  know  nothing 
of  temptations  to  blasphemy — you  know  nothing  about 
extenuating  circumstances  for  blasphemers — you  are 
not  competent  to  judge?" 

Proud  of  his  Mother. 

General  Sherman  was  proud  of  tracing  his  powers 
of  endurance  to  his  mother,  to  whom  he  also  fre- 
quently ascribed  the  heritage  of  other  soldierly  cha- 

"She  married  very  young,"  said  the  general,  "her 
husband,  who  was  not  very  much  older,  being  a  lawyer 
with  hope  and  ambition  for  his  patrimony  and  all  the 
world  before  him  where  to  choose.  He  chose  Ohio, 
leaving  his  young  wife  in  Jersey  City  while  he  made 
a  home  for  her  in  what  was  then  a  far  country,  though 
now  comparatively  near. 

"  Soon  as  he  had  made  a  home  for  her  she  went  to 
him.  She  rode  on  horseback,  with  her  young  baby  in 
her  arms,  from  Jersey  City  to  Ohio,  the  journey  oc- 
cupying twenty-three  days !  What  would  a  New 
York  bride  say  to  such  a  journey  as  that  ?     I'm  afraid 


she'd  want  to  wait  until  her  husband  had  made  money 
enough  to  have  a  railroad  built  for  her." 

His  Methodical   Brother. 

"  Curious,"  said  the  general  one  day,  *'  to  note  the 
differences  in  the  family !  I've  got  a  brother  out  in 
Wisconsin — cashier  in  a  bank — most  methodical  man 
that  ever  lived — eats  and  sleeps  by  rule.  He  couldn't 
live  in  one  of  these  New  York  palaces.  He  lives  in 
a  nice  frame  house,  and  has  for  twenty  years  and 
more  gone  and  come  from  his  office  every  day  at  pre- 
cisely the  same  hour.  The  people  in  the  town  set 
their  watches  by  him,  and  if  he  were  five  minutes  late 
there  wouldn't  be  a  correct  timepiece  within  a  mile. 
He  has  sat  on  one  seat  in  his  office  and  hung  his  coat 
on  one  peg  for  twenty  years,  and  if  anybody  gets  in 
before  him  and  gets  off  a  joke  on  him  by  using  that 
peg,  it  sours  his  temper  for  the  whole  day." 

General  Sherman's  '*  Idolized  Soldier-Boy." 

WilHe  Sherman,  when  about  nine  years  of  age, 
went  down  to  Mississippi,  where  he  became  a  com- 
rade and  favorite  of  the  Thirteenth  regulars,  who 
formed  General  Sherman's  personal  escort.  On  the 
way  up  the  river,  after  the  Vicksburg  campaign,  he 
became  ill.  October  3,  1863,  the  brave  little  fellow 
died.  October  4,  he  had  a  military  funeral  at  Mem- 
phis ;  at  midnight  came  a  letter  of  thanks  from  the 
general  to  Captain  Smith,  commanding  battalion,  one 
of  the  most  touching  letters  ever  written.  In  the 
spring  of  1867  the  body  was  removed  to  St.  Louis 
and  buried  in  Calvary  Cemetery.    A  beautiful  marble 


monument  was  erected  by  the  officers  and  soldiers 

of  the  battaUon. 

The  above   facts    suggested    the    following   poem, 

a  copy  of  which  was  sent  to  the  general  at  his  home 

in  New  York.     In  the  battalion  the  boy  was  fondly 

called : 

"Sergeant  Willie." 

The  Thirteenth   Regulars,  as  brave 
A  regiment  as  ever  gave 
Their  blood  to  solder  sundered  lands, 
Of  prompt  obedience  to  commands. 

Had  once  a  sergeant  of  the  line, 

A  little  fellow  aged  nine, 

Called  "  Sergeant  Willie,"  Sherman's  boy, 

His  father's  pride,  his  mother's  joy. 

He — born  a  soldier — loved  the  camp; 
Of  future  prowess  bore  the  stamp; 
While  clinging  yet  to  mother's  hand 
Had  all  the  air  of  high  command. 

The  Thirteenth  treads  to  muffled  drum; 
To  some  one  in  its  ranks  has  come 
The  soldier's   fate — to  some  one  small, 
Is  seen  by  hearse  and  little  pall. 

"  Who  lies  so  bravely  'neath  the  stars, 
That  wraps  a  form  too  young  for  wars?" 

«'  Our  *  Sergeant  Willie,'   Sherman's  boy. 
His  father's  pride,  his  mother's  joy." 

"Battalion,  halt!" — Battalion,  weep. 
Your  dearest  comrade  sleeps  the  sleep 
That  knows  no  waking : — Dry  your  tears, 
The  brave  have  e'en  in  death  no  fears. 

Whate'er  was  mortal,  free  from  guilt, 
Rests  in  the  tomb  affection  built: 
His  soul  has  joined  the  ranks  above, 
And  found  a  Heavenly  Father's  love. 

George  Mortom. 


With  military  promptitude,  the  following  character- 
istic letter  of  acknowledgment  was  duly  sent : 

75  West  7ist  St.,  New  York,  Sept.  9,  1889. 

G.  H.  McCabe,  Esq.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. : 

My  Dear  Sir:  Please  accept  for  yourself,  the 
sender,  and  for  Mr.  Morton,  the  author  of  the  poem 
"Sergeant  Willie,"  a  copy  of  which  is  just  received, 
my  heartfelt  and  grateful  thanks.  The  same,  I  assure 
you,  will  be  preserved  in  my  archives,  together  with 
many  other  encomiums,  mainly  from  the  hands  of 
members  of  the  old  Thirteenth,  to  which  regiment  he 
was  in  life  so  thoroughly  devoted. 

Very  truly  yours, 

W.  T.  Sherman,  General. 

The  general's  habits  of  life  were  simple.  He  had  a 
keen  sense  of  the  beauty  of  Nature,  and  never  was 
happier  than  when  his  camp  was  pitched  in  some  forest 
of  lofty  pines,  where  the  wind  sang  through  the  tree- 
tops  in  melodious  measure  and  the  feet  were  buried 
in  the  soft  carpeting  of  spindles.  He  was  the  last  one 
to  complain  when  the  table  fare  was  reduced  to  beef 
and  "hard  tack,"  and,  in  truth,  he  rather  enjoyed 
poverty  of  food  as  one  of  the  conditions  of  a  soldier's 
life.  He  apologized  to  his  guest,  the  Secretary  of 
War,  one  day  at  Savannah  because  certain  luxuries, 
such  as  canned  fruits  and  jellies,  had  found  their  way 
to  his  table. 

"  This,"  he  remarked,  "  Is  the  consequence  of  coming 


into  houses  and  cities.     The  only  place  to  live,  Mr. 
Secretary,  is  out  of  doors  in  the  woods." 

This  simplicity  of  taste,  which  was  so  perfectly 
natural  to  the  general,  served  well  in  the  campaigns  of 
the  war.  It  is  easily  seen  that  in  making  long  marches 
the  most  fatal  clog  to  successful  operations  is  exces- 
sive transportation,  and  the  tendency  of  the  army  was 
constantly  to  accretion ;  but  Sherman  reduced  bag- 
gage-trains to  the  minimum,  and  himself  shared  the 
privations  of  the  common  soldier. 

Unselfish  Patriotism. 

General  Sherman's  patriotism  was  a  vital  force. 
He  gave  himself  and  all  that  he  had  to  the  national 
cause.  Personal  considerations  never  influenced  him. 
Doubtless  he  was  ambitious,  but  it  was  impossible  to 
discern  any  selfish  or  unworthy  motive  either  in  his 
words  or  deeds.  We  do  not  believe  it  possible  for  a 
man  more  absolutely  to  subordinate  himself  and  his 
personal  interests  than  he  did.  His  patriotism  was  as 
pure  as  the  faith  of  a  child,  and  before  it  family  and 
social  influences  were  powerless.  His  relatives  were 
the  last  persons  to  receive  from  his  hand  preferment 
or  promotion.  In  answer  to  the  request  of  one  nearly 
allied  to  him  that  he  would  give  his  son  a  posidon  on 
his  stafl",  the  general's  reply  was  curt  and  unmis- 
takable : 

"  Let  him  enter  the  ranks  as  a  soldier  and  carry  a 
musket  a  few  years." 

In  all  of  his  pleasant  and  peaceful  old  age  General 
Sherman  realized  fully  the  necessary  infirmities  of  in- 


creasing  years  and  the  probability  that  death  might 
remove  him  at  any  time.  The  contemplation  of  death 
had  no  terrors  for  him.  His  position  in  this  matter  is 
best  expressed  in  the  reply  which  he  made  on  his 
seventieth  birthday  to  a  conventional  wish  that  he 
might  have  many  happy  returns  of  the  day.  He  said 
then,  with  a  full  appreciation  of  the  insecurity  of  life 
as  well  as  of  the  fact  that  his  race  was  nearly  run,  ''  I 
am  too  old  to  hope  for  many  returns  of  the  day.  And 
then  life  is  so  uncertain.  Death  seems  to  come  now- 
a-days  without  almost  any  warning,  but  many  a  man 
has  sprung  up  in  readiness  when  I  have  had  the 
trumpets  sounded,  and  I  am  still  a  soldier.  When 
Gabriel  sounds  his  trumpet  I  shall  be  ready." 

He  was,  of  course,  long  past  the  years  when  a  man 
can  expect  vigorous  health,  and  he  often  spoke  about 
death,  and  said  he  did  not  expect  to  be  much  longer 
on  the  scene  of  active  affairs.  He  frequently  prefaced 
remarks  about  the  future  by  saying,  ''  If  I  live  "  and 
"If  I  am  here."  Indeed,  for  a  number  of  years,  espe- 
cially since  the  death  of  his  wife,  his  mind  assumed  a 
melancholy  mood.  The  deaths  of  Hancock,  Sheridan, 
and  Grant,  with  whom  he  was  intimately  associated, 
were  to  him  profound  shocks,  and  had  an  effect  differ- 
ent to  the  philosophical  way  in  which  they  were 
regarded  by  others. 

For  some  time  his  hearing  had  been  failing  and  he 
had  become  quite  deaf.  This  troubled  him  very  much, 
as  his  senses  had  been  phenomenally  keen.  It  pained 
him  when  he  could  no  longer  hear  the  birds  sing  in 


the  Spring  or  the  sparrows  twittering  in  the  city,  and 
friends  had  to  be  exceedingly  careful  not  to  talk  be- 
fore him  about  things  he  could  not  hear.  It  such  a 
thing  occurred  he  was  likely  to  get  up  and  leave  the 


The  Greatest  Soldier. 

,  How  should  the  greatest  soldier  die  ? 

!  The  winds  and  seas  and  hills  reply: 

At  peace !     The  horrid  front  of  War 
Smoothed  by  a  smile  from  every  scar; 
His  sword  and  spear  beat  into  hooks 
To  prune  his  vines;  among  his  books; 
His  armor  rusting  on  the  wall; 
Friends  thicker  than  the  leaves  that  fall 
In  Vallombrosa;  with  a  sigh 
Of  sweet  content — thus  let  him  die. 

Where  should  the  greatest   soldier  lie? 
The  winds  and  seas  and  hills  reply: 
No  granite  base  nor  marble  pile, 
Nor  fretted  arch  nor  vaulted  aisle, 
Nor  storied  urn  nor  sculptured  stone, 
Is  worthy,  now  that  he  is  gone. 

In  every  heart  where  freedom  swells. 
In  every  soul  where  honor  dwells. 
Till  children  in  their  turn  impart 
Each  memory  of  soul  and  heart 
To  others,   who  still  love  to  hear 
The  name  of  him  whom  all  hold  dears 
There,  of  the  nation's  love  possessed, 
In  peace  and  honor  let  him  rest. 

BOOK    11. 



Sherman    at    the    Battle    of    Bull     Run. — His 
Graphic  Account   of  the   Bloody   Conflict. 

In  the  Civil  War,  General  Sherman  came  into 
the  military  service  of  the  United  States  as  colo- 
nel of  the  Thirteenth  regular  infantry.  At  Bull 
Run  his  rank  was  that  of  colonel  commanding 

The  reader  will  be  interested  in  his  own  graphic 
description  of  the  part  he  acted  in  the  first  great  on- 
slaught of  the  war  (July  21st,  1861),  which  is 
herewith  given    in    his   own    words : 

My  brigade  was  composed  of  the  Thirteenth  New 
York  Volunteers,  Colonel  Quinby ;  Sixty-ninth  New 
York,  Colonel  Corcoran  ;  Seventy-ninth  New  York, 
Colonel  Cameron ;  Second  Wisconsin,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Peck  ;  and  Company  E,  Third  Artillery,  under 
command  of  Captain  R.  B.  Ayres,  Fifth  Artillery.  We 
left  our  camp  near  Centreville,  pursuant  to  orders, 
at  half-past  2  a.  m.,  taking  place  in  the  column  of 
Assistant- Adjutant  General  Baird,  next  to  the  brigade 
of  General  Schenck,   and  proceeded   as  far  as   the 



halt,  before  the  enemy's  position,  near  the  stone 
bridge  across  Bull  Run.  Here  the  brigade  was  de- 
ployed in  line  along  the  skirt  of  timber  to  the  right  of 
the  Warrenton  road,  and  remained  quietly  in  position 
till  after  lo  a.  m.  The  enemy  remained  very  quiet, 
but  about  that  time  we  saw  a  rebel  regiment  leave  its 
cover  in  our  front  and  proceed  in  double-quick  time 
on  the  road  toward  Sudley  Springs,  by  which  we 
knew  the  columns  of  Colonels  Hunter  and  Heintzel- 
man  were  approaching. 

The  Enemy  in  Sight. 
About  the  same  time  we  observed  in  motion  a  large 
mass  of  the  enemy  below  and  on  the  other  side  of 
the  stone  bridge.  I  directed  Captain  Ayres  to  take 
position  with  his  battery  near  our  right  and  to  open  fire 
on  this  mass;  but  Baird  had  previously  detached  the 
two  rifle-guns  belonging  to  this  battery,  and,  finding 
that  the  smooth-bore  guns  did  not  reach  the  enemy's 
position,  we  ceased  firing,  and  I  sent  a  request  that 
Baird  would  send  to  me  the  thirty-pounder  rifle-gun 
attached  to  Captain  Carlisle's  battery.  At  the  same 
time  I  shifted  the  New  York  Sixty-ninth  to  the  extreme 
right  of  the  brigade.  Thus  we  remained  till  we  heard 
the  musketry-fire  across  Bull  Run,  showing  that  the 
head  of  Colonel  Hunter's  column  was  engaged. 
This  firing  was  brisk,  and  showed  that  Hunter  was 
driving  before  him  the  enemy,  till  about  noon,  when 
it  became  certain  the  enemy  had  come  to  a  stand,  and 
that  our  forces  on  the  other  side  of  Bull  Run  were 
all  engaged,  artillery  and  infantry. 



Here  Baird  sent  me  the  order  to  cross  over  with 
the  whole  brigade  to  the  assistance  of  Colonel  Hunter. 
Early  in  the  day,  when  reconnoitring  the  ground,  I 
had  seen  a  horseman  descend  from  a  bluff  in  our  front, 
cross  the  stream,  and  show  himself  in  the  open  field 
on  this  side,  and,  inferring  that  we  could  cross  over 
at  the  same  point,  I  sent  forward  a  company  as  skir- 
mishers, and  followed  with  the  whole  brigade,  the  New 
York  Sixty-ninth  leading. 

Hag-gerty    Shot   from   his    Horse. 

We  found  no  difficulty  in  crossing  over,  and  met 
with  no  opposition  in  ascending  the  steep  bluff  oppo- 
site with  our  infantry,  but  it  was  impossible  to  the 
artillery,  and  I  sent  word  back  to  Captain  Ayres  to 
follow  if  possible,  otherwise  to  use  his  discretion. 
Captain  Ayres  did  not  cross  Bull  Run,  but  remained 
on  that  side  with  the  rest  of  the  division.  Advancing 
slowly  and  cautiously  with  the  head  of  the  column,  to 
give  time  for  the  regiments  in  succession  to  close  up 
their  ranks,  we  first  encountered  a  party  of  the  enemy 
retreating  along  a  cluster  of  pines;  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Haggerty,  of  the  Sixty-ninth,  without  orders,  rode  out 
alone  and  endeavored  to  intercept  their  retreat.  One 
of  the  enemy,  in  full  view,  at  short  range,  shot  Hag- 
gerty, and  he  fell  dead  from  his  horse. 

The  Sixty-ninth  opened  fire  on  this  part}^  which 
was  returned;  but,  determined  to  effect  our  junction 
with  Hunter's  division,  I  ordered  this  fire  to  cease, 
and  we  proceeded  with  caution  toward  the  field  where 
we  then  plainly  saw  our  forces  engaged.     Displaying 



our  colors  conspicuously  at  the  head  of  our  column, 
we  succeeded  in  attracting  the  attention  of  our  friends, 
and  soon  formed  the  brigade  in  the  rear  of  Colonel 

Here  I  learned  that  Colonel  Hunter  was  disabled  ] 
by  a  severe  wound,  and  that  General  McDowell  was  ^ 
on  the  field.  I  sought  him  out,  and  received  his  ■ 
orders  to  join  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy,  who  was  falling  i 
back  to  the  left  of  the  road  by  which  the  army  had  I 
approached  from  Sudley  Springs.  Placing  Colonel  1 
Quinby's  regiment  of  rifles  in  front,  in  column  by  /• 
division,  I  directed  the  other  regiments  to  follow  in  i! 
line  of  battle,  in  the  order  of  the  Wisconsin  Second,  ,j 
New  York  Seventy-ninth,  and  New  York  Sixty-ninth.  ; 

Quinby's  Brave   Advance. 

Quinby's  regiment  advanced  steadily  down  the  hill  1 
and  up  the  ridge,  from  which  he  opened  fire  upon  the  ^j 
enemy,  who  had  made  another  stand  on  ground  very  ;! 
favorable  to    him,  and    the    regiment   continued   ad-  , 
vancing  as  the  enemy  gave  way,  till  the  head  of  the 
column  reached  the  point  near  which  Rickett's  battery 
was  so  severely  cut  up,     The  other   regiments   de- 
scended   the    hill    in    line    of  battle    under  a  severe 
cannonade,  and,    the    ground   affording   comparative 
shelter  from  the  enemy's  artillery,  they  changed  di- 
rection by  the  right  flank,  and  followed  the  road  before 
mentioned.     At  the  point  where  this  road  crosses  the 
bridgG  to  our  left  front  the  ground  was  swept  by  a 
most  severe  fire  of  artillery,  rifles,  and  musketry,  and 
we  saw,  in  succession,  several  regiments  driven  from 


it ;  among  them  the  Zouaves  and  battalion  of  marines. f 
Before  reaching  the  crest  of  this  hill  the  roadway  wasi' 
worn  deep  enough  to  afford  shelter,  and  I  kept  the 
several  regiments  in  it  as  long  as  possible ;  but  when 
the  Wisconsin  Second  was  abreast  of  the  enemy,  byi 
order  of  Major  Wadsworth,  of  General  McDowell's' 
staff,  I  ordered  it  to  leave  the  roadway  by  the  left  flank,i 
and  to  attack  the  enemy. 

Wisconsin    Second   Repulsed. 

This  regiment  ascended  to  the  brow  of  the  hllli 
steadily,  received  the  severe  fire  of  the  enemy,  re-e 
turned  it  with  spirit,  and  advanced,  delivering  its  fire 
This  regiment  is  uniformed  in  gray  cloth,  almost  iden-[ 
tical  with  that  of  the  great  bulk  of  the  Secession) 
army,  and  when  the  regiment  fell  into  confusion  andi 
retreated  toward  the  road,  there  was  a  universal  cry- 
that  they  were  being  fired  on  by  our  own  men,  Thei 
regiment  rallied  again,  passed  the  brow  of  the  hill  a 
second  time,  but  was  again  repulsed  in  disorder.  By 
this  time  the  New  York  Seventy-ninth  had  closed  up, 
and  in  like  manner  it  was  ordered  to  cross  the  browol 
the  hill  and  drive  the  enemy  from  cover. 

It  was  impossible  to  get  a  good  view  of  this  ground. 
In  it  there  was  one  battery  of  artillery,  which  poured 
an  incessant  fire  upon  our  advancing  column,  and  the 
ground  was  very  irregular,  with  small  clusters  of  pines 
affording  shelter,  of  which  the  enemy  took  good  ad-i 
vantage.  The  fire  of  rifles  and  musketry  was  very 
severe.  The  Seventy- ninth,  headed  by  Its  colonel, 
Cameron,  charged  across  the  hill,  and  for  a  short  time 



the  contest  was  severe ;  they  ralHed  several  times 
under  fire,  but  finally  broke  and  gained  the  cover  of 
the  hill. 

This  left  the  field  open  to  the  New  York  Sixty- 
ninth,  Colonel  Corcoran,  who  in  his  turn  led  his  regi- 
ment over  the  crest,  and  had  in  full  open  view  the 
ground  so  severely  contested ;  the  fire  was  very 
severe,  and  the  roar  of  cannon,  musketry,  and  rifles 
incessant  ;  it  was  manifest  the  enemy  was  here  in 
great  force,  far  superior  to  us  at  that  point.  The 
Sixty-ninth  held  the  ground  for  some  time,  but  finally 
fell  back  in  disorder. 

Federals   thrown   into    Confusion. 

All  this  time  Quinby's  regiment  occupied  another 
ridge  to  our  left,  overlooking  the  same  field  of  action 
and  similarly  engaged.  Here,  about  half-past  3  p.  m., 
began  the  scene  of  confusion  and  disorder  that  cha- 
racterized the  remainder  of  the  day.  Up  to  that  time 
all  had  kept  their  places,  and  seemed  perfectly  cool 
and  used  to  the  shell  and  shot  that  fell,  comparatively 
harmless,  all  around  us  ;  but  the  short  exposure  to  an 
intense  fire  of  small-arms  at  close  range  had  killed 
many,  wounded  more,  and  had  produced  disorder  in  all 
of  the  battalions  that  had  attempted  to  encounter  it. 
Men  fell  away  from  their  ranks,  talking  and  in  great 

Colonel  Cameron  had  been  mortally  wounded,  was 
carried  to  an  ambulance,  and  reported  dying.  Many 
other  officers  were  reported  dead  or  missing,  and 
imany  of  the  wounded  were  making  their  way,  with 


more   or  less  assistance,  to  the  buildings  used  as  hos 
pitals  on  the  ridge  to  the  west. 

We  succeeded  in  partially  re-forming  the  regiments, 
but  it  was  manifest  that  they  would  not  stand,  and  I 
directed  Colonel  Corcoran  to  move  along  the  ridge  to 
the  rear,  near  the  position  where  he  had  first  formed 
the  brigade.  General  McDowell  was  there  in  person, 
and  used  all  possible  efforts  to  reassure  the  men.  By 
the  active  exertions  of  Colonel  Corcoran  we  formed 
an  irregular  square  against  the  cavalry  which  were 
then  seen  to  issue  from  the  position  from  which  we 
had  been  driven,  and  we  beo^an  our  retreat  toward  the 
same  ford  of  Bull  Run  by  which  we  had  approached 
the  field  of  battle. 

Retreat  toward  Centreville. 

There  was  no  positive  order  to  retreat,  although 
for  an  hour  it  had  been  going  on  by  the  operation  of 
the  men  themselves.  The  ranks  were  thin  and  irreg- 
ular, and  we  found  a  stream  of  people  strung  from 
the  hospital  across  Bull  Run  and  far  toward  Centre- 

After  putting  in  motion  the  irregular  square  in 
person,  I  pushed  forward  to  find  Captain  Ayres's 
battery  at  the  crossing  of  Bull  Run.  I  sought  it  at  its 
last  position,  before  the  brigade  had  crossed  over,  but 
it  was  not  there ;  then  passing  through  the  woods 
where,  in  the  morning,  we  had  first  formed  line,  we 
approached  the  blacksmith's  shop,  but  there  found  a 
detachment  of  the  Secession  cavalry,  and  thence  made 
a  circuit,  avoiding  Cub  Run  Bridge,  into  Centreville, 


where  I  found  General  McDowell,  and  from  him 
understood  that  it  was  his  purpose  to  rally  the  forces 
and  make  a  stand  at  Centreville. 

But  about  nine  o'clock  at  night  I  received  from 
General  Tyler,  in  person,  the  order  to  continue  the 
retreat  to  the  Potomac.  This  retreat  was  by  night 
and  disorderly  in  the  extreme.  The  men  of  different 
regiments  mingled  together,  and  some  reached  the 
river  at  Arlington,  some  at  Long  Bridge,  and  the 
greater  part  returned  to  their  former  camp  at  or  near 
Fort  Corcoran.  I  reached  this  point  at  noon  the  next 
day,  and  found  a  miscellaneous  crowd  crossing  over 
the  aqueduct  and  ferries.  Conceiving  this  to  be 
demoralizing,  I  at  once  commanded  the  guard  to  be 
increased  and  all  persDns  attempting  to  pass  over 
to  be  stopped.  This  soon  produced  its  effect;  men 
sought  their  proper  companies  and  regiments.  Com- 
parative order  was  restored,  and  all  were  posted  to 
the  best  advantacre. 

I  Our  loss  was  heavy,  and  occurred  chiefly  at  the 
point  near  where  Rickett's  battery  was  destroyed. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Haggerty  was  killed  about  noon, 
before  we  had  effected  a  junction  with  Colonel  Hunter's 
division.      Colonel  Cameron   was   mortally  wounded 

i  leading    his    regiment    in    the    charge,    and    Colonel 

,  Corcoran  has  been  missing  since  the  cavalry  charge 

\  near  the  building  used  as  a  hospital. 

i  Lieutenants  Piper  and  McQuesten,  of  my  personal 
staff,  were  under  fire  all  day,  and  carried  orders  to 
and  fro  with  as  much  coolness  as  on  parade.     Lieu* 


tenant  Bagley  of  the  New  York  Sixty-ninth,  a  volunteer 
aide,  asked  leave  to  serve  with  his  company  during  the 
action,  and  was  among  those  reported  missing.  I 
had  intelligence  that  he  was  a  prisoner  and  slightly 

"  Colonel  Coon  of  Wisconsin,  a  volunteer  aide,  also 
rendered  good  service  during  the  day." 

Lincoln's  Humorous  Reply. 

They  were  all  back  near  Georgetown  by  July  23d, 
and  made  preparations  to  defend  their  position  against 
the  Confederates,  who  they  were  certain  were  at 
their  heels.  Sherman  about  this  time  had  trouble  with 
some  of  his  ninety-day  men,  who  wanted  to  return 
home.  Mr.  Lincoln  visited  the  camp  one  day,  when 
one  of  the  officers  stepped  up  to  the  President's  car- 
riage, in  which  Sherman  was  seated  with  him,  and 
said :  "  Mr.  President  I  have  a  cause  of  erievance. 
This  morning  I  went  to  speak  to  Colonel  Sherman, 
and  he  threatened  to  shoot  me."  Mr.  Lincoln  repeated 
interrogatively  the  words,  ''Threatened  to  shoot 
you  ?  " — "  Yes,  sir,  he  threatened  to  shoot  me."  Mr. 
Lincoln  looked  at  him  and  then  at  Sherman,  and 
bending  his  tall,  spare  form  toward  the  officer,  said  to 
him  in  a  loud  stage-whisper,  that  could  be  easily  heard 
at  some  distance,  "  Well,  if  I  were  you,  and  he  threat- 
ened to  shoot,  I  would  not  trust  him,  for  I  believe  he 
would  do  it."  The  officer  disappeared  amid  the 
laughter  of  all  who  were  around. 

During  the  anxious  August  days  after  the  battle  of 
Bull  Run,  while  Sherman  was  drilling  and  disciplining 




the  raw  regiments  under  him  and  getting  ready  to  do 
his  part  in  repulsing  the  attack  that  was  almost  hourly 
expected,  he  received  a  note  from  General  Robert  An- 
derson asking  him  to  call  on  him  in  Washington. 
Anderson  explained  that  the  Administration  was  be- 
coming alarmed  about  Kentucky,  where  matters  were 
rapidly  approaching  a  grave  crisis.  The  Legislature 
was  in  session,  and  was  ready,  as  soon  as  supported 
by  the  General  Government,  to  take  measures  that 
would  keep  the  State  in  the  Union.  It  had  been  de- 
termined, therefore,  to  organize  a  new  military  depart- 
ment, to  be  known  as  the  Department  of  the  Cum- 
berland, and  to  embrace  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  etc. 

Critical  Situation  in  Kentucky. 

Anderson  said  he  had  been  offered  the  command, 
had  accepted  it,  and  wanted  help.  The  President 
agreed  that  he  should  select  four  of  the  brigadiers, 
and  he  wanted  Sherman  to  be  one  of  them  and  to  be 
his  right-hand  man.  Anderson  had  been  the  captain 
of  Sherman's  company  In  the  old  Fort  Moultrie,  and 
knew  his  splendid  abilities  as  a  soldier.  The  other 
brigadiers  selected  for  the  new  department  by  Ander- 
son were  Thomas,  D.  C.  Buell,  and  Burnslde.  Sher- 
man always  wanted  to  go  West,  and  he  was  rejoiced 
to  be  given  the  chance  to  go  with  Anderson,  whom  he 
so  much  admired  and  esteemed. 

The  situation  in  Kentucky  at  this  time  was  exceed- 
ingly critical.  The  State  was  threatened  with  invasion 
by  two  forces — one  from  the  direction  of  Nashville, 
under  the  command  of  Albert  Sidney  Johnston  and 

SaMMAN  AT  BULL  IttlN.  187 

Buckner,  and  the  other  from  tlie  direction  of  the 
Cumberland  Gap,  under  the  command  of  Generals 
Crittenden  and  ZoUIcoffer.  Anderson  saw  that  the 
force  at  his  disposal  was  not  sufficient  to  fight  these 
two  columns,  and  he  sent  Sherman  to  Indianapolis 
and  Springfield  to  confer  with  the  governors  of  Indiana 
and  Illinois  and  ascertain  what  assistance  they  could 
give.  Sherman  found  Governor  Morton  busily  en- 
gaged equipping  regiments  and  sending  them  East 
to  McClellan  or  to  Fremont  in  Missouri.  These  two 
generals  were  then  looked  upon  as  the  great  soldiers 
who  were  to  put  an  end  to  the  war  and  restore  the 
Union.  Governor  Yates  in  Illinois  was  as  active  as 
Morton,  but  the  new  troops  were  all  going  to  Fre- 
mont or  McClellan. 

Sherman  was  not  very  successful  in  obtaining  help 
for  Kentucky,  and  he  resolved  to  go  to  St.  Louis  and 
lay  the  situation  before  Fremont  in  person.  When 
he  succeeded  in  obtaining  admission  to  Fremont, 
which  was  a  work  of  no  small  difficulty,  owing  to  the 
number  of  guards  with  whom  he  surrounded  himself, 
the  Western  commander  was  courteous  enough,  but 
Sherman  could  do  nothinof  with  him  In  furtherance  of 
his  mission.  He  returned  to  Louisville.  The  city 
was  In  the  greatest  state  of  excitement.  The  Legis- 
lature had  resolved  to  adhere  to  the  Union,  and  John- 
ston had  invaded  the  State,  advancing  as  far  as 
Bowling  Green,  which  he  began  to  fortify.  Buckner 
was  despatched  by  him  with  a  division  toward  Louis- 
ville.    Zollicoffer  entered  the  State  and  advanced  as 


far  as  Somerset.  Columbus  was  In  possession  of  Gen- 
erals Polks  and  Pillow,  and  General  Grant,  on  the 
other  side,  had  moved  from  Cairo  to  Paducah. 

In  a  few  hours  the  news  came  that  Buckner  was 
rapidly  marching  on  Louisville.  All  the  troops  An- 
derson had  to  oppose  him  were  Rousseau's  division 
and  a  few  home-guards  in  Louisville.  Sherman  was 
sent  out  with  Rousseau's  force  to  seize  Muldraugh's 
Hill,  back  of  Elizabethtown.  As  fast  as  troops  reached 
Louisville  they  were  sent  to  Sherman,  and  toward  the 
beginning  of  October  he  had  a  division  of  two  brigades. 
Anderson  in  Louisville  was  rapidily  breaking  down 
under  mental  strain  and  worry,  and  relinquished  the 
command.  Sherman,  as  senior,  had  to  fill  his  place, 
but  he  did  not  desire  to  serve  except  in  a  subordinate 
capacity.  The  War  Department  replied  that  Briga- 
dier-General Buell  would  soon  arrive  from  California 
to  relieve  him.  Sherman  in  the  mean  time  went 
vigorously  to  work  raising  troops,  but  it  was  not  an 
easy  matter.  The  young  men,  as  a  rule,  sympathized 
with  the  South,  and  the  old  men  wanted  to  stay  at 
home  and  defend  their  property.  He  succeeded, 
however,  in  materially  strengthening  General  George 
H.  Thomas  and  Brigadier-General  A.  D.  McCook, 
commanding  respectively  at  Camp  Dick  Robinson  and 


Events  preceding  the  Battle  of  Shiloh. — 
Rapid  Movements  in  the  Cumberland  Val- 
ley and  South-west. — Capture  of  Island 
No.  10. 

The  fall  of  Fort  Donelson,  February  i6,  1862, 
completely  broke  up  the  line  of  defence  stretching 
from  Bowling  Green  to  Columbus — a  line  of  defence 
which  the  Confederates  fondly  imagined  to  be  in- 
vulnerable. It  carried  the  whole  Union  front  forward 
two  hundred  miles.  It  had  the  immediate  effect  of 
driving  the  insurgents  completely  out  of  Kentucky. 
It  threw  them  back  into  the  centre  of  Tennessee,  and 
brought  the  capital  of  that  State  under  Union  au- 
thority. It  practically  unbound  both  the  Cumberland 
and  Tennessee  rivers — an  immense  gain  to  the  Union 
commanders,  as  they  fully  appreciated  the  great  ad- 
vantage of  gunboats  on   those  inland  rivers. 

There  can  now  be  no  doubt  in  any  mind  at  all 
familiar  with  the  subject  that  the  Union  victories  at 
Forts  Henry  and  Donelson  were  rendered  compar- 
atively easy  by  the  bad  management  of  the  Confed- 
erate commander-in-chief  Had  General  Johnston, 
in  place  of  attaching  so  much  importance  to  the  pro- 
tection of  the  two  forts  on  the  Tennessee  and  the 
Cumberland    respectively,    concentrated    his    various 





armies  and  forced  either  Grant  or  Biiell  or  both  to 
risk  the  chances  of  battle  in  the  open  ground,  the 
result  might  have  been  very  different.  Johnston  saw 
this  himself  when  it  was  too  late,  and  in  a  remarkable 
letter  addressed  from  Murfreesboro  to  Jefferson 
Davis,  he  said,  ''  If  I  join  this  corps  to  the  forces  of 
General  Beauregard,  then  those  who  are  declaiming 
against  me  will  be  without  an  argument."  It  was  the 
best  he  could  do  under  the  circumstances. 

Bowling  Green  had   been   evacuated  before   Fort 
Donelson  fell;  for,  beheving  it  to  be  untenable,  John. 


i5ton  had  moved  on  toward  the  south.  Nashville  was 
:hrown  into  a  perfect  panic  by  the  report  of  the 
:apture  of  Donelson,  and  as  Johnston  had  declared 



MAJ.-GEN.   D.  C.  BUELL. 

that  he  fought  for  that  city  while  endeavoring  to  save 
this  fort  on  the  Cumberland,  the  capital  of  Tennessee 
fell  an  easy  prey  to  the  troops  of  General  Buell.  Six 
days  after  the  capture  of  Nashville,  General  Halleck  t 

telegraphed   to   General   Mc- 
Clellan  from  St.  Louis,   "Co- 
lumbus, the   Gibraltar   of  the  ■ 
West,  is  ours  and   Kentucky  ) 
is  free.     Thanks   to   the  bril- 
liant strategy  of  the  campaign  i 
by  which   the  enemy's  centre  ( 
was  pierced  at  Forts   Henry  j 
and  Donelson,  his  wings  iso-  • 
lated    from    each    other    and  ( 
turned,    compelling    thus   the  i 
evacuation  of  his  stronghold  of  Bowling  Green  first,  l 
and  now  Columbus." 

Driven  from  all  these  strongholds,  it  became  neces-  ^ 
sary  for  the  Confederates  to  select  some  defensive 
position  farther  to  the  south.  In  obedience  to  in- 
structions from  Richmond,  Polk  fell  back  some  miles, 
still  clinging  to  the  shores  of  the  Mississippi,  and  es- 
tablished himself  at  Island  No.  lo  and  at  New  Madrid. 
Attack  on  Island  ^NTo.  lO. 
These  places,  although  fortified  with  great  strength, 
Island  No.  lo  particularly  having  had  the  special  at- 
tention of  General  Beauregard  and  being  deemed  the 
most  impregnable  of  all  the  posts  on  the  Mississippi, 
the  Confederates  were  compelled  in  succession  tc 
evacuate,     The  attack  on  Island  No,  lo  reflected  the 



highest  credit  on  the  skill  of  the  Union  commanders 
and  on  the  bravery  of  the  Union  troops.  It  was  not 
until  a  canal  had  been  cut  across 
Donaldson's  Point,  between  Is- 
land No.  8  and  New  Madrid,  that 
the  Nationals  had  any  hope  of 
dislodging  the  enemy. 

The  canal  was  twelve  miles 
long  and  fifty  feet  wide,  and 
nineteen  days  were  consumed 
in  cutting  it  from  point  to  point 

1  1    •  '  ♦         U1       r         ^l-  ADMIRAL    FOOTE. 

and  makmg  it  navigable  for  the 

largest  of  the  gunboats.  Commander  Foote  reported 
to  his  Government  that  Island  No.  lo  was  "harder  to 
conquer  than  Columbus,  its  shores  being  lined  with 
forts,  each  fort  commanding  the  one  above  it." 

Beauregard  telegraphed  to  Richmond  that  the 
National  guns  had  *'  thrown  three  thousand  shells 
and  burned  fifty  tons  of  gunpowder,"  his  batteries 
being  uninjured  and  only  one  man  killed.  The  canal 
made  a  complete  change  in  the  situation„  New 
Madrid  had  been  evacuated  on  the  I2th  of  March, 
and  on  the  8th  of  April,  four  days  after  the  com- 
pletion of  the  canal,  Island  No.  lo  had  ceased  to  be 
a  Confederate  stronghold. 

Federal  Victory. 

The  defenders  of  the  batteries  had  fled  in  con- 
fusion, but  they  were  pursued  by  Pope  and  compelled 
to  surrender.  The  garrison  on  the  island,  learning 
what  had  taken  place,  and  believing  the  situation  to 



be  hopeless,  sent  a  flag  of  truce  to  Commander  Foote, 
offering  to  surrender.  The  immediate  fruits  of  victory 
were  some  seven  thousand  prisoners,  including  three 
generals  and  two  hundred  and  seventy  field  and 
company  officers,  one  hundred  heavy  siege-guns, 
twenty-four  pieces  of  field  artillery,  a  large  quantity 
of  ammunition,  several  thousand  stands  of  small-arms, 
with  tents,  horses,  and  wagons  innumerable.  ''No 
single  battle-field  has  yet  afforded  to  the  North  such 
visible  fruits  of  victory  as  have  been  gathered  at 
Island  No.  lo."     Such  was  the  language  used  by  the 

ISLAND    NO.    10. 

high  officials  at  Richmond.     The  Mississippi  was  now 
open  as  far  south  as  Fort  Pillow. 

While  these  events  were  following  each  other  in 
rapid  succession  in  Middle  Tennessee  and  Western 
Kentucky,  successes  of  a  scarcely  less  substantia^ 
kind  were  attending  the  National  arms  in  Arkansas, 
in  the  grand  movement,  conducted  by  Curtis,  SigeL 



nnd  others,  down  the  Mississippi  Valley  toward  the 
Gulf.  Early  in  February  the  Confederate  general 
Price  had  been  compelled  to  retreat  from  Missouri 
into  Arkansas. 

The  Old  Flag"  in  Arkansas. 

On  the  1 8th  of  that  month  he  was  closely  followed 

by  the  Nationals  under  General  Samuel  R.  Curtis  of 

iowa.      On    the   same   day  joy 

was     created     throuehout     the 

Union  by  a  telegram  sent  by 
General  Halleck  to  General 
McClellan.  "The  flag  of  the 
Union,"  said  Halleck,  "  is  float- 
ing in  Arkansas.  The  army  of 
the  South-west  is  doing  its  duty 
nobly."  Curtis  foresaw,  how- 
,  ever,  that  he  was  certain  soon 
to  be  taken  at  a  disadvantage, 

las  the  Confederates  in  retreating  had  really  been 
^falling  back  upon  reinforcements.  He  therefore  took 
post  upon  Sugar  Creek.  His  entire  force  consisted 
of  twelve  thousand  five  hundred  men,  with  forty-nine 
guns.  The  enemy,  under  General  Earl  Van  Dorn, 
a  dashing  Confederate  officer,  was  at  least  twenty 
thousand  strong. 

On  the  morning  of  the  7th  of  March  the  two 
Armies  came  into  collision,  and  fierce  fighting  con- 
in  ued  throughout  the  day. 

There  had  been  much  previous  manoeuvring,  and 
n    consequence    of  a    skillful    and    successful    flank 

MAj.-GLN.  H.  W.  HALLECK. 



movement  made  by  Van  Dorn,  Curtis  was  compelled, 
almost  at  the  last  moment,  to  change  his  front. 
Carr's  Division  Driven  Back. 
When   the  struggle  began   the   First  and  Second 
divisions,    under    Sigel    and    Asboth,    were    on    the 
left,  the  Third,  under  Davis,  was  in  the   centre,  and 
Carr's  Fourth  division  formed  the  right.    The  line  ex- 
tended between  three  and  four 
miles,    from    Sugar    Creek    to 
Elkhorn   Tavern.     On    the  op- 
posite   side  of   a  ravine  called 
Cross-Timber  Hollow  the  Con- 
federate line  was  stretched  out  ; 
before  them,  with  Price  on  the  ; 
right,  Mcintosh  In  the    centre,  ,' 
and    McCulloch   on     the     left. 
The    attack    fell    heavily    upon 
Carr's   division,  which  during  the  course  of  the  day  , 
was   driven    back  nearly  a  mile,  but  was    not  disor-  ' 

An  attempt  was  made  by  McCulloch,  by  a  move- 
ment of  his  force  to  the  left,  to  join  Van  Dorn  and 
Price  In  their  attack  on  Curtis's  right.  To  arrest 
this  movement,  Sigel  pushed  forward  three  pieces 
of  artillery,  with  a  body  of  cavalry  to  protect  and 
support  them.  The  cavalry  were  immediately  over- 
whelmed and  the  guns  captured.  Davis  hurried  to 
the  assistance  of  Sigel ;  a  desperate  struggle  followed, 
victory  oscillating  like  a  pendulum,  the  Nationals  and 
Confederates  recoiling  and  recovering  alternately  ;  ul- 



timately,  however,  the  Confederate  right  was  broken 
and  routed,  and  among  those  left  on  the  field  were 
Generals  McCulloch  and  Mcintosh,  mortally  wounded. 
At  the  close  of  the  fighting  on 
the  7th,  Price  was  on  the  Fay 
etteville  road,  in  Curtis's  rear. 
Van  Dorn  had  his  headquar- 
ters at  Elkhorn  Tavern.  On  the 
right  the  National  army  had  been 
defeated  ;  it  was  cut  off  from  its 
line  of  communication  ;  its  pro- 
visions were  all  but  exhausted,  major-general  f.  sigel. 
The  Confederates,  however,  had 

been  defeated  on  their  right  and  nearly  driven  from 
the  field  During  the  night  the  Confederates  united 
their  forces  on  the  ground  held  by  their  left  wing.  A 
change  was  also  effected  in  the  National  line,  Davis 
taking  the  right,  Carr  the  centre,  and  Sigel  the  left. 

A  Federal  Victory. 

At  sunrise  the  battle  was  resumed,  Sigel  opening 
a  heavy  cannonade  and  advancing  round  the  enemy's 
right,  Davis  at  the  same  time  turning  the  enemy's  left. 
It  was  a  daring  and  skilful  movement,  and  had  all  the 
effects  of  a  surprise.  All  at  once  the  Confederates 
found  themselves  exposed  to  a  destructive  cross-fire. 
I  They  made  a  brave  resistance,  but  in  two  hours,  such 
was  the  precision  and  rapidity  of  Sigel's  gunners,  they 
were  in  full  retreat  through  the  defiles  of  Cross- 
Timber  Hollow. 

Thus  ended  what  is  known  as  the  battle  of  Pea 


Ridge.  In  the  two  days  the  Nationals  lost  over  thir- 
teen hundred  rnen.  The  Confederate  loss  must  have 
been  oreater.     This  battle  had  no  direct  connection 


with  the  movements  more  immediately  under  con- 
sideration. It  did  not  result  from  the  fall  of  Forts 
Henry  and  Donelson.  It  did  not  in  any  way  affect 
the  impending  struggle  at  Pittsburg  Landing. 

But  inasmuch  as  the  movements  of  the  army  under 
Curtis  were  part  of  Halleck's  general  plan,  as  that 
plan  contemplated  quite  as  much  the  opening  of  the 
Mississippi  from  Cairo  to  the  Gulf  as  the  driving  of 
the  enemy  out  of  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  and  as 
the  battle  of  Pea  Ridge  was  noted  for  skill  on  the  part 
of  the  officers  and  bravery  on  the  part  of  the  men,  it 
has  been  deemed  wise,  the  more  especially  as  it 
occurred  simultaneously  with  the  events  now  under 
review,  to  give  it  a  place  in  these  pages,  which  are  in- 
tended to  be  preliminary  to  the  most  gigantic  effort 
yet  made  on  either  side  since  the  commencement  of 
the  war. 

The  Popular  Favorite. 

After  the  fall  of  Donelson  it  was  only  natural  that 
General  Grant  should,  for  a  time  at  least,  become  the 
popular  favorite.  All  over  the  Union  his  praises 
were  liberally  sounded,  and  by  not  a  few  who  had  ac- 
quired an  insight  into  his  character  he  was  hailed 
already  as  the  coming  man.  His  sphere  of  action  had 
been  greatly  enlarged.  General  Halleck,  as  if  to 
mark  his  appreciation  of  Grant's  noble  services,  had 
assigned  him  to  tiie  command  ot  the  new  district  of 



West  Tennessee,  a  command  which  extended  from 
Cairo  to  the  northern  borders  of  Mississippi,  and  em- 
braced the  entire  country  between  the  Mississippi 
and  Cumberland  rivers. 

General  Grant  took  immediate  steps  to  turn  to  ac- 
count the  victories  which  he  had  won  and  to  press 
the  enemy  still  farther  to  the  south.  He  established 
his  headquarters  at  Fort  Henry,  where  General  Lewis 
Wallace  was  in  command.      We  have  seen  already 


that  Foote's  flotilla  was  withdrawn  from  the  Cumber- 
land, that  part  of  it  had  gone  up  the  Tennessee  River, 
and  that  Foote  himself,  with  a  powerful  naval  arma- 
ment, had  gone  down  the  Mississippi  for  the  purpose 


of  co-operating  with  the  land  troops  against  Colum- 
bus,  Hickman,  Island  No.   lo,  and  New  Madrid. 
General  C.  F.  Smith  in  Command. 

It  seems  to  have  been  the  conviction  of  all  the 
Union  commanders — of  Halleck,  of  Buell,  of  Grant — 
that  a  lodorment  should  be  made  at  or  near  Corinth  in 
Northern  Mississippi.  The  possession  of  Corinth  or 
Florence  or  Tuscumbia,  but  particularly  Corinth, 
vv^ould  o-ive  the  National  forces  control  of  the  Mem- 
phis  and  Charleston  railroad,  the  key  to  the  great 
railway  communications  between  the  Mississippi  and 
the  East,  as  well  as  the  border  slave  States  and  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico. 

It  would  facilitate  the  capture  of  Memphis,  because 
it  would  place  it  more  completely  at  the  mercy  of  the 
troops  now  moving  down  the  Mississippi ;  and  it 
would  render  effective  assistance  to  General  Curtis^ 
who,  as  we  have  seen,  was  at  this  moment  carrying 
on  important  operations  in  Arkansas.  While  adopt- 
ing vigorous  measures  for  the  purpose  of  giving  effect 
to  the  general  plan.  Grant  had  the  mortification  to 
receive  an  order  from  Halleck  instructing  him  to  turn 
over  his  command  to  General  C.  F.  Smith  and  to 
remain  himself  at  Fort  Henry. 

Grant  Humiliated. 

In  such  circumstances  such  an  order  must  have 
been  humiliating  in  the  last  degree  to  General  Grant, 
and  it  is  not  surprising  that,  stung  to  the  quick  as  he 
must  have  been,  he  should  have  asked  to  be  entirely 
relieved  from  duty.     As  a  general  rule,  it  is  unwise 


to  attach  too  much  importance  to  individuals  in  a 
great  national  contest.  No  one  man  is  absolutely  in- 
dispensable. It  is  undeniable,  however,  that  the 
retirement  of  General  Grant  at  this  particular  junc- 
ture might  have  materially  affected  the  future  history 
of  the  great  national  struggle,  now  fairly  begun  and 
already  bearing  upon  it  somewhat  of  the  impress  of 
his  character  and  genius. 

The  story  of  this  short-lived  difficulty  is  easily  told. 
Complying  with  a  request  for  an  interview,  Grant  had 
on  the  27th  of  February  gone  on  a  visit  to  Buell,  up 
the  Cumberland  to  Nashville.  In  the  mean  time,  Hal- 
leck  had  ordered  him  to  ascend  the  Tennessee,  then 
in  full  flood,  and  establish  himself  on  the  Memphis 
and  Charleston  railroad  at  or  near  Corinth.  On  the 
1st  of  March,  Halleck  ordered  him  to  fall  back  from 
the  Cumberland  to  the  Tennessee,  with  the  view  of 
carrying  out  the  orders  previously  given.  It  was  sup- 
posed at  this  moment  that  the  Confederates  had  re- 
treated to  Chattanoocra. 

Halleck's  Complaints. 

Sherman  meanwhile  received  orders  to  seize  all 
steamboats  passing  Paducah,  and  to  send  them  up  the 
Tennessee  for  the  transportation  of  Grant's  army, 
On  hearing  that  Grant  had  gone  up  the  Cumberland, 
Halleck  telegraphed  to  him,  "Why  don't  you  obey 
my  orders?  Why  don't  you  answer  my  letters? 
Turn  over  the  command  of  the  Tennessee  expedition 
to  General  C.  F.  Smith,  and  remain  yourself  at  Fort 
Henry."     At  the  same  time,  Halleck  wrote  complain- 


ingly  to  McClellan  at  Washington,  saying  he  could 
get  no  reports  from  Grant,  whose  troops  were  demor- 
alized by  their  victory. 

To  Grant  himself  Halleck  wrote,  statinor  that  his  re- 
peated  neglect  of  positive  orders  to  report  his  strength 
had  created  great  dissatisfation  and  seriously  inter- 
fered with  the  general  military  arrangements,  and  that 
his  going  to  Nashville  when  he  ought  to  have  been 
with  his  troops  had  given  such  offence  at  Washington 
that  it  had  been  considered  advisable  to  arrest  him  on 
his  return. 

Grant's  Conduct  Explained. 

It  is  possible  that,  judging  by  the  highest  forms  of 
military  law.  Grant  in  some  of  the  particulars  charged 
was  to  blame.  It  is  possible,  too,  that  Halleck,  who 
was  a  man  of  the  old  school  and  strict  to  the  letter 
©f  the  law,  was  officious  overmuch.  Grant,  however, 
had  his  explanation  ready.  He  had  not  received 
Halleck's  orders  in  time ;  he  had  gone  to  Nashville 
for  the  good  of  the  service,  and  not  for  personal  plea- 
sure or  for  any  selfish  motive  ;  he  had  reported  every 
day,  had  written  on  an  average  more  than  once  a 
day,  and  had  done  his  best  to  obey  orders  from  head- 
quarters ;  he  had  not  permitted  his  troops  to  maraud ; 
on  the  contrary,  he  had  sent  the  marauders  on  to  St. 
Louis.  He  submitted  to  instructions  by  turning  the 
army  oi^er  to  General  Smith.  He  asked,  however, 
that  he  miaht  be  relieved. 

The  explanations  so  far  satisfied  Halleck  that  he 
requested  the  authorities  at  Washington  to  allow  the 



matter  to  drop.  Smith,  however,  remained  in  com- 
mand, but,  as  the  reader  will  soon  discover,  only  for  a 
brief  period. 

A  Splendid  Pageant. 

The  temporary  change  of  commanders  did  not  al- 
low any  intermission  of  the  work.  The  expedition  up 
the  Tennessee  was  hurried  forward.  An  acquisition 
was  found  in  Sherman,  who,  in  compliance  with  orders 
from  Halleck,  reported  to 
Smith.  It  was  not  many  days 
until  seventy  transports,  carry- 
ing over  thirty  thousand  troops, 
were    ready    to    move    to    the 

point  agreed  upon.  As  the  ^^^^^^B^H^^^ 
boats  steamed  up  to  Savannah, 
where  the  depot  of  supplies 
was  established,  bands  playing 
and  banners  flying,  it  was  per- 
haps the  most  splendid  pageant 
seen  since  the  commencement  of  the  war.  On  the 
nth  of  March  the  greater  portion  of  the  army  was 
debarked  at  Savannah  in  perfect  safety. 

General  Lewis  Wallace,  with  his  division,  disem- 
barked on  the  west  bank  of  the  river  at  Crump's 
Landing,  about  four  miles  above  Savannah,  and  took 
post  on  the  road  to  Purdy.  His  instructions  were  to 
destroy  the  railroad  bridge  in  the  immediate  neighbor- 
hood of  that  village.  This  was  a  hazardous  under- 
taking, for  the  Confederates,  as  was  afterward  learned, 
ATere  lying  close  at  hand ;  but  it  was  successfully  ac- 



complished,  and  that,  too,  under  the  inconvenience 
and  discomfort  of  a  series  of  heavy  thunderstorms. 
A  Confederate  train  approached  while  the  bridge 
was  burning,  and  narrowly  escaped  capture  by  re- 
versing the  engine.  Sherman  was  ordered  by  Smith 
to  take  his  own  division  and  the  two  gunboats  Tyler 
and  Lexington,  to  proceed  farther  up  the  river,  and 
Lo  strike  the  Memphis  and  Charleston  railroad. 

Sherman's  Coinniand  in  Peril. 

Sherman  went  up  as  far  as  Tyler's  Landing,  at  the 
mouth   of  Yellow  Creek,  just  within  the  borders  of  I 
Mississippi,  but  the   roads  were  so    flooded    by  the 
heavy  rains  that  he  found  it  impossible  to  reach  the  ! 
railroad.      Had  the   enemy  known    his  opportunity, 
Sherman's  division   might  have  been  cut  to  pieces; 
for  it  was    with   the  utmost   difficulty,  and  not  until  i 
many  men   and  horses  had  perished  in  the  swollen 
streams,  that  he  got  back  to  his  boats. 

On  his  way  up  the  stream  Sherman  made  one  im- 
portant discovery.  On  passing  Pittsburg  Landing 
the  gunboats  were  fired  upon  by  a  Confederate  regi- 
ment. It  had  already  become  known  that  the  Con- 
federate army  was  concentrating  at  Corinth,  and  that 
two  batteries  were  already  posted  in  advance — one 
at  Eastport,  the  other  just  above  the  mouth  of  Bear 

Sherman  learned  that  a  road  led  from  Pittsburg 
Landing  to  Corinth ;  he  conveyed  the  information  at 
once  to  Smith,  and  declared  it  to  be  all-important, 
in  his  judgment,  that  Pittsburg  Landing  should  be  oc- 


cupied.     The  advice  was  taken  and  the  place  became 
sacred — the  name  immortal. 

After  a  personal  examination  of  the  ground,  Smith 
was  satisfied  that  Sherman's  advice  was  sound  ;  and 
Hurlbut  was  ordered  to  occupy  Pittsburg  Landing, 
while  Sherman  was  directed  to  bring  his  division  on 
the  ground,  but  to  take  a  position  out  from  the  river, 
leaving  space  enough  behind  him,  as  Smith  put  it, 
"  for  a  hundred  thousand  men." 


Sherman  Saves  the  Battle  of  Shiloh. — Valley  j 
of  Death. — A  Wall  of  Iron. — Grant  Praises  : 
Sherman's  Heroism. 

Pittsburg  Landing  is  about  eight  or  nine  miles  ; 
above   Savannah,  and  lies  on  the  west  side  of  the  < 
Tennessee.     The    river-banks    at    the    landing    rise  ( 
about  eighty  feet,  but  are   cloven   by  a   number  of  I 
ravines,  through   one  of  which  runs   the  main   road 
to  Corinth  to  the  south-west,  and  branching  off  to 
Purdy  to  the  north-west.     The  landing  is  flanked  on  i 
the  left  by  a  short  but  precipitous  ravine.     On  the  ( 
right  and  left  are  Snake  and  Lick  creeks,  streams 
which   rise   near  each  other  and  gradually  diverge, 
falling  into  the  Tennessee  some   four  or  five  miles 
apart  on  either  side  of  the  landing.     Between  these 
streams,  which   form  a  good  flanking  arrangement, 
making    attack    possible    only    in    the    front,    lies   a 
plateau   or   table-land   rising  some   eighty  feet  high, 
of   irregular   surface,   cleared    near   the    shores,    but 
covered  with  tall  oaks  and  thick  brushwood  farther 
from  the  river. 

Abuut  three  miles  from  the  landing,  and  embowered 
in  trees,  stood  a  little  log  building — a  place  used 
occasionally  by  the  Methodists  for  holding  camp- 
meetings.     It  had   neither  doors   nor  windows,  and 


was  only  half-floored.  Some  corn  in  the  husk  lay 
piled  on  the  floor.  This  was  Shiloh  Church,  destined 
to  give  its  name  to  the  neighborhood  and  to  the 
bloody  contest  which  was  so  soon  to  disturb  its  quiet 

Sherman's  Guard  of  Eight  Thousand. 

The  illness  of  General  Smith,  which  resulted  in 
death  on  the  25th  of  April,  brought  Grant  again 
to  the  front.  On  the  17th  of  March  he  arrived  at 
Savannah,  established  his  headquarters  at  the  house 
of  Mr.  Cheney,  and  assumed  the  command.  He 
found  the  army  already  in  position,  and  made  no 
radical  changes.  The  landing  was  guarded  by  the 
gunboats  Tyler  and  Lexington.  Sherman's  division, 
eight  thousand  strong,  formed  a  sort  of  outlying 
force,  covering  all  the  main  roads  leading  to  the 
landing.  There  was  a  gap  between  his  centre  and 
his  right,  and  a  still  wider  gap  of  about  two  and  a 
half  miles  between  his  centre  and  his  left.  Hurlbut's 
division  was  put  in  line  on  the  left  of  the  main  Corinth 
road,  and  Smith's  own  division,  under  General  W.  H. 
L.  Wallace,  was  on  Hurlbut's  right. 

Lewis  Wallace's  division  was  detached  and  sta- 
tioned at  Crump's  Landing,  to  observe  any  move- 
ments which  might  be  made  by  the  Confederates  at 
Purdy  and  to  cover  the  river  communications  between 
Pittsburg  Landing  and  Savannah.  McClernand's 
division  was  about  a  mile  in  front  of  W.  H.  L. 
Wallace,  with  that  of  Prentiss  to  his  right.  These 
two  divisions — that  of  McClernand  and  that  of  Pren- 



tiss — formed  the  real  line  of  battle.  The  entire  force 
was  about  thirty- three  thousand  men.  In  estimating 
the  possible  strength  of  the  Union  army  the  aid 
which  might  come  from  Buell  must  be  taken  into 

Buell  on  the  March. 
This  general,  after  repeated  solicitations  that  he 
might  be  permitted  to  abandon  Nashville,  cross  Ten- 
nessee, and  join  his  forces  to  those  of  Grant  with  a 
view  to  counteract  the  Confederate  concentration  at 
Corinth,  had  at  last  obtained  Halleck's  consent.  The 
Army  of  the  Ohio,  which  numbered  some  forty  thou- 
sand men,  was  therefore  already  on  its  march,  and  by 
the  20th  of  March  it  had  reached  Columbia.  The 
roads  were  bad  and  the  weather  stormy  in  the  ex- 
treme ;  but  it  was  not  unreasonable  to  conclude  that 

Buell  would  be  able  to  accom- 
plish the  distance  in  time. 
Should  this  large  increase  of 
strength  arrive  before  the  com- 
mencement of  hostilities.  Grant 
could  have  but  small  reason  for 
any  misgivings  as  to  the  issue 
of  the  contest. 

Let  us  now  glance  at  the  po- 
sition of  the  Confederates  and 
consider  their  plans  and  their 
prospects.  When  the  first  line  of  the  Confederate 
defence  had  been  swept  away  by  the  capture  of  Fort 
Doneison,  Johnston  retired  first  of  all  to  Murfreesboro; 


%^  IVxv^li^Y^^^^^^'  '^ 


•VATePS   SDA/A/.t. 

14  209 



but  the  great  object  aimed  at  both  by  him  and  Beau-i 
regard  was  to  concentrate  the  Confederate  forces  and 
establish  a  second  Hne  of  defence  on  the  Memphis  and 
Charleston  railroad.  Concentration  had  for  some  time 
past  been  the  favorite  idea  of  Beauregard.  If  his 
advice  had  been  taken  in  time,  Donelson  might  not 
yet  have  fallen.  Beauregard  selected  Corinth  as  thei 
most  desirable  point  for  concentrating  the  scattered 
forces  of  the  Confederacy.  Here  the  two  great 
railroads  which  connect  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  andi 
the  Mississippi  with  the  Adantic  Ocean  form  a  junc-i 
tion.  It  is  the  key  of  the  railroad  system  of  Missis-: 

A  Great  Military  Camp. 
Orders  were  issued  to  the  commanders  of  all  the 
outlying  positions,  and  Beauregard  was  soon  joined 
by  Bragg  from  Pensacola,  by  Polk  from  Mississippi, 
Johnston  also  coming  up  with 
his  entire  army  from  Murfrees- 
boro.  Corinth  therefore  became 
a  great  military  camp,  and  in  ad- 
dition to  its  other  advantages  it 
afforded  complete  protection  to 
Memphis.  In  three  weeks  the 
Confederate  strength  had  risen 
from  eleven  thousand  to  forty- 
five  thousand  men.  This,  how- 
Van  Dorn  and  Price  were  known 
to  be  coming  up  from  Arkansas  with  other  thirty 
thousand  men. 


ever,  was  not  all. 


Since  the  commencement  of  the  war  the  Confed- 
erates never  found  themselves  in  circumstances 
more  favorable  for  striking  a  bold  and  decisive 
blow.  After  the  junction  with  Johnston  that  general 
took  the  command,  Beauregard  being  nominally 
second,  but  remaining  really  the  soul  of  the  move- 

It  had  been  the  intention  of  Halleck,  under  whose 
instructions  the  entire  movement  on  the  part  of  the 
Nationals  was  conducted,  to  intervene  between  John- 
ston and  Beauregard.  When,  therefore,  he  heard 
that  Johnston  had  disappeared  from  Murfreesboro, 
and  that  his  object  was  to  join  Beauregard  at  Corinth, 
he  ordered  Buell  to  hurry  forward  to  the  aid  of  Grant 
and  counteract,  as  far  as  possible,  the  Confederate 

Confederate  Forces  United. 

There  had  been  unnecessary  delay,  which  permitted 
the  Confederate  generals  to  unite  their  strength ;  and 
now  the  weather  and  the  roads  were  such  that,  al- 
though Buell's  army  was  at  Columbia  on  the  20th,  it 
took  full  seventeen  days  to  reach  Pittsburg  Landing, 
a  distance  of  only  ninety  miles. 

To  the  Confederate  general  two  questions  presented 
themselves:  Shall  I  wait  for  Van  Dorn  and  Price?  or 
shall  I  strike  Grant  at  once,  before  Buell  has  time  to 
come  up  ?  At  this  time  Breckenridge,  with  the  Con- 
federate right,  which  consisted  of  eleven  thousand 
men,  was  stationed  at  Burnsville ;  Hardee  and  Bracror, 
with  more   than    twenty  thousand   men,  formed   the 




centre  at  Corinth ;  and  Polk  and  Hindman,  with  ten  \ 

thousand  men,  were  on  the 
left,  to  the  north  of  the  Mem-  \ 
phis  and  Charleston  railroad.  ' 
Johnston,  on  assuming  com- 
mand, had  issued  a  flaming, 
proclamation.     '*  You  are  ex- 
pected," he    said  to  the  sol- 1 
diers,    "  to    show   yourselves : 
worthy  of   your    valor    and( 
courage,  worthy  of  the  women  i 
of   the    South,    whose   noble ' 
devotion  in  this  war  has  never  been  exceeded  in  any;, 
time."  ! 

The  Foe  Advancing. 

On  the  3d  of  April  their  available  strength  being j 
forty  thousand  men,  the  Confederates  commenced  1 
their  onward  march.  Their  plan  was  first  to  destroy 
Grant  and  then  to  fall  with  all  their  weight  on  Buell. 
The  roads  were  in  a  terrible  condition,  and  in  conse- 
quence the  progress  made  was  slow.  It  was  intended 
to  attack  the  National  army  on  the  5th,  but  the  attack 
was  delayed  in  consequence  of  a  heavy  rainstorm 
which  fell  in  the  afternoon.  They  were  the  less  un- 
willing to  delay  the  attack  by  reason  of  information 
having  just  reached  them  that  the  troops  from  the 
West,  under  Van  Dorn  and  Price,  would  certainly  join 
them  the  next  morninof. 

That  night  they  were  distant  from  the  National  pickets 
only  about  three-quarters   of  a  mile.      Hardee  was  in 





front;  Bragg  was  in  a  second  line  behind  ;  Polk  was  be- 
hind Bragg;  and  Breckenridge  brought  up  the  rear. 
During  the  course  ol  the  even- 
ing a  council  of  war  was  held. 
There  was  a  disposition  to  wait 
for  Van  Dorn  and  Price.  But 
ihere  was  peril  in  waiting.  If 
Buell  should  arrive,  Johnston 
would  lose  his  golden  oppor- 
tunity. It  was  the  general 
conviction  that  their  forward 
movement  was  unknown  to 
Grant,  and,  after  a  consultation 
of  some  two  hours  it  was  resolved  to  strike  a  blow  be- 
fore  dawn  of  the  coming  day.  *' Gentlemen,"  said 
Beauregard  at  the  close  of  the  council,  while  pointing 
in  the  direction  of  Grant's  army,  "  we  sleep  in  the 
enemy's  camp  to-morrow  night." 

Sherman  at  the  Front, 

The  Confederate  generals  made  a  mistake  in  sup- 
posing that  Grant  was  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  they 
were  moving  forward  upon  him  with  the  view  of 
making  an  attack.  That  the  enemy  was  massed  at 
Corinth  he  was  well  aware,  but  he  was  in  the  enemy's 
country,  and  information  was  not  v/illingly  obtained 
irom  the  people  of  the  neighborhood.  That  he  ex- 
pected to  be  attacked  is  proved  by  the  instructions 
which  he  gave  to  his  officers,  particularly  to  Lewis 
Wallace  and  Sherman. 

But  he   had    no  means  of  knowing   the   enemy's 



Strength.     He  did  not  know  that  concentration  was  i 
taking  place  so  rapidly,  and  a  vague  idea  prevailed  in 
the  Union  camp  that  the  force  opposed  to  them  did 
not  exceed  ten  thousand  men.     Of  the  forward  march 


of  the  enemy  he  could  not  be  ignorant,  for  on  the  4th 
an  infantry  picket  belonging  to  Colonel  Buckland's 
brigade  having  been  captured,  Sherman  took  that 
brigade,  with  some  cavalry,  and  drove  back  the  Con- 
federate horsemen  some  six  miles  from  the  front  of 
the  camp,  taking  good  care  not  to  expose  his  com- 
mand to  any  sudden  assault. 

The  firlnor  of  cannon  was  heard  in  the  evening.  On 
the  same  day  Lewis  Wallace  reported  eight  regiments 
of  infantry  and  twelve  hundred  cavalry  at  Purdy,  and 
an  equal  force  at  Bethel.     It  is  not  to  be  denied,  how- 

BATTLE  OF  8HIL0H.  21fl 

ever,  that  Grant  was  in  doubt  from  what  direction 
the  onslaught  would  be  made.  They  might  attack 
his  main  camp,  or  they  might  cross  over  Snake  Creek 
to  the  north  and  west  of  him,  establishing  themselves 
on  the  Tennessee  below,  and  forcing  him  to  fight  or 
cross  to  the  east  side  of  the  river.  Grant  had  his 
feelers  out  all  around,  and,  as  the  result  proved,  he 
did  best  to  risk  a  batde  on  the  ground  which  had  been 
\  chosen  and  on  which  he  stood. 

An  Eventful  Day. 
The  uncertainty  which  prevailed  in  the  Union  camp 
as  to  the  point  which  might  first  have  to  bear  the 
'  shock  of  batde  proved  an  immense  gain  to  the  Con- 
j  federates.     It  enabled  them   to  mass  themselves    in 
i  great  force  and  fall  with  destructive  effect  on  one  part 
I  of  the  Union  line.     So  great,  indeed,  was  the  advan- 
\  tage  which  they  thus  obtained  that  the  wonder  is  not 
=  so  much  that  victory  leaned  to  their  standards  during 
the  greater  part  of  the  first  day's  fighting,  but  that 
they  did  not  succeed  in  a  few  hours  in   completely 
,  sweeping  the  Union  army  from  the  field. 
1     Their  plan  was  to  penetrate  the  Union  centre,  di- 
vide the  army  in  two,  and  cut  it  up  in   detail.     This 
'  done,  it  would  not  be  difficult  to  make  short,  sharp 
work  with  Buell.     The  plan  was  good  enough,  but  in 
their  calculations  the  Confederate  generals  made  one 
mistake :  they  did  not  take  into  account  the  cool  pluck 
:  and   skill  of  tlie  Union  commanders  and  the  stern 
courage  and  determination  of  the  Union  men. 
The  night  of  the  5th  was,  as  we  have  seen,  wild 


and  stormy.  The  next  morning  (Sunday)  rose  brightii 
and  clear.  The  recent  rains,  while  they  had  filled  thei 
creeks  and  streams,  had  given  an  air  of  freshness  to 
the  surrounding  country.  The  breath  of  spring  was 
everywhere.  The  trees  were  robed  in  the  most  deli- 
cate green  and  the  sweet,  rich  voices  of  the  morning 
songsters  filled  the  air  with  melody.  In  the  Union 
camp  it  was  still  unknown  toward  what  point  the 
enemy  might  be  moving,  but  there  was  watchful- 
ness everywhere.  Prentiss's  grand  guards  had  been 
doubled  the  night  before  and  his  pickets  were  out  one 
mile  and  a  half. 

Sherman's  troops  had  already  breakfasted,  and 
were  formed  into  line.  With  the  early  dawn  Har- 
dee's corps,  which  formed  the  first  Confederate  line, 
was  in  motion.  Quickly  but  silently  they  passed 
across  the  ravine  of  Lick  Creek  and  the  ground 
which  separated  it  from  the  outlying  divisions  of  the 
Union  army.  It  was  the  more  easy  for  them  to  move 
noiselessly  because  the  fallen  leaves,  being  soaked 
with  rain,  made  no  rustling  sound  under  the  footsteps 
of  the  men. 

The  Terrible  Onset. 

The  onslaught  was  tremendous.  Avalanche-like,  it 
overcame  all  resistance.  The  Union  outposts  were 
driven  like  chaff  before  the  wind.  On  Hardee 
moved,  falling  heavily  on  Sherman's  left,  and  then, 
as  if  rebounding  from  that  firm  phalanx,  his  endre 
force  rolled  with  resistless  and  crushing  weight  upon 
Prentiss's  division.     The  fierce  yells  of  the  charging 


regiments,  the  sharp  shrill  sounds  of  musketry, 
the  booming-  of  cannon,  the  bursting  of  shells,  the 
crashing  of  timber,  and  the  clouds  of  sulphurous 
smoke  which  filled  the  woods  too  plainly  told  that  the 
batde  of  Shiloh  had  begun. 

When  the  first  shots  were  fired.  Grant,  unfortu- 
nately, was  not  on  the  ground.  He  had  gone  down 
the  river  to  Savannah,  some  nine  miles  off,  to  have 
an  interview  with  Buell.  Soon  as  he  heard  the  first 
guns  he  hastened  to  the  scene  of  action.  Leaving  a 
letter  for  Buell,  and  ordering  Nelson,  who  had  arrived 
with  a  portion  of  Bu ell's  forces,  to  hurry  forward,  he 
took  a  steamboat  for  Pittsburg  Landing.  Halting  at 
Crump's  Landing,  he  gave  directions  to  Lewis  Wal- 
lace to  follow  at  once,  unless  it  should  turn  out  that 
the  firing  they  heard  was  intended  to  deceive  and 
that  the  real  attack  was  to  be  made  upon  him.  lit 
the  latter  event  he  was  to  defend  himself  to  the 
utmost,  and  to  rely  with  confidence  on  reinforcements 
being  sent  him  with  the  least  possible  delay.  The 
attack  had   been  made  ac  the    first  streak  of  early 



Grant  on  tfee  Field. 

It  was  eight  o'clock  befcre  Grant  reached  the  field 
of  Shiloh.  He  saw  that  he  had  to  fight  the  combined 
Confederate  force,  and  without  the  aid  of  Buell. 
iWhat  the  Confederate  strength  was  Grant  could 
only  guess.  We  know  chat  the  combined  army  was 
over  forty  thousand  strong.  Grant  had  an  available 
orce  of  thirty-three  thousand  men.     He  beheved  he 


could    depend    upon    Lewis    Wallace,   who    had   five 
thousand    more.     Some   severe  work,   however,  hadj 
already  been  done. 

There  was  a  considerable  gap  between  Prentiss's 
right  and  Sherman's  left.  It  was  into  this  gap  that 
Hardee  tried  to  force  himself,  his  object  being  to  out- 
flank and  turn  both  lines.  In  the  beginning  of  thei 
conflict  Sherman's  left,  as  we  have  indicated,  wasi 
sorely  pressed  and  suffered  terribly. 

Sherman  in  the  Thick  of  the  Fig^ht. 

But  that  active  and  skilful  general  was  present  ini; 
the  thickest  of  the  fight,  and  by  his  cheering  words 
and  personal  bravery,  as  well  as  by  the  admirablel 
manner  in  which  he  handled  his  men,  he  laid  that  day  thei 
foundation  of  a  fame  which  the  American  people  willi 
not  willingly  let  die.  Hildebrand's  brigade,  which  hadi 
been  driven  from  its  position  by  the  first  onset  of  the 
enemy,  Sherman  tried  in  vain  to  rally.  While  thus 
engaged  he  received  a  severe  bullet-wound  in  the 
hand.  Nothing,  however,  could  daunt  his  energy  or 
induce  him  to  relax  his  efforts.  McClernand  pushed 
forward  a  portion  of  his  troops  to  aid  the  smitten  Hil- 
debrand,  and  these  for  a  time  bore  the  shock  of 

All,  however,  was  in  vain.  In  poured  the  Confed- 
erates in  ever-increasing  numbers.  Bragg  had  come 
to  the  aid  of  Hardee,  and  Polk,  with  the  third  Con- 
federate line,  was  already  moving  toward  Sherman's 
rear.  By  nine  o'clock  a  very  large  portion  of  Sher- 
man's division  was  virtually  out  of  the  fight,  and  before 


ten  Prentiss  had  been  forced  from  his  ground,  his  camp 
captured  and  plundered,  his  division  thrown  into  con 
fusion,  and  he  himself  isolated  from  his  men. 

Pluck  and  Strategy. 

But  for  the  pluck  and  skill  of  Sherman  the  battle 
at  this  stage  might  have  been  lost,  although  it  cannot 
be  said  that  there  was  any  lack  of  bravery  on  the 
part  of  any  of  the  Union  divisions.  Officers  and  men 
everywhere  vied  with  each  other  in  deeds  of  daring. 
But  Sherman  showed  strategy  as  well  as  pluck.  Feel- 
ing the  pressure  of  the  enemy,  and  in  danger  of  being 
caught  in  the  rear,  he  swung  round  upon  his  right  as 
ipon  a  pivot,  coming  out  at  a  right  angle  and  taking 
entirely  new  ground.  Here  he  took  a  firm  position 
ind  held  it  tenaciously  for  several  hours,  the  repeated 
md  vigorous  attacks  of  the  enemy  falling  upon  the 
iiolid  front  of  his  well-arranged  battalions  as  upon  a 
lihield  of  shining  steel. 

The  falling  back  of  Sherman,  while  it  enabled  him 
o  prolong  the  contest  and  successfully  to  prevent  at- 
ack  in  the  rear,  left  McClernand's  division  completely 
;xposed.  On  this,  therefore,  the  Confederate  forces 
ell  with  tremendous  energy.  For  a  time  McCler- 
land  boldly  and  even  successfully  resisted,  most 
effective  aid  being  rendered  by  Dresser's  powerful 
ifled  cannon.  Regiment  after  regiment  of  the  Con- 
sderates  rushed  through  the  abandoned  camps  and 
ressed  forward,  only  to  be  cut  to  pieces  by  the  deadly 
ifle-shot,  displaying  magnificent  courage  and  the 
lost  reckless  daring. 




Ultimately,  however,  the  force  of  overwhelming 
numbers  began  to  tell  on  McClernand's  Hnes.  He 
was  forced  to  retire,  not,  however,  except  in  the  most 
perfect  order,  fighting  as  he  went  and  bravely  con- 
testing every  inch  of  ground.  By  eleven  o'clock  this 
division  was  on  a  line  with  Hurlbut,  close  to  W.  H 
L.  Wallace,  with  Sherman  to  the  right. 

Stewart  in  Iiniiiinent  Danger. 

Meanwhile,  Stewart's  brigade  of  Sherman's  div 
ion,  which  was  posted  on  the  extreme  left  of 
National  line,  about  two  miles  from  Pittsburg  Land-i 
ing,  on  the  Hamburg  road,  near  Lake  Creek,  where 
Buell  was  expected  to  land,  was,  in  consequence  of 
the  falling  back  of  the  other  divisions,  in  an  extremely 
perilous  position.  The  screaming  of  a  shell  in  its 
passage  through  the  branches  of  the  trees  overhead 
apprised  Stewart  of  the  approach  of  the  enemy  in  his 

It  turned  out  to  be  a  column  of  cavalry  and  infantry, 
composed  for  the  most  part  of  Breckenridge's  re- 
serves. They  were  moving  along  the  road  leading 
from  Corinth  to  Hamburg.  Notifying  W.  H.  L 
Wallace  of  his  difficulty  and  calling  for  aid,  he  calmly 
awaited  the  attack.  It  was  fiercely  made  and  gal- 
lantly resisted.  Wallace  sent  Mc Arthur  to  the  aid  of 
Stewart,  but  McArthur  missed  his  way,  and  came  di- 
rectly on  the  Confederates  under  Withers.  It  was 
impossible  for  Stewart  to  maintain  his  position  ;  but 
so  vigorously  did  McArthur  engage  the  enemy  that 
Stewart  managed  to  avoid  capture,  and  succeeded  in 

BATTLE  OF  8HIL0H.  221 

reaching  a   place    of    comparative   safety,   where    he 

;'estored    his    shattered    force     to     something     like 


Three  Divisions  Routed. 

The  battle  had  raged  since  the  early  morning.  It 
ivvas  fiercest  about  ten  o'clock.  There  was  but  little 
ntermission,  however,  until  two.  About  ten  Grant 
/isited  Sherman's  camp,  and,  finding  that  the  supply 
Df  cartridges  was  short,  he  organized  a  train  of  ammu- 
hition-wagons  to  run  between  the  camp  and  the  land- 
ing— an  arrangement  beset  with  great  difficulty  in 
:onsequence  of  the  large  number  of  fugitives  who 
ivere  forcing  their  way  through  the  narrow  road.  By 
welve  o'clock,  noon,  the  Confederates  had  possession 
)f  the  ground  occupied  in  the  morning  by  the  first 
ine  of  the  National  army,  and  the  camps  of  Sherman, 
McClernand,  Prentiss,  and  Stewart  had  been  captured 
ind  plundered.  Three  of  the  five  divisions  of  that 
(irmy  had  been  completely  routed. 
\  The  ground  being  entirely  cleared  before  them — 
Prentiss's  brigade,  as  we  have  seen,  being  demolished, 
ind  Stewart  having  been  compelled  to  retreat,  Mc- 
Clernand, too,  and  Sherman  having  both  yielded  on 
he  right — the  Confederates,  apparently  resolved  to 
i)ush  matters  to  a  crisis,  rushed  with  tremendous  fury 
ipon  Hurlbut,  who  still  maintained  his  original  posi- 
ion,  and  who  had  been  joined  by  Prentiss  and  some 
wo  thousand  of  his  men.  W.  H.  L.  Wallace  flew  to 
he  aid  of  Hurlbut,  taking  with  him  the  Missouri 
)atteries  of  Stone,  Richardson,  and  Webber. 


Heroic  Wallace. 

Hurlbut,  who  had  hitherto  been  in  the  open  field 
now  fell  back  into  the  woods  which  lay  between  hi 
camp  and  the  river,  and  there,  nobly  aided  by  Wa 
lace,  who  fought  like  a  hero  of  old,  gallantly  resiste 
the  foe  for  several  weary  hours.  Upon  this  compac 
body  of  National  troops,  who  knew  that  if  they  ha 
death  in  front  they  had  certain  death  in  the  rea 
three  most  desperate  charges  were  made  as  if  upo) 
a  wall  of  iron. 

In  one  of  these  encounters  General  W.  H.  L.  Wa" 
lace  fell  mortally  wounded.  Mc Arthur  took  the  con) 
mand,  but  in  spite  of  their  best  efforts  both  he  am 
Hurlbut  were  compelled  to  retire  a  little  farther  dowi 
and  toward  the  river.  In  the  confusion  Prentiss  an^ 
his  company,  getting  isolated,  were  captured,  sent  t 
the  Confederate  rear,  and  finally  marched  to  Corint 
as  prisoners  of  war. 

The  situation  now  seemed  desperate.  It  was  be 
tween  three  and  four  o'clock.  Sherman  and  McClei 
nand,  all  but  utterly  exhausted  and  having  lost  man; 
of  their  guns,  had  fallen  back  and  taken  a  position  ii 
front  of  the  bridge  which  crosses  Snake  Creek.  I 
was  over  this  bridge  that  General  Lewis  Wallace  wa 
momentarily  expected  to  come. 

Unaccountable  Delays. 

Grant  had  been  pressed  into  a  corner  of  the  battle 
field,  his  army  at  this  time  occupying  a  space  of  no 
more  than  four  hundred  acres  on  the  very  verge  o 
the  river.     As  yet  there  were  no  signs  of  Wallace 


nor  any  explanation  of  his  delay.  Buell,  too,  had 
failed  to  come  to  time.  Five  of  the  Union  camps  had 
been  captured,  and  many  guns  and  prisoners  had 
fallen  into  the  enemy's  hands.  Fatigue  and  disorder 
had  done  and  were  still  doing  their  terrible  work. 
Cooped  up  in  this  narrow  corner  of  the  field,  with  the 
triumphant  enemy  in  front  and  the  dark  rolling  waters 
o(  the  Tennessee  in  the  rear — death  before  and  death 
behind — what  more  can  Grant  do  ?  Will  he  surrender  ? 
No !  The  word  had  no  place  in  his  system  of  tactics. 
The  Confederates,  however,  were  less  strong  than 
they  seemed.  Success  had  broken  their  ranks,  and 
the  hard  work  of  the  day  had  produced  its  natural 
fruit.  The  men  were  completely  worn  out.  Some  of 
their  best  men  had  perished. 

Death  of  General  A.  S.  Johnston. 

Generals  Gladdon  and  Hindman  had  been  killed, 
and  at  about  half-past  two  o'clock,  when  pressing  his 
men  toward  the  landing  and  almost  recklessly  expos- 
iing  himself,  Commander-in-chief  Johnston  received  a 
rifle  bullet  in  the  leg,  which  proved  fatal.  There  was 
a  lull  in  the  fight  after  Johnston  fell,  but  Beauregard 
assumed  command,  and  the  struggle  for  the  posses- 
sion of  Pittsburg  Landing  was  resumed  with  fresh 
energy.  Beauregard  felt  that  there  was  no  time  to 
lose,  for  night  and  Buell  were  coming. 

The  entire  strength  of  the  Confederate  army  was 
•at  this  stage  being  pressed  against  the  National  left. 
It  seemed  to  be  the  object  of  Beauregard  to  turn 
'the  National  line  or  force  it  into  the  river.     In  any 


case,  he  was  determined  to  seize  the  landing.  Hap- 
pily, as  the  result  proved,  a  deep  ravine  lay  between 
the  Confederates  and  the  Nationals,  who,  cooped  up  as 
they  were,  still  covered  the  landing.  This  ravine  was 
impassable  for  artillery  and  cavalry.  In  consequence 
of  the  heavy  rains  the  bottom  was  wet  and  the  sides 
slippery.  The  ravine  led  down  to  the  river,  and  at 
its  mouth  the  two  gunboats,  Tyler  and  Lexington, 
had  taken  position,  their  commanders  having  obtained 
permission  from  General  Grant  to  exercise  their  dis- 
cretion in  shelling  the  woods  and  sweeping  the  ravine. 
A  Deadly  Battery. 

On  the  brow  of  his  side  of  the  ravine  General 
Grant  had  hastily  flung  up  some  earthworks  in  the 
form  of  a  half-moon.  To  several  siege-guns  which 
were  parked  there  Colonel  Webster,  Grant's  chief  of 
staff,  added  a  number  of  guns  which  had  belonged  to 
light  batteries,  now  broken  up,  and  thus  secured  a 
semicircular  defence  of  about  fifty  cannon.  This 
hurriedly-improvised  battery  reached  round  nearly  to 
the  Corinth  road.  The  wretched  condition  to  which 
the  Nadonal  army  had  been  reduced  may  be  gathered 
from  the  fact  that  it  was  with  the  utmost  difficulty 
men  could  be  got  to  work  the  guns. 

The  men  were  exhausted  and  demoralized.  Volun- 
teers were  called  for,  and  Dr.  Cornyn,  surgeon  of  the 
First  Missouri  Artillery,  having  offered  his  services, 
his  example  was  quickly  followed.  The  Confederate 
assault  was  led  by  Chalmers,  Withers,  Cheatham, 
Ruggles,  Anderson,  Stuart,   Pond,  and  Stevens.     It 





was  a  perilous  attempt,  but  It  was  bravely  made. 
Down  the  steep  sides  of  the  ravine  they  rushed, 
uttering  their  favorite  and  familiar  cry,  and  with 
their  accustomed  dash  and  fury. 

Critical  Moment. 

For  a  moment  it  seemed  as  If  all  was  lost,  and  as  l 
if  Beauregard  was  about  to  crown  the  day's  work  by  > 
a  final  crushing  blow.     But  no  !     It  was  destined  to  ' 
be  otherwise.     The  slippery  sides  of  the  ravine  and  i 
the  slush  and  mud  at  the  bottom  greatly  hindered  < 
the  movements  of  the  attacking  party.     Once  in  the 
deadly  hollow,  there  was  literally  no  way  of  escape. 
At  a   signal  given  Webster's   guns   from   their  fifty 
mouths    opened    fire   in   front,   while   the  Tyler  and ' 
Lexington,   striking   the   Confederates   on   the  flank,  > 
swept  the  ravine  with  their  eight-inch  shells. 

It  was  now  a  most  unequal  contest.  The  Con- 
federates had  fallen  into  a  trap.  Every  onward 
movement  was  vigorously  repulsed.  The  National 
troops  began  to  rally,  and,  finding  position,  con- 
tributed to  the  work  of  destruction  by  the  unerring 
aim  of  their  rifles.  Again  and  again,  and  yet  again, 
did  the  Confederates  face  the  terrible  fire,  rushing 
across  the  ravine  as  If  they  would  storm  the  battery 
in  front,  but  it  was  only  to  be  mowed  down  like 
grass  or  driven  back  like  sheep.  The  ravine  was 
filled  with  the  wounded  and  the  dead.  So  dense 
was  the  smoke  that  the  entire  scene  was  wrapped 
In  almost  midnlorht  darkness — a  darkness  relieved 
only  by  the  swift-recurring  rifle  flash  and  the  cannon's 


laze.    It  was  a  virtual  hell — a  real,  a  veritable  valle> 
T  death  itself. 

Union  Troops  Hold  the  Field. 

The  tide  had  turned.  The  crisis  was  past.  Beaure- 
:,ird,  seeing  that  it  was  useless  to  prolong  the  strug 
|e,  withdrew  his  men.  He  professed  himself  satis- 
fed  with  what  he  had  done,  and,  as  it  was  near  night- 
:,11,  he  thought  he  might  rest  for  the  night  and  give 
lie  finishing  touch  in  the  morning.  The  firing  now 
cased,  and  Grant  was  left  master  of  the  ground, 
before  the  close  of  the  struorale,  Nelson,  with  Buell's 
dvance,  had  arrived  on  the  field,  and  Lewis  Wallace, 
|iving  at  last  found  his  way,  was  coming  up  with  his 
l^e  thousand  men.  For  the  National  cause  the  first 
('ly  at  Shiloh  had  ended  not  ingloriously,  and  with 
tese  fresh  accessions  of  strength  the  prospect  was 
Hght  for  the  coming  day. 

The  dreary  hours  of  the  night  were  sufficiently 
fled  with  horrors.  The  gunboats  kept  up  an  inces- 
5-nt  cannonade,  in  some  places  setting  the  woods  on 
fje.  The  wounded  on  both  sides  vainly  sought  to 
^cape  from  the  grasp  of  this  new  and  terrible  de- 
sroyer.  Happily,  a  heavy  rainstorm  fell  upon  the 
"ene  of  agony  and  the  fire  was  extinguished. 

The  Two  Commanders  Consulting. 

[Shortly  after  the  firing  had  ceased    Grant  visited 
herman,  and  as  it  was  the  opinion  of  both  that  the 
(pnfederates  were  exhausted,  it  was  agreed  that  the 
c.tack    should    be    resumed    early    in    the    morning 
hbsequently,  Grant  visited  each  of  the  division  com- 


manders,  giving  the  necessary  instructions,  and  the 
flung  himself  on  the  wet  ground  and  snatched  a  fe^ 
hours'  rest,  with  his  head  resting  on  the  stump  of 
tree.     During  the  night  Lewis  Wallace  came  up  aaj 
Buell   arrived  in  person.     All   night  through  stean 
boats  kept  busily  plying  between  Savannah  and  PitU 
burg  La^ading,  bringing   up    the  remaining  divisior' 
of  Buell's    army.     Nelson's    division   was   all  on  to 
field  by  nine  o'clock  r.  m.     Crittenden's  arrived  a  litt 
later,  and  by  five  in  the  morning  McCook's  divisio 
which  was  the  last  to  come  up,  having  had  to  wait  f( 
boats,   ivas    all    safely    disembarked.      Twenty-sev( 
thousar\d  men  were  thus  added  to  the  National  arm 

Second  Day  at  Sliiloli. 

With  the  early  light  of  the  morning  of  the  yt, 
which  r'ame  in  with  a  drizzling  rain,  the  troops  wei 
in  position  and  ready  to  make  the  attack.  The  frei 
troops  were  placed  in  line  as  they  came  upon  the  fie  . 
considf.rably  in  advance  and  upon  the  ground  aba- 
doned  by  Beauregard  after  the  failure  of  his  ht 
attack.  Nelson  was  on  the  left,  then  in  order  Ci* 
tenden,  McCook,  Hurlbut,  McClernand,  Sherman,  a  I 
Lewis  Wallace.  Thomson  of  Wallace's  division,  w:i 
his  field-guns,  was  the  first  to  disturb  the  silence  of  t^ 
morning  and  to  awaken  the  echoes  of  the  forest. 

The  response  was  vigorous,  but  the  fresh  troops 
Wallace  stood  bravely  to  their  work.     At  this  momet 
Grant  arrived,  and  ordered  Wallace  to  press  forwal 
and  attack   the   Confederate   left  under  Bragg,  w3 
since  the  death  of  Johnston  was  second  in  commai  • 


This  was  gallantly  done,  the  Confederates  being  com- 

,  pelled  to  abandon  the  high  ground,  which  was  soon 

I  occupied  by  Wallace's  troops.     Here  a  halt  was  made, 

Wallace  expecting  Sherman  to  come  to  his  aid. 

I  Booming-  Ouiis; 

;     Meanwhile  the  two  armies  had  come  into  collision 

at  the  other  extremities  of  their  Hnes.     From  what  has 

(been   said  above  it  will   be   seen    that  Buell's  f&rce^ 

■  which  lay  nearest   to    Pittsburg    Landing,  composed 

the  centre  and  left  of  Grant's  new  line  of  batde.    The 

divisions  of  Nelson  and   Crittenden  only  were   ready 

when   Wallace's    guns  were    heard    booming   to    the 

,  right.     They  moved  forward  at  once,  Nelson's  division 

leading.     Their  artillery  had  not  yet  arrived,  but  the 

.batteries  of  Mendenhall  and  Terrill  of  the  reo^ular  ser- 

vice  were  placed  at  their  disposal. 

Nelson  had  moved  half  a  mile  at  least  before  he 
felt  the  enemy.  At  the  first  touch  he  seemed  to  yield, 
but  it  was  only  for  a  moment.  At  this  point  Beaure- 
gard had  gathered  up  his  strength  and  was  resolved 
to  strike  a  deadly  blow.  If  he  could  turn  the  National 
left  he  might  still  accomplish  his  purpose  of  yesterday, 
and  make  himself  master  of  the  landinor.  His  on- 
slaught  was  tremendous.  For  a  second  Nelson's 
troops  wavered,  but  it  was  only  for  a  second.  Men- 
denhall's  battery  was  hurried  into  action,  and  the 
advancing  Confederates  were  driven  back  in  confusion 
,by  a  tempest  of  grape  and  canister.  Hazen's  brigade 
charged,  captured  one  of  Beauregard's  batteries,  and 
,turnf:d  It  with  deadly  effect  on  the  foe.     Once  mor« 


the  Confederates  came  up  with  redoubled  strengtl 
and  Hazen  fell  back  before  the  advancing  tide. 

The  Famous  "Brass  Twelves." 

Terrill's  battery  of  McCook's  division  was  now  gc 
into  position.  Pouring  forth  shell  from  his  terj 
pounders  and  grape  and  canister  from  his  bra^ 
twelves,  Terrill  did  splendid  and  effective  work.  Fo 
two  hours  the  artillery  conflict  raged.  Crittende; 
was  on  Nelson's  right,  and  McCook  was  to  the  righ' 
of  Crittenden,  fronting  the  Confederate  centre.  Bue 
had  taken  general  command  of  his  own  troops.  Th 
terrible  artillery  duel  began  to  tell  on  the  Confederal, 
line.  Nelson,  becoming  more  daring,  began  to  movij 
forward.  Crittenden  and  McCook  advanced  abreaa 
at  the  same  time,  but  every  inch  of  ground  wa 
keenly  contested,  and  victory,  now  leaning  to  one  sid 
and  now  to  the  other,  seemed  undecided  as  to  whic 
to  award  the  palm. 

Sherman's  captured  camp  was  still  in  the  Coi 
federate  rear,  and  to  this  as  an  objective  point  th 
National  line  kept  slowly  but  steadily  advancing 
Sherman  and  Wallace,  carrying  out  Grant's  instrui 
tions  to  the  letter,  have  advanced  under  a  terribl 
fire  and  have  reached  the  ridge  occupied  by  th 
former  on  Sunday  morning. 

Tempest  of  Battle. 

The  little  log  church  in  Shiloh  has  again  becom 
a  conspicuous  object  in  the   battle-field.     Around 
the  tempest  of  battle  is  again  to  rage.     Beauregan 
despairing  of  success  on   the  left,  had,  by  countei 


marching  his  troops,  greatly  strengthened  himself  in 
front  of  the  enemy's  right.  The  struggle  at  this 
point  was  protracted  and  severe.  Sherman  and 
Wallace  held  their  ground,  and  it  soon  became 
apparent  that  Beauregard's  strength  was  all  but 

At  the  same  time  that  the  Confederate  general 
had  concentrated  his  troops  against  the  National 
right  he  did  not  neglect  an  opportunity  which  seemed 
to  present  itself  more  toward  what  might  be  called 
the  National  centre.  Noticing  a  slight  gap  between 
Crittenden  and  McCook,  he  endeavored  to  force  a 
passage  between  them.  Here  he  made  his  last  effort, 
his  last  decided  stand.  It  was  all  in  vain.  McCook's 
division  stood  like  a  wall  of  irc>n. 

Th^  Confederates  Routed. 

The  Confederate  centre  now  began  to  yield.  All 
alonof  the  line,  from  Nelson  on  the  left  to  Sherman 
and  Wallace  on  the  right,  the  Nationals  were  press- 
ing forward.  Everywhere  the  enemy  was  seen 
retiring.  "  Cheer  after  cheer,"  says  Wallace,  "  rang 
through  the  woods,  and  every  man  felt  that  the 
day  was  ours."  The  battle  of  Shiloh  was  ended. 
"  Don't,"  said  Beauregard  to  Breckenridge,  as  he 
ordered  a  retreat — *'  don't  let  this  be  converted  into 
a  rout." 

It  was  now  half-past  five  o'clock,  and  the  wearied 
National  troops  being  in  no  mood  to  pursue  the  foe, 
the  retreat  was  the  more  easily  conducted.  The  two 
days'  fighting  had  resulted  in  the  loss  of  over  twenty 


thousand  men — the  Confederate  killed  and  woundec 
amounting  to  more  than  ten  thousand,  the  Nationals 
to  nearly  twelve  thousand. 

General  Halleck  only  did  what  was  right  when  h( 
thanked  Generals  Grant  and  Buell  "and  the  officen 
and  men  of  their  respective  commands  for  the  braver) 
and  endurance  with  which  they  sustained  the  genera 
attack  of  the  enemy  on  the  6th,  and  for  the  heroic 
manner  in  which  on  the  7th  they  defeated  and  routec 
the  entire  rebel  army." 

Why  Wallace  was  Delayed. 

Lewis  Wallace  was  greatly  blamed  for  his  non-ap 
pearance  on  the  field  of  battle  on  the  6th.  It  was  no 
difficult,  however,  for  that  brave  officer,  who  did  sucl" 
effective  work  on  the  7th,  to  give  sufficient  and  satis 
factory  explanations.  He  had,  it  appeared,  obeyed  hie 
first  orders,  which  were  that  he  should  join  the  righi 
of  the  army,  but,  not  knowing  that  it  had  fallen  back 
he  had  wasted  the  whole  afternoon  in  a  fruidese 

There  has  been  much  useless  discussion  as  to  how 
much  Grant  was  indebted  to  Buell  for  the  victory  al 
Shiloh.  What  did  happen  we  know.  What  mighl 
have  been  we  cannot  tell.  That  Grant  was  large!) 
indebted  to  Sherman  for  this  brilliant  victory  his  own 
despatches  show,  confirmed  by  the  deliberate  state- 
ments in  his  Memoirs.  Some  of  the  facts  of  the  case 
are  plain,  and  admit  of  no  double  interpretation. 

During  the  greater  part  of  Sunday  the  Confeder- 
ates marched  triumphantly  from  point  to  point     The 


Nationals  were  driven  back  entirely  from  their  origi- 
nal ground ;  five  of  their  division  camps  were  overrun 
and  captured;  and  Grant,  with  his  whole  army,  was 
pressed  into  a  corner  of  the  field.  The  situation  was 
desperate.  One  blow  more  and  it  seemed  as  if  Beau- 
regard would  reap  a  glorious  victory.  Of  all  this 
there  can  be  no  doubt. 

A  Desperate  Strugg-le. 

It  is  as  little  to  be  denied,  however,  that  at  the  last 
moment  Grant  snatched  victory  from  his  triumphant 
rival.  The  advancing  Confederates  were  not  only 
successfully  resisted,  but  driven  back  in  confusion 
and  compelled  to  give  up  the  struggle.  All  this 
Grant  accomplished  before  any  effective  assistance 
arrived  from  Buell.  It  would  simply  be  absurd  to 
deny  that  the  arrival  of  reinforcements — which,  in- 
cluding Wallace's  division,  amounted  in  all  to  twenty- 
seven  thousand  men — made  victory  on  the  following 
day  comparatively  more  easy.  But  we  are  not  at 
liberty  to  say  that,  without  the  aid  of  Buell,  Grant 
might  not  have  accomplished  his  purpose  and  driven 
the  enemy  from  the  field.  We  simply  cannot  tell. 
We  know  that  both  Grant  and  Buell  did  their  best, 
and  that  their  best  was  needed. 

From  earliest  dawn  till  half-past  five  in  the  after- 
noon the  battle  raged  without  intermission.  It  was 
no  easily-won  victory;  and  if  praise  is  due  to  the 
Union  commanders,  justice  compels  us  to  be  equally 
generous  to  General  Beauregard.  If  for  the  moment 
we  could  forget  the  cause,  and  think  only  of  the  skill 


and  heroism  displayed,  we  should  say  that  on  those 
two  days  he  covered  himself  with  glory.  In  Beaure- 
gard the  Union  commanders  found  a  foeman  worthy 
of  their  steel.  He  was  by  far  the  ablest  general  who 
had  yet  appeared  In  the  Confederate  ranks. 
Too  Late  for  New  Plans. 
There  Is  one  other  point  on  which  It  Is  necessary  to 
make  a  remark  before  closing  this  chapter.  It  Is  to  be 
borne  In  mind  that  Grant  was  not  responsible  either 
for  the  selection  of  the  battle-ground  or  for  the  dis- 
position of  the  troops.  Whatever  praise  or  blame  re- 
sulted from  the  one  or  the  other  was  due  to  General 
C.  F.  Smith.  When  Grant  was  restored  to  the  chief 
command  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  it  was  only 
a  few  days  before  the  commencement  of  the  fight,  and 
any  attempt  to  make  radical  changes  in  the  arrange- 
ments, carried  out,  as  these  must  have  been.  In  the 
presence  of  a  vigilant  and  powerful  enemy,  would 
have  been  perilous  In  the  extreme.  If  the  battle  of 
the  6th  had  ended  differently,  General  Grant  might 
have  been  justified  in  making  some  complaint  as  to 
the  circumstances  in  which  he  found  the  enemy  on 
resuming  command.  As  it  was,  his  mouth  was  shut. 
He  showed  himself  a  true  man  by  nobly  respecting 
the  memory  of  General  Smith — a  capable  commander 
and  a  brave  man. 

Sherman's  Magnificent  Deeds. 

In  his  personal  Memoirs,  General  Grant  pays  the 
following  splendid  tribute  to  Sherman:  *' During  the 
whole  Sunday  I  was  continuously  engaged  In  passing 

BATTL15  OV  SHILOH.  235 

from  one  part  of  the  field  to  another,  giving  directions 
to  division  commanders.  In  thus  moving  along  the 
line,  however,  I  never  deemed  it  important  to  stay 
long  with  Sherman.  Although  his  troops  were  then 
under  fire  for  the  first  time,  their  commander,  by  his 
constant  presence  with  them,  inspired  a  confidence  in 
officers  and  men  that  enabled  them  to  render  services 
on  that  bloody  battle-field  worthy  of  the  best  of 
veterans.  McClernand  was  next  to  Sherman,  and  the 
hardest  fiorhtincr  was  in  front  of  these  two  divisions. 
McClernand  told  me  on  that  day,  the  6th,  that  he  prof- 
ited much  by  having  so  able  a  commander  supporting 
him.  A  casualty  to  Sherman  that  would  have  taken 
him  from  the  field  that  day  would  have  been  a  sad  one 
for  the  troops  engaged  at  Shiloh.  And  how  near  we 
came  to  this !  On  the  6th,  Sherman  was  shot  twice, 
once  in  the  hand,  once  in  the  shoulder,  the  ball  cutting 
his  cost  and  making  a  slight  wound,  and  a  third  ball 
passed  through  his  hat.  In  addition  to  this  he  had 
seven  I  horses  shot  during  the  day." 


General  Sherman's  Graphic  Description  of  the  ! 
Battle  of  Shiloh. 

We  cannot  do  the  reader  a  greater  favor  than  to  i 
insert  General  Sherman's  very  interesting  account  of  ' 
the  important  part  acted  by  himself  and  his  division  [ 
in  the  celebrated  battle  of  Shiloh.  It  is  a  plain  state- 
ment of  facts,  free  from  all  self-laudation,  and  was  : 
written  at  "  Camp  Shiloh,  April  lo,  1862."  General!' 
Sherman's  narrative  is  as  follows : 

On  Friday,  the  4th  inst.,  the  enemy's  cavalry  drove  : 
in  our  pickets,  posted  about  a  mile  and  a  half  in  ad- 
vance of  my  centre  on  the  main  Corinth  road,  captur- 
ing one  first  lieutenant  and  seven  men  ;  I  cuused  a 
pursuit  by  the  cavalry  of  my  division,  driving  them 
back  about  fiVQ  miles  and  killing  many.  On  Satur- 
day the  enemy's  cavalry  was  again  very  bold,  coming 
well  down  to  our  front;  yet  I  did  not  believe  they 
designed  anything  but  a  strong  demonstration.  On 
Sunday  morning  early,  the  6th  inst.,  the  enemy  drove 
our  advance-guard  back  on  the  main  body,  when  I 
ordered  under  arms  all  my  division,  and  sent  w^ord  to 
General  McClernand,  asking  him  to  support  my  left; 
to  General  Prentiss,  giving  him  notice  that  the  enemy 
w^as  in  our  front  in  force ;  and  to  General   Hurlbut, 



asking  bim  to  support  General  Prentiss.  At  that 
time — 7  A.  M. — my  division  was  arranged  as  follows  : 

First  brigade,  composed  of  the  Sixth  Iowa,  Colonel 
J.  A.  McDowell ;  Fortieth  Illinois,  Colonel  Hicks ; 
Forty-^ixth  Ohio,  Colonel  Worthington  ;  and  the  Mor- 
ton br.ttery.  Captain  Behr,  on  the  extreme  right,  guard- 
ing the  bridge  on  the  Purdy  road  over  Owl  Creek. 

Second  brigade,  composed  of  the  Fifty-fifth  Illinois, 
Colonel  D.  Stuart ;  the  Fifty-fourth  Ohio,  Colonel  T. 
Kilby  Smith ;  and  the  Seventy-first  Ohio,  Colonel 
Mason,  on  the  extreme  left,  guarding  the  ford  over 
Lick  Creek. 

Third  brigade,  composed  of  the  Seventy-seventh 
Ohio,  Colonel  Hildebrand  ;  the  Fifty-third  Ohio,  Colo- 
nel Appier ;  and  the  Fifty-seventh  Ohio,  Colonel 
Mungen,  on  the  left  of  the  Corinth  road,  its  right 
resting  on  Sniloh  meeting-house. 

Fourth  brigade,  composed  of  the  Ibeventy-second 
Ohio,  Colonel  Buckland ;  the  Forty-eighth  Ohio, 
Colonel  Sullivan  ;  and  the  Seventieth  Ohio,  Colonel 
Cockerill,  on  the  right  of  the  Corinth  road,  its  left 
resting  on  Shiloh   meeting-house. 

Two  batteries  of  artillery — Taylor's  and  Water- 
house's — were  posted,  the  former  at  Shiloh,  and  the 
latter  on  a  ridge  to  the  left,  with  a  front  fire  over 
open  ground  between  Mungen's  and  Appier  s  regi- 
ments. The  cavalry,  eight  companies  of  the  Fourth 
Illinois,  under  Colonel  Dickey,  were  posted  in  a  large 
open  field  to  the  left  and  rear  of  Shiloh  meeting- 
house, which  I  regarded  as  the  centre  of  my  position. 


The  Fire  Opens. 

Shortly  after  7  a.  m.  with  my  entire  staff  I  rode 
along  a  portion  of  our  front,  and  when  in  the  open 
field  before  Appier's  regiment  the  enemy's  pickets 
opened  a  brisk  fire  upon  my  party,  killing  my  orderly, 
Thomas  D.  Holliday,  of  Company  H,  Second  Illinois 
Cavalry.  The  fire  came  from  the  bushes  which  line 
a  small  stream  that  rises  in  the  field  in  front  of  Ap- 
pier's camp  and  flows  to  the  north  along  my  whole 

This  valley  afforded  the  enemy  partial  cover,  but 
our  men  were  so  posted  as  to  have  a  good  fire  at 
them  as  they  crossed  the  valley  and  ascended  the 
rising  ground  on  our  side. 

About  8  P.  M.  I  saw  the  glistening  bayonets  of 
heavy  masses  of  infantry  to  our  left  front  in  the 
woods  beyond  the  small  stream  alluded  to,  and  be- 
came satisfied  for  the  first  time  that  the  enemy  de- 
signed a  determined  attack  on  our  whole  camp. 
Hot  Work  along-  the  Whole  Line, 

All  the  regiments  of  my  division  were  then  in  line 
of  battle  at  their  proper  posts.  I  rode  to  Colonel 
Appier,  and  ordered  him  to  hold  his  ground  at  all. 
hazards,  as  he  held  the  left  flank  of  our  first  line  of 
battle,  and  I  informed  him  that  he  had  a  good  battery 
on  his  right  and  strong  support  to  his  rear.  Gen- 
eral  McClernand  had  prompdy  and  energetically 
responded  to  my  request,  and  had  sent  me  three 
regiments,  which  were  posted  to  protect  Waterhouse's 
battery  and  the  left  fiank  of  my  line. 


The  battle  opened  by  the  enemy's  battery  In  the 
woods  to  our  front  throwing  shells  Into  our  camp. 
Taylor's  and  Waterhouse's  batteries  promptly  re- 
sponded, and  I  then  observed  heavy  battalions  of  in- 
fantry passing  obliquely  to  the  left,  across  the  open 
field  in  Appier's  front ;  also,  other  columns  advancing 
direcdy  upon  my  division.  Our  infantry  and  artillery 
opened  along  the  whole  line,  and  the  battle  became 
general.  Other  heavy  masses  of  the  enemy's  forces 
kept  passing  across  the  field  to  our  left,  and  directing 
their  course  on  General  Prentiss.  I  saw  at  once  that 
the  enemy  designed  to  pass  my  left  flank  and  fall  upon 
Generals  McClernand  and  Prentiss,  whose  line  of 
camps  was  almost  parallel  with  the  Tennessee  River 
and  about  two  miles  back  from  it.  Very  soon  the 
sound  of  artillery  and  musketry  announced  that  Gen- 
eral Prentiss  was  engaged,  and  about  9  a.  m.  I  judged 
that  he  was  falling  back.  About  this  time  Appier's 
regiment  broke  in  disorder,  followed  by  Mungen's 
regiment,  and  the  enemy  pressed  forward  on  Water- 
house's  battery,  thereby  exposed. 

Gims  Lost. 

The  three  Illinois  regiments  In  immediate  support 
of  this  battery  stood  for  some  tim.e ;  but  the  enemy's 
advance  was  so  vio^orous  and  the  fire  so  severe  that 
when  Colonel  Raith  of  the  Forty-third  Illinois  received 
a  severe  wound  and  fell  from  his  horse,  his  regiment 
and  others  manifested  disorder,  and  the  enemy  got 
possession  of  three  guns  of  this  (Waterhouse's)  bat' 


Although  our  left  was  thus  turned  and  the  enemy 
was  pressing  our  whole  line,  I  deemed  Shiloh  so  im- 
portant that  I  remained  by  It,  and  renewed  my  orders 
to  Colonels  McDowell  and  Buckland  to  hold  their 
ground;  and  we  did  hold  these  positions  until  about 
lo  A.  M.,  when  the  enemy  had  got  his  artillery  to  the 
rear  of  our  left  flank  and  some  chanofe  became  neces« 
sary.  Two  regiments  of  Hlldebrand's  brigade  - 
Appier's  and  Mungen's — had  already  disappeared  to 
the  rear,  and  Hlldebrand's  own  regiment  was  in  dis- 
order. I  therefore  gave  orders  for  Taylor's  battery 
— still  at  Shiloh — to  fall  back  as  far  as  the  Purdy  and 
Hamburg  road,  and  for  McDowell  and  Buckland  to! 
adopt  that  road  as  their  new  line. 

Rejfinients  in  Disorder. 

I  rode  across  the  angle  and  met  Behr's  battery  at 
die  cross-roads,  and  ordered  It  immediately  to  come  into 
battery,  action   right.     Captain   Behr  gave  the  order, 
but  he   was  almost  immediately  shot  from  his  horse, 
when   drivers  and  gunners  fled  in  disorder,  carrying 
ofl"  the  caisson,  and  abandoning  five  out  of  six  guns 
without  firing  a  shot.     The  enemy  pressed  on,  gaining 
this   battery,  and   we  were  again   forced  to  choose  a 
new  line  of  defence.     Hlldebrand's  brigade  had  sub 
stantially  disappeared  from  the  field,  though  he  himself 
bravely  remained.     McDowell's  and  Buckland's  bri 
gades  maintained  their  organizations,  and  were  con 
ducted  by  my  aides  so  as  to  join  on  General  McCler 
nand's  right,  thus  abandoning  my  original  camps  anc 


This  was  about  lo  a.  m.,  at  which  time  the  enemy 
had  made  a  furious  attack  on  General  McClernand's 
whole   front.     He   struggled  most  determinedly,  but 
finding   him    pressed,  I    moved   McDowell's   brigade 
directly  against  the  left  flank  of  the  enemy,  forced  him 
back  some   distance,  and   then  directed   the  men   to 
avail  themselves  of  every  cover — trees,  fallen  timbei; 
and  a  wooded  valley  to  our  right.     We  held  this  posi 
'  tion   for  four  long  hours,  sometimes   gaining  and  at 
others  losing  ground ;   General  McClernand  and  my- 
I  self  acting  in  perfect  concert  and  struggling  to  maintain 
this  line. 
<  Falling-  Back. 

While  we  were  so  hard  pressed  two  Iowa  regiments 
approached  from  the  rear,  but  could  not  be  brought 
up  to  the  severe  fire  that  was  raging  in  our  front ;  and 
General  Grant,  who  visited  us  on  that  ground,  will 
remember  our  situation  about  3  p.  m.  ;  but  about  4  p.  M. 
^itwas  evident  that  Hurlbut's  line  had  been  driven  back 
to  the  river,  and,  knowing  that  General  Lew  Wallace 
iwas  coming  with  reinforcements  from  Crump's  Land- 
ing, General  McClernand  and  I,  on  consultation, 
selected  a  new  line  of  defence,  with  its  right  covering 
a  bridge  by  which  General  Wallace  had  to  approach. 
We  fell  back  as  well  as  we  could,  gathering,  in  addi 
tion  to  our  own,  such  scattered  forces  as  we  could  find, 
and  formed  the  new  line. 

I     During  this  change  the  enemy's  cavalry  charged  us, 
but  were  handsomely  repulsed  by  the  Twenty- ninth 
Illinois  Regiment.     The  Fifth  Ohio  Battery,  which  had 


come  up,  rendered  good  service  in  holding  the  enem) 
In  check  for  some  time,  and  Major  Taylor  also  came 
up  with  another  battery,  and  got  into  position  just  ir 
time  to  get  a  good  flank-fire  upon  the  enemy's  columr 
as  he  pressed  on  General  McClernand's  right,  checkinc 
his  advance,  when  General  McClernand's  divisior 
made  a  fine  charge  on  the  enemy  and  drove  him  bacl 
into  the  ravines  to  our  front  and  right. 

Nig-ht  Comes. 

1  had  a  clear  field,  about  two  hundred  yards  wide 
In  my  immediate  front,  and  contented  myself  witl 
keeping  the  enemy's  Infantry  at  that  distance  during 
the  rest  of  the  day.  In  this  position  we  rested  for  th( 
night.  My  command  had  become  decidedly  of  a  mixec 
character.  Buckland's  brigade  was  the  only  one  tha' 
retained  its  organization.  Colonel  Hildebrand  was  per 
sonally  there,  but  his  brigade  was  not.  Colonel  Mo 
Do  well  had  been  severely  Injured  by  a  fall  off  his  horse 
and  had  gone  to  the  river,  and  the  three  regiments  o 
his  brigade  were  not  in  line.  The  Thirteenth  Missouri 
Colonel  Crafts  J.  Wright,  had  reported  to  me  on  the 
field  and  fought  well,  retaining  Its  regimental  organ! 
zation,  and  It  formed  a  part  of  my  line  during  Sunda> 
night  and  all  Monday. 

Other  fragments  of  regiments  and  companies  hac 
also  fallen  into  my  division  and  acted  with  It  during 
the  remainder  of  the  battle.  Generals  Grant  and 
Buell  visited  me  In  our  bivouac  that  evening,  and  from 
them  I  learned  the  situation  of  affairs  on  other  parts 
of  the  field.     General  Wallace  arrived  from  Crump's 


Landing  shortly  after  dark  and  formed  his  line  to  my 
fight  rear.  It  rained  hard  during  the  night,  but  our 
men  were  in  good  spirits,  lay  on  their  arms,  being 
patisfied  with  such  bread  and  meat  as  could  be  gathered 
It  the  neighboring  camps,  and  determined  to  redeem 
()n  Monday  the  losses  of  Sunday. 

Deeds  of  Valor. 

At  daylight  on  Monday  I  received  General  Grant's 
)rders  to  advance  and  recapture  our  original  camps, 
despatched  several  members    of  my  staff  to  bring 
p.p  all  the  men  they  could  find,  especially  the  brigade 
i)f  Colonel  Stuart,  which  had  been  separated  from  the 
livision  all  the  day  before  ;  and  at  the  appointed  time 
he  division,  or  rather  what  remained  of  it,  with  the 
Thirteenth  Missouri  and  other  fragments,  moved  for- 
ward and  reoccupled  the  ground  on  the  extreme  right 
f  General  McClernand's  camp,  where  we  attracted  the 
re  of  a   battery  located  near   Colonel   McDowell's 
Drmer    headquarters.     Here    I    remained,    patiently 
waiting  for    the    sound    of  General  Buell's  advance 
pen  the  main  Corinth  road. 

About  TO  A.  M.  the  heavy  firing  in  that  direction 
nd  its  steady  approach  satisfied  me  ;  and  General 
\/^allace  being  on  our  right  flank  with  his  well- 
onducted  division,  I  led  the  head  of  my  column  to 
fcneral  McClernand's  right,  formed  line  of  battle, 
cing  south,  with  Buckland's  brigade  directly  across 
le  ridge  and  Stuart's  brigade  on  its  right  in  the 
iOods,  and  thus  advanced,  steadily  and  slowly,  under 
heavy  fire  of  musketrj^  and  artillery.     Tayior  had 


just  got  to  me  from  the  rear,  where  he  had  gone  fc^ 
ammunition,  and  brought  up  three  guns,  which  ' 
ordered  into  position  to  advance  by  hand  firing 
These  guns  belonged  to  Company  A,  Chicago  Ligljj 
Artillery,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  P.  P.  Wood,  an 
did  most  excellent  service. 

Awful  Kattle  of  Musketry. 

Under  cover  of  their  fire  we  advanced  till  \\ 
reached  the  point  where  the  Corinth  road  cross( 
the  line  of  McClernand's  camp,  and  here  I  saw  k 
the  first  time  the  well-ordered  and  compact  columr' 
of  General  Buell's  Kentucky  forces,  whose  soldier 
movements  at  once  gave  confidence  to  our  new( 
and  less-disciplined  men.  Here  1  saw  Willich 
regiment  advance  upon  a  point  of  water-oaks  ar 
thicket,  behind  w^hich  I  knew  the  enemy  was  in  gre 
strength,  and  enter  it  in  beautiful  style.  Then  arc: 
the  severest  musketry-fire  I  ever  heard,  and  last( 
some  twenty  minutes,  when  this  splendid  regime: 
had  to  fall  back. 

This  green  point  of  timber  is  about  five  hundn 
yards  east  of  Shiloh  meeting-house,  and  it  was  e^ 
dent  here  was  to  be  the  struggle.  The  enemy  ecu 
also  be  seen  forming  his  lines  to  the  south.  Gener 
McClernand  sending  to  me  for  artillery,  I  detach< 
to  him  the  three  guns  of  Wood's  battery,  with  whii 
he  speedily  drove  them  back,  and,  seeing  some  othe 
to  the  rear,  I  sent  one  of  my  staff  to  bring  the 
forward,  when  by  almost  providential  decree  th" 
proved  to  be  two  twenty-four-pound  howitzers  b 


longing  to  McAlister's  battery,  and  served  as  well 
as  guns  ever  could  be. 

This  was  about  2  p.  m.  The  enemy  had  one  battery 
close  by  Shiloh,  and  another  near  the  Hamburg  road, 
both  pouring  grape  and  canister  upon  any  column  of 
troops  that  advanced  upon  the  green  point  of  water- 
oaks.  Willich's  regiment  had  been  repulsed,  but  a 
whole  brigade  of  McCook's  division  advanced  beauti- 
fully, deployed,  and  entered  this  dreaded  wood. 

The  Enemy  Swept  like  Chaff. 

I  ordered  my  second  brigade  (then  commanded 
by  Colonel  T.  Kilby  Smith,  Colonel  Stuart  being 
wounded)  to  form  on  its  right,  and  my  fourth  brigade, 
Colonel  Buckland,  on  its  right,  all  to  advance  abreast 
with  this  Kentucky  brigade  before  mentioned,  which 
I  afterward  found  to  be  Rousseau's  brigade  of 
McCook's  division.  I  gave  personal  direction  to  the 
twenty-four-pounder  guns,  whose  well-directed  fire 
first  silenced  the  enemy's  guns  to  the  left,  and  after- 
ward at  the  Shiloh  meeting-house. 

Rousseau's  brigade  moved  in  splendid  order  steadily 
to  the  front,  sweeping  everything  before  it,  and  at 
4  p.  M.  we  stood  upon  the  ground  of  our  original  front 
line,  and  the  enemy  was  in  full  retreat.  I  directed 
my  several  brigades  to  resume  at  once  their  original 

Several  times  during  the  battle  cartridges  gave 
out,  but  General  Grant  had  thoughtfully  kept  a 
supply  coming  from  the  rear.  When  I  appealed  to 
regiments  to  stand  fast,  although  out  of  cartridges, 


I  did  so  because  to  retire  a  regiment  for  any  caus 
has  a  bad  effect  on  others.  I  commended  the  Fortiet 
IlHnois  and  Thirteenth  Missouri  for  thus  holding  thei 
ground  under  heavy  fire,  although  their  cartridge 
boxes  were  empty. 

Galiaut  Keutuckians. 

I  was  ordered  by  General  Grant  to  give  persona 
credit  where  I  thought  it  due,  and  censure  where 
thought  it  merited.  I  concede  that  General  McCook' 
splendid  division  from  Kentucky  drove  back  th 
enemy  along  the  Corinth  road,  which  was  the  grea 
centre  of  this  field  of  battle,  where  Beauregard  com 
manded  in  person,  supported  by  Bragg's,  Polk's,  an( 
Breckenridge's  divisions.  I  tiiink  A.  S.  Johnston  wa 
killed  by  exposing  himself  in  front  of  his  troops  a 
the  time  of  their  attack  on  Buckland's  brigade  or 
Sunday  morning,  although  in  this  I  may  be  mis 

My  division  was  made  up  of  regiments  perfect!) 
/lew,  nearly  all  having  received  their  muskets  for  tht 
first  time  at  Paducah.  None  of  them  had  ever  beer 
under  fire  or  beheld  heavy  columns  of  an  enem) 
bearing  down  on  them  as  they  did  on  that  Sunday. 

To  have  expected  the  coolness  and  steadiness  of 
plder  troops  would  be  wrong.  They  knew  not  the 
value  of  combination  and  organization.  When  in- 
dividual  fears  seized  them  the  first  impulse  was  to  gel 
away.  My  third  brigade  did  break  much  too  soon, 
and  I  am  not  yet  advised  where  it  was  during 
Sunday  afternoon    and    Monday   morning.     Colonel 

i^HEHMAN'S  DESCllIt>TION.  24? 

HIidebrand,  Ita  commander,  was  as  cool  as  any  man 
I  ever  saw,  and  no  one  could  have  made  stronger 
efforts  to  hold  his  men  to  their  places  than  he  did. 
He  kept  his  own  regiment,  with  individual  exceptions, 
in  hand  an  hour  after  Appier's  and  Mungen's  regi- 
ments had  left  their  proper  field  of  action. 

Heroes  of  tlie  Fight. 

Colonel  Buckland  manao^ed  his  briorade  well.  I 
commended  him  as  a  cool,  intelligent,  and  judicious 
gentleman,  needing  only  confidence  and  experience 
to  make  a  good  commander.  His  subordinates, 
Colonels  Sullivan  and  Cockerill,  behaved  with  great 
gallantry;  the  former  receiving  a  severe  wound  on 
Sunday,  and  yet  commanding  and  holding  his  regi- 
ment well  in  hand  all  day,  and  on  Monday  until  his 
right  arm  was  broken  by  a  shot.  Colonel  Cockerill 
held  a  larger  proportion  of  his  men  than  any  colonel 
in  my  division,  and  was  with  me  from  first  to  last. 

Colonel  J.  A.  McDowell,  commanding  the  First 
brigade,  held  his  ground  on  Sunday,  till  I  ordered 
him  to  fall  back,  which  he  did  in  line  of  battle ;  and 
when  ordered  he  conducted  the  attack  on  the  enemy's 
left  in  good  style.  In  falling  back  to  the  next  posi- 
tion he  was  thrown  from  his  horse  and  injured,  and 
his  brigade  was  not  in  position  on  Monday  morning. 
His  subordinates.  Colonels  Hicks  and  Worthington, 
displayed  great  personal  courage.  Colonel  Hicks  led 
his  regiment  in  the  attack  on  Sunday,  and  received  a 
wound  which  it  was  feared  would  prove  mortal.  He 
was  a  brave  and  gallant  gentleman,  and  deserves  well 


of  his  country.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Walcutt  of  the 
Ohio  Forty^sixth  was  severely  wounded  on  Sunday, 
and  was  disabled. 

Hard-woD  Laurels. 

My  second  brigade,  Colonel  Stuart,  was  detached 
nearly  two  miles  from  my  headquarters.  He  had  to 
fight  his  own  battle  on  Sunday  against  superior  num- 
bers, as  the  enemy  interposed  between  him  and  Gen- 
eral Prentiss  early  in  the  day.  Colonel  Stuart  was 
wounded  severely,  and  yet  reported  for  duty  on  Mon- 
day morning,  but  was  compelled  to  leave  during  the 
day,  when  the  command  devolved  on  Colonel  T.  KIlby 
Smith,  who  was  always  In  the  thickest  of  che  fight, 
and  led  the  brigade  handsomely. 

As  I  did  not  receive  Colonel  Stuart's  report  of 
the  operations  of  his  brigade  during  the  time  he  was 
detached,  I  was  compelled  to  forbear  mentioning 
names.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kyle  of  the  Seventy-first 
was  mortally  wounded  on  Sunday,  but  the  regiment 
itself  I  did  not  see,  as  only  a  small  fragment  of  it  was 
with  the  brigade  when  it  joined  the  division  on  Mon- 
day morning.  Great  credit  was  due  the  fragments  of 
men  of  the  disordered  regiments  who  kept  In  the  ad- 
vance. I  observed  and  noticed  them,  but  until  the 
brigadiers  and  colonels  made  their  reports  I  could  not 
venture  to  name  individuals,  but  did  In  due  season 
notice  all  who  kept  in  our  front  line,  as  well  as  those 
who  preferred  to  keep  back  near  the  steamboat  land- 
ing. The  following  w^as  the  result  in  figures  of  the 
killed,  wounded    and  missing: 


Officers  killed i6 

Officers  wounded 45 

Officers  missing 6 

Soldiers  killed 302 

Soldiers  wounded 1230 

Soldiers  missing 435 

Aggregate  loss  in  the  division 2034 

The  enemy  captured  seven  of  our  guns  on  Sunday, 
but  on  Monday  we  recovered  seven — not  the  identical 
guns  we  had  lost,  but  enough  in  number  to  balance 
the  account.  At  the  time  of  recovering  our  camps 
our  men  were  so  fatigued  that  we  could  not  follow  the 
retreating  masses  of  the  enemy  ;  but  on  the  following 
day  I  followed  up  with  Buckland's  and  Hildebrand's 
brigades  for  six  miles. 

Bravery  of  Staff-oflacers. 

Of  my  personal  staff  I  could  only  speak  with  praise 
and  thanks.  I  think  they  smelled  as  much  gunpowder 
and  heard  as  many  cannon-balls  and  bullets  as  sat- 
lisfied  their  ambition.  Captain  Hammond,  my  chief 
of  staff,  though  in  feeble  health,  was  very  active  in 
rallying  broken  troops,  encouraging  the  steadfast,  and 
aiding  to  form  the  lines  of  defence  and  attack.  Major 
Sanger's  intelligence,  quick  perception,  and  rapid  exe- 
cution were  of  very  great  value  to  me,  especially  in 
bringing  into  line  the  batteries  that  co-operated  so 
efficiently  in  our  movements.  Captains  McCoy  and 
Dayton,  aides-de-camp,  were  with  me  all  the  tinie, 
carrying  orders  and  acting  with  coolness,  spirit,  and 
courage.  To  Surgeon  Hartshorne  and  Dr.  L'Hom- 
medieu  hundreds  of  wounded  men  were  indebted  for 


the  kind  and  excellent  treatment  received  on  the  field 
of  battle  and  in  the  various  temporary  hospitals  created 
along  the  line  of  our  operations.  They  worked  day 
and  niorht,  and  did  not  rest  till  all  the  wounded  of  our 
own  troops  as  well  as  of  the  enemy  were  in  safe  and 
comfortable  shelter. 

To  Major  Taylor,  chief  of  artillery,  I  felt  under  deep 
obligations  for  his  good  sense  and  judgment  in  man^ 
aging  the  batteries,  on  which  so  much  depended.  The 
cavalry  of  my  command  kept  to  the  rear,  and  took 
little  part  in  the  action  ;  but  it  would  have  been  mad- 
ness to  expose  horses  to  the  musketry-fire  under  which 
we  were  compelled  to  remain  from  Sunday  at  8  a.  m, 
\ill  Monday  at  4  p.  m. 

Following-  the  Enemy. 

With  the  cavalry  placed  at  my  command  and  rwoj 
brigades  of  my  fatigued  troops  I  went  on  the  morn-' 
inor  of  the  8th  out  on  the  Corinth  road.  One  after 
another  of  the  abandoned  camps  of  the  enemy  lined 
the  roads,  with  hospital-flags  for  their  protection  ;  at 
all  we  found  more  or  less  wounded  and  dead  men. 
At  the  forks  of  the  road  I  found  the  head  of  General 
T.  J.  Wood's  division  of  Buell's  army.  I  ordered 
cavalry  to  examine  both  roads  leading  toward  Corinth, 
and  found  the  enemy  on  both.  Colonel  Dickey,  of 
the  Fourth  Illinois  Cavalry,  asking  for  reinforcements. 
I  ordered  General  Wood  to  advance  the  head  of  his 
column  cautiously  on  the  left-hand  road,  while  I  con- 
ducted the  head  of  the  third  brigade  of  my  division  up 
the  right-hand  road. 



Aboui  half  a  mile  from  the  forks  was  a  clear  fields 
through  yhich  the  road  passed,  and  immediately 
beyond  a  "jpace  of  some  two  hundred  yards  of  fallen 
timber,  ai:d   beyond  that  an   extensive  rebel  camp. 


The  enemy's  cavalry  could  be  seen  in  this  camp; 
after  reconnoissance,  I  ordered  the  two  advance  com- 
panies of  the  Ohio  Seventy- seventh,  Colonel  Hilde- 
brand,  to  deploy  forward  as  skirmishers,  and  the 
regiment  itself  forward  into  line,  with  an  Interval  of 
one  hundred  yards.  In  this  order  we  advanced  cau- 
tiously until  the  skirmishers  were  engaged.  Taking 
it  for  granted  this  disposit;r,n  would  clear  the  camp,  I 

252  GENERAL  gttfiUMA^^ 

held  Colonel  Dickey's  Fourth  Illinois  Cavalry  ready 
for  the  charge. 

The  enemy's  cavalry  came  down  boldly  at  a  charge, 
led  by  General  Forrest  in  person,  breaking  through 
our  line  of  skirmishers,  when  the  regiment  of  infantry, 
without  cause,  broke,  threw  away  their  muskets,  and 
fled.  The  ground  was  admirably  adapted  for  a 
defence  of  infantry  against  cavalry,  being  miry  and 
covered  with  fallen  timber. 

Onset  of  Cavalry. 

As  the  regiment  of  infantry  broke,  Dickey's  cav- 
alry began  to  discharge  their  carbines,  and  fell  into 
disorder.  I  instandy  sent  orders  to  the  rear  for  the 
brigade  to  form  line  of  battle,  which  was  prompdy 
executed.  The  broken  infantry  and  cavalry  rallied 
on  this  line,  and,  as  the  enemy's  cavalry  came  to  it; 
our  cavalry  in  turn  charged  and  drove  them  from  the 
field.  I  advanced  the  entire  briorade  over  the  same 
ground  and  sent  Colonel  Dickey's  cavalry  a  mile 
farther  on  the  road.  On  examining  the  ground 
which  had  been  occupied  by  the  Seventy-seventh 
Ohio,  we  found  fifteen  of  our  men  dead  and  about 
twenty-five  wounded.  I  sent  for  wagons  and  had  all 
the  wounded  carried  back  to  camp,  and  caused  the 
dead  to  be  buried,  also  the  whole  rebel  camp  to  be 

Here  we  found  much  ammunidon  for  field-pieces, 
which  was  destroyed  ;  also  two  caissons,  and  a  general 
hospital  with  about  two  hundred  and  eighty  Confed- 
erate wounded  and  about  fifty  of  our  own  wounded 


men.  Not  having  the  means  of  bringing  them  ofif^ 
Colonel  Dickey,  by  my  orders,  took  a  surrender, 
signed  by  the  medical  director  (Lyle)  and  by  all  the 
attending  surgeons,  and  a  pledge  to  report  them- 
selves as  prisoners  of  war  ;  also  a  pledge  that  our 
wounded  should  be  carefully  attended  to,  and  sur- 
rendered to  us  as  soon  as  ambulances  could  go  out. 
The  roads  were  very  bad,  and  were  strewed  with 
abandoned  wagons,  ambulances,  and  limber-boxes. 
The  enemy  had  succeeded  in  carrying  off  the  guns, 
but  had  crippled  his  batteries  by  abandoning  the 
hind  limber-boxes  of  at  least  twenty  caissons.  I  am 
satisfied  the  enemy's  infantry  and  artillery  passed 
Lick  Creek  next  morning,  after  travelling  all  night, 
and  that  he  left  to  his  rear  all  his  cavalry,  which  had 
protected  his  retreat ;  but  signs  of  confusion  and  dis 
order  marked  the  whole  road.  The  check  sustained 
by  us  at  the  fallen  timber  delayed  our  advance,  so  that 
night  came  upon  us  before  the  wounded  were  pro- 
vided for  and  the  dead  buried,  and  our  troops  being 
fagged  out  by  three  days'  hard  fighting,  exposure, 
and  privation,  I  ordered  them  back  to  their  camps. 


Thrilling  Pen-picture  of  the  Battle  of  Shiioh  by 
an  Army  Surgeon. 

It  requires  many  eyes  to  see  a  great  bartle  In  aU  its 
details.  Eye-witnesses  describe  what  they  saw,  ^nd 
each  according  to  his  location.  While  all  agree  in  the 
general  features,  changes,  and  aspects  of  the  contest, 
each  beholder  has  something  new  and  of  vital  interest 
to  relate.  For  this  reason  we  add  a  striking  picture 
of  the  terrible  fight  at  Shiloh  from  the  pen  of  Dr 
James  Moore,  surgeon  of  the  United  States  army. 
After  detailing  the  movements  preceding  the  capture 
of  Island  No.  lo,  Dr.  Moore  says: 

Thus  the  doom  of  Island  No.  lo  was  sealed.     The 
batteries  on  the  Kentucky  shore  were  soon  silence(/ 
by  the  gunboats,  and  Pope's  army  crossed.     The  Con- 
federate army   scattered  in  the 
woods,  and  five  thousand   were 
at  last  captured.     The  Confed- 
erate commander  on  the  island, 
General  William  D.  McCall,  then 
capitulated  with  a  few  hundred 
men.     A   hundred  heavy  guns, 
several  field  batteries,  small-arms 
LiEUT.-GEN.  w.  HARDEE,      in     abuudauce,    tents,    wagons, 
horses,  and  provisions,  were  the  fruit  pf  the  victory, 


ijreat  joy  was  diffused  throughout  the  North.  The 
rreat  Mississippi  was  now  open  as  far  as  Forts 
A/^ right  and  Pillow,  sixty  miles  above  Memphis,  and 
i.^oote  prepared  to  attack  these  also, 
i  Meanwhile  a  great  battle  was  In  progress  at  Pitts- 
)urg  Landing,  on  the  banks  of  the  Tennessee,  Thus, 
)n  the  same  Sunday  night  on  which  the  steamer  Pitts- 
ourg  ran  the  enemy's  batteries,  the  two  armies  lay  on 
[he  field  where  they  had  fought  desperately  the  entire 
day;  and  when  our  troops  were  crossing  to  victory 
,)n  the  Kentucky  shore,  our  army  was  struggling  to 
•ecover  the  field  which  it  had  lost  the  preceding  day. 
The  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing,  or  Shiloh,  lasted  two 
lays.  It  commenced  on  the  6th  of  April. 
.  The  Confederate  general,  Johnston,  after  retreating 
•iouth  through  Tennessee,  proceeded  toward  Mem- 
)his,  and  subsequently  massed  his  army  at  Corinth, 
n  Mississippi,  near  the  Tennessee  line,  ninety-three 
niies  from  Memphis. 

Position  of  tlie  Union  Army. 

General  Ulysses  S.  Grant  had  moved  up  the  Ten- 
lessee  River,  and  placed  his  army  on  the  west  bank 
It  Pittsburg  Landing,  where  he  awaited  Buell's  corps 
;rom  Nashville.  The  design  was  to  combine  their 
orces  and  advance  on  the  rebel  camp  at  Corinth, 
fohnston  moved  his  entire  army  on  the  4th  of  April, 
ntending  to  assault  Grant  on  Saturday,  but  bad  roads 
detained  him  until  Sunday  morning.  There  is  a  road 
rom  Pittsburg  Landing  to  Corinth,  distant  twenty 
niles.    This  road  two  miles  from  the  Tennessee  River 



divides,  and  while  one  fork  continues  right  on  in  it 
course,  the  other  runs  to  lower  Corinth.     From  Ham 
burg  Landing,  some  miles  up  the  river,  a  road  crosses 
that  before  mentioned.     Two  roads  branch  off  on  th( 
right,   in   the  direction   of  Purdy.     It  was  on   these 
several  roads,  and  between  them,  at  a  distance  of  frorr 
two  to  five  miles   from  Pittsburg  Landing,  that  th« 
Federal  army  lay  encamped.     The  divisions  farthesij 
advanced  were  those  of  Prentiss,  Sherman,  and  Mcll 
Clernand.     Hurlbut's  and  Smith's  divisions  lay  bdj 
tween    them    and    the    river.     Smith  being  sick,  hi 
division  wes  commanded  by  W.  H.  L.  Wallace     She3 
man's  brigade  held  the  right,  Prentiss  the  centre,  am 
Colonel  Stuart  the  left.     The  extreme  left  was  deemec 
sufficiently  protected  by  precipices  and  a  ravine. 

On   the  rebel  side,  General  A.  S.  Johnston  coj 
manded    and   had    especial    charge   of   the    centre 
Generals   Braxton   Bragg  and  T.  P.  G.  Beauregai 
commanded  the  two  wings ;  and   Hardee,  Polk,  at 
Breckenridge  held  subordinate  positions.     Their  pla| 
was   to  make  an  attack   on  the  Federal  centre,  anc! 
then   on   each  of  the   wings,   front  and  flank.     Th(i 
rebel  troops  numbered  seventy  thousand  men. 

Sudden  Attack. 

The  enemy  attacked  the  Federals  as  some  were  a] 
breakfast  and  others  lying  around.  It  was  a  complel 
surprise.  The  pickets  had  been  driven  In  suddeni] 
and  the  enemy's  artillery  cast  shot  and  shell  amoni 
the  regiments.  So  unexpected  was  the  assault  th« 
officers  were  bayonetted  before  they  rose  from  th< 


jbeds.  There  was  a  general  panic  before  any  line  of 
.battle  could  be  formed.  The  attack  on  Buckland's 
brigade  of  Sherman's  division  was  made  so  suddenly 
that  the  officers  had  not  time  to  dress.  The  men, 
pnatching  up  their  muskets  as  best  they  could,  ran  to 
fhe  other  portion  of  the  division  in  the  utmost  dis- 

Sherman  Falls  Back. 
Sherman  made  herculean  efforts  to  get  the  division 
n  position  to  abide  the  coming  shock.  McClernand 
neanwhile  was  trying  to  fill  up  the  gap  caused  by 
Auckland's  disordered  flight,  and  was  gallantly  stem- 
ning  the  tide  of  batde  amid  the  rolling  smoke,  the 
irash  of  muskets,  and  the  roar  of  artillery.  Sherman 
aw  that  he  could  not  resist  the  fearful  odds  which 
/ere  hurled  against  him,  and  issued  the  order  to  fall 

j  Meanwhile  the  division  of  Prentiss  was  in  a  more 
eplorable  plight.  It  is  true  that  there  was  time  to 
Drm  in  line  of  batde,  but,  being  drawn  up  in  an  open 
pld,  they  were  exposed  to  a  murderous  fire  poured 
a  them  by  the  enemy  from  the  edge  of  the  woods, 
nd  were  mowed  down  with  great  slaughter.  They 
^ood  their  ground  with  cool  courage,  and  their  volleys 
^5re  rapid  and  steady.  But  Grant  was  not  on  the 
Wd,  and  there  was  littk  concert  of  action,  as  each 
cmmander  could  only  take  care  of  his  own  division, 
Md  his  ground,  znd  wait  for  support.  Hence,  no 
r^ular  line  of  battle  ;:juld  be  formed,  and  while  the 
f'deral   forces  adopt   no  connect^dl  plan,  the 



rebel  army  as  one  machine  was  hurled  on  the  disor- 
ganized troops. 

Prentiss's  Division  Shattered. 

Prentiss  was  outflanked,  and  saw  himself  enclosed 
by  the  enemy.  The  disorganized  portion  of  his  divis- 
ion, numbering  three  thousand  men,  surrendered  anc 
were  marched  to  the  rear.  The  insolent  foe  drove 
the  other  regiments  of  this  division  before  them  like  i. 
flock  of  sheep. 

One  brigade  after  another  was  brought  up  by  Md; 
Clernand  to  support  Sherman.  Desperate  grew  the 
struggle  which  ensued,  and  cannon  and  musketry 
rolled  their  continuous  thunders  over  the  bloody  field 
and  the  audacious  enemy  rushed  up  to  the  mouth  oi 
the  cannon  and  took  several.  Desperate  hand-toi 
hand  fights  ensued,  and  the  stubborn  resistance  ot 
Sherman,  though  the  sacrifice  of  life  was  great,  kep. 
the  army  from  being  driven  in  dismay  into  the  river 
The  enemy,  if  not  repulsed,  was  checked  for  a  while 
McClernand  held  his  ground  with  great  pertinacity 
but  the  gap  left  by  Sherman  In  retiring  laid  him  opei 
to  a  flank  movement,  and  the  head  of  the  enemy' 
columns  was  dashing  with  all  their  speed  at  him. 

Terrible  Havoc. 

At  this  moment  the  rifled  guns  from  Dresser' 
battery  swept  the  road  with  a  destructive  fire,  and  th 
enemy  paused.  Reinforcements,  however,  strengt\" 
ened  the  forces  of  the  enemy,  and  one  charge  re 
pulsed  was  only  succeeded  by  another  more  desperate 

Many  Federal  officers  of  the  line  fell.    The  artillery 


horses  were  shot  by  scores,  and  as  the  guns  could  not 
be  withdrawn  from  the  field,  they  fell  into  the  hands 
of  the  enemy.  The  half  of  Swartz's  guns  and  sixteen 
horses  of  the  battery  were  lost.  Dresser  lost  some 
rifled  pieces  and  thirty-two  horses,  and  McAlister 
half  of  his  howitzers.  The  division  at  eleven  o'clock 
'was  driven  back,  and  on  a  line  with  Hurlbut's,  which 
chough  fighting  well  and  at  times  repelling  the  enemy, 
was  at  last  obliged  to  retreat.  Colonel  Stuart,  in 
command  of  a  brigade  on  Sherman's  extreme  left, 
would  have  been  cut  off,  but  had  been  fortunately 
overlooked  by  the  enemy. 

j  Almost  a  Rout. 

'    Two  Confederate  brigades  were  now  sent  to  attack 

lim,  and  he  fell  back.     The  enemy  pursued,  and  a 

DJoody  combat  followed.     The  gallant  brigade  had  to 

etreat,  with  its  wounded  commander,  in  ten  minutes, 

)ut  made  a  stand  for  upward  of  an  hour  on  a  wooded 

iill.     McArthur's  brigade,  which  was  sent  to  its  aid, 

3st  its  way,  and  was  driven  back  again  and  again  till 

■;  had  to  be  sent  to  the  rear  to  re-form. 

At  twelve  o'clock  the  camps  of  Sherman,  PrentisSy 

nd  McClernand  were  in  the  possession  of  the  enemy, 

ho  was  still  advancino-.     The  arrival  of  Grant  from 

avannah,  a  few  miles  down  the  river,  could  not  stay 

le  disorder  or  prevent  a  retreat.     Wallace's  division, 

^.  Crump's    Landing,   had   been   ordered  up   in   the 

kerning,  and  would  have  strengthened  the  right,  but 

ilost  its  way,  and,  had  this  been  known  to  the  enemy, 

1  t|e  result  would  have  been  fatal. 


Hurlbut  put  his  division  into  position  and  animated 
his  men.    Sherman  drew  up  the  remains  of  his  brigade 
and  s?-W  that  the  crisis  was  imminent.  The  Confederate 
troo^'S  now  rushed  on,  flushed  with  victory,  but  were 
forced  back.     They  advanced  again  with    desperate 
efforts,  and  were  again  obliged  to  flee  to  the  thicket. 
The  leaders  led  on  fresh  regiments.  Terrible  carnage 
followed,  and  the  Confederate  general  A.  S.  Johnston  \ 
was  slain.     For  a  third  time  the  enemy  was  repelled,: 
but    fresh    troops  always    came  up,   and    the  wasted 
Federal  forces  were  compelled  to  fall  back,  while  theij 
Confederates  pressed  on,  covering  the  field  with  theij 

On  the  Brink  of  Destruction. 

The  entire  left  wing  was  forced  back  to  the  river, 
vhere  thousands  were   crowded,  without  boats,  andi* 
vvere  in  danger  of  being  massacred  by  the  exultant 
enemy.     Wallace,  on  the   extreme  right,  nobly  held 
his  ground  and  four  times  repelled  the  foe.     The  re- 
serve line  was  carried,  and  the  army  now  contracted 
into  the  area  of  half  a  mile.     The  sun  was  on  the  de- 
cline and  the  whole  army  was  now  on  the  brink  of 
destruction.      Just   then  a  body  of  cavalry — Buell's 
advance — was  seen.    Help  was  near.    Buell's  columns 
were  approaching    the  Tennessee,  and  the  wily  foe 
bore  down  on  the  crowded  and  disorganized  Federa 
columns  to  crush  them,  and  thus  verify  the  predictior 
of  Beauregard  that  ere  night  fell  his  horse  would  drinl^ 
from  the  Tennessee.     The  enemy  reckoned  without 
his  host. 


Death -shots  from  Parrott  Guns. 

At  the  critical  moment,  Colonel  Webster,  chief  of 
staff,  skilled  as  an  artillerist,  had  collected  all  the  guns, 
some  of  large  calibre,  from  the  broken  batteries,  and 
arranged  them  in  crescent  form  around  the  landing. 
Collecting  a  force  of  artillerists,  he  was  ready  when 
the  heavy  columns  of  the  enemy  advanced.  Suddenly 
twenty-one  guns  sent  forth  a  deadly  fire  among  the 
closed  ranks,  and  the  enemy  recoiled,  again  to  ad- 
vance. The  gunboats  Tyler  and  Lexington  now 
moved  down  the  bank,  and  with  their  twenty-four- 
pound  Parrott  guns  and  rifled  cannon  sent  the  shriek- 
ing shells  bursting  among  the  terrified  ranks  of  the 
Confederates.  They  halted,  turned,  and  retired  from 
the  range  of  these  destructive  engines. 

Meanwhile,  General  Nelson,  commanding  Buell's 
advance,  crossed  the  Tennessee  and  opened  a  heavy 
fire  on  the  enemy  with  a  battery  of  artillery.  The 
Confederates  withdrew  and  bivouacked  on  the  bloody 
field.  Buell's  army  was  coming  up  rapidly.  Nelson's 
division  was  across  the  river,  and  Crittenden's  was 
placed  in  front  of  Sherman's  broken  line.  McCook's 
division  had  reached  Savannah,  and  was  waiting  to 
be  brought  up  to  the  field  of  battle.  The  regular 
batteries,  commanded  by  Captains  Mendenhall  and 
Terrell,  and  an  Ohio  battery,  arrived  in  the  night,  and 
Captain  Bardett  brought  word  that  the  rest  would  be 
up  early  in  the  morning.  The  news  of  this  powerful 
reinforcement  at  hand  animated  the  brave  men  who 
had  fought   against  such  odds  and,  though   defeated, 


they  felt  that  returning-  day  would   turn  the   scale  of  ; 
victory  in  their  favor.  l^t 

Second  Day  at  Shiloh. 

At  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  on  the  7th  of  April, 
Nelson  and  Crittenden  advanced  upon  the  enemy, 
drove  in  his  pickets,  and  at  seven  o'clock  neared  his 
line  of  battle.  Crittenden  formed  on  the  right  of 
Nelson,  with  Bardett's  battery  in  the  centre.  The 
sound  of  cannon  shook  the  field,  and  told  those  at 
the  landing  that  the  batde  was  begun.  McCook 
took  position  on  the  right  of  Crittenden,  and  Wal- 
lace with  three  brigades  held  the  extreme  right,  and 
opened  with  artillery  at  seven  o'clock. 

A  grand  artillery  duel  was  for  some  time  kept  up. 
Nelson's  line  first  engaged  the  enemy  in  a  bloody 
contest.  Colonel  Hazen,  of  the  Nineteenth  brigade, 
captured  a  battery,  but  was  compelled  to  relinquish 
it.  The  lines  of  Nelson,  however,  still  kept  steadily 
advancing,  sweeping  the  field  lost  the  day  before, 
which  was  yet  strewed  with  the  dead  of  the  com- 
batants. Crittenden  pressed  the  enemy  back  in  his 
front ;  and  Smith's  brigade,  by  a  gallant  dash,  cap- 
tured a  battery,  to  recover  which  the  enraged  (oe 
charored  aorain  and  ao^ain. 

The  Host's  Majestic  Tread. 

The  combat  was  deadly  for  half  an  hour  on  this 
spot.  The  splendid  troops  of  McCook  moved  on, 
and  now  the  Federal  line,  a  mile  and  a  half  in  extent, 
advanced  with  slow,  majestic  tread  against  the  enemy, 
who,  under  cover   of  the   thickets,  made  a  desperate 


'ally  and  hurled  such  a  powerful  force  on  Nelson's 
ivision  that  it  recoiled,  faltered,  and  finally  fell  back, 
^he  compact  masses  of  the  foe  were  assailed  at  this 
ritical  moment  by  Terrell's  regular  battery,  raining 
hells  from  the  twenty-four-pound  howitzers.  They 
taggered,  but  rallied  again,  and,  undaunted,  marched 
p  to  the  death-dealing  guns,  and  horses  and  gun- 
ers  alike  went  down,  till  there  was  not  a  man  re- 
gaining at  one  of  the  pieces.  Terrell  and  a  corporal 
worked  one  of  the  guns  till  saved  by  the  dash  of  a 
sgiment.  Nelson  kept  his  men  well  in  hand,  but  the 
ally  of  the  foe,  which  at  first  had  caused  him  to  give 
ray,  swept  on  in  turn  to  Crittenden,  who  had  to  take 
tp  a  new  position. 

The  Tide  of  Battle  Turned. 

The  exultant  enemy  followed  up  his  success  till  his 
^nks  were  swept  by  the  death-bolts  hurled  by  Men- 
enhall's  and  Bardett's  artillery.  Meanwhile,  Buell, 
^eing  the  determined  resistance  of  the  enemy, 
rdered  an  advance  by  brigades  at  the  double-quick, 
he  enemy,  recoiling  from  the  terrible  line  of  glitter- 
ig  steel  and  the  simultaneous  movement  of  that  great 
ost,  fell  back  step  by  step  as  the  Federal  divisions 
ressed  on.  They  lost  all  the  ground  which  had  been 
on  the  day  before.  The  foe  was  now  in  confusion, 
eing  mowed  down  in  platoons  by  the  musketry  and 

On  the  same  spot  where  the  Federal  defeat  had 
iken  place  on  the  previous  day  all  the  gans  lost  on 
lat  part  of  the  field  were  recaptured,  ar  i  two  of  the 


enemy's  captured  In  turn.  A  last  and  desperate  stai 
was  made  In  front  of  McCook's  division,  but  ecu] 
not  drive  him  back,  though  he  was  exposed  to  a  flai 

Wallace  had  a  desperate  encounter  with  a  Confec 
erate  line,  which  seemed,  as  regiment  after  reglmei 
poured  in,  to  be  Interminable.  Cannonading  on  bo< 
sides  extended  along  the  whole  front  till  he  sei 
sharpshooters  to  pick  off  the  gunners.  Waiting  fd 
Sherman,  at  last  that  leader  brought  up  the  remnaJ 
of  his  brave  division  and  advanced  on  the  Confederal 

Sherinan  Cries,  "  Forward !  " 

Sherman  rode  along  where  the  bullets  flew  thickes 
and  roused  the  courage  of  his  men  to  a  high  degrej 
His  horse  was  killed,  but  he  sprang  on  another  ai 
gave  the  order,  "  Forward! "  The  woods  were  galn( 
one  of  the  enemy's  batteries  flanked,  and  here  tl 
scale  of  victory  preponderated  to  the  Federal  sidi 
Wallace,  seeing  the  Confederate  guns  limbering  u] 
was  upon  them.  The  whole  line  heard  the  order 
"Forward!"  and  pressed  on  the  enemy  till  he  wa: 
driven  to  the  woods. 

By  a  determined  stand  here  Sherman's  division  wa^ 
forced  back ;  but,  though  wounded  twice  and  having 
three  horses  shot  under  him,  he  rallied  his  brave 
troops  and  hurled  them  on  the  foe,  being  distin 
gulshed  on  this  hard-fought  field  as  the  hero  of  heroes 
The  tide  of  battle,  beginning  on  the  left,  had  rollec 
like  a  wave  on  to  the  rights     The  enemy  had  tried  to 


find  an  unguarded  or  weak  point,  but  now  fell  back 
slowly  till  driven  beyond  the  last  Federal  camp. 
Three  thousand  cavalry  in  reserve  were  now  ordered 
to  charge  them.  But  the  enemy  retired  in  order, 
and,  planting  his  artillery,  hurled  destruction  on  the 
victorious  columns  which  attempted  to  turn  the  defeat 
into  a  complete  rout.  Buell  gave  the  order  to  halt, 
and  the  wearied  troops  bivouacked  on  the  field. 

Heavy  Losses  on  Both  Sides. 

General  Johnston,  the  Confederate  leader,  and 
Johnson,  the  provisional  governor  of  Kentucky,  were 
among  the  Confederate  dead.  The  losses  on  both 
sides  were  nearly  equal.  The  Federals  lost  in  killed, 
wounded,  and  missing,  including  three  thousand  pris- 
oners, almost  fourteen  thousand.  The  loss  of  tht 
enemy  was  estimated  at  about  the  same. 

The  first  day  was  a  defeat ;  the  second  a  victory, 
but  dearly  purchased.  McClernand  lost  nearly  a 
third  of  his  whole  force. 

The  field  presented  a  ghastly  spectacle.,  The 
enemy  had  left  his  dead.  Ten  thousand  of  the.  same 
race  and  nation  lay  cold  in  death  on  this  ensanf^uined 
field,  while  twice  that  number  were  wounded.  The 
Sanitary  Commission  here  rendered  the  most  invalu- 
able service,  the  ordinary  means  of  supply  bein*;,^  Inef- 
ficient and  nurses  as  well  as  physicians  too  fev/. 

In  this  battle  the  Confederate  army  on  the  first  day 
was  well  fought.  Want  of  united  action,  partly  the 
consequence  of  surprise,  was  the  cause  wh'<:h,  next  to 
overwhelming  numbers,  caused  the  Fedf/c-.l  reverse. 



It  was  a  bloody  battle  on  both  sides,  and  such  as  this 
continent  had  never  before  witnessed. 

Sherman's  Magnificent  Valor.  9 

Sherman  rose  at  once  to  the  peril  of  the  occasion, 
and  all  day  long  moved  like  a  fabled  god  over  the 
disastrous  field.  Clinging  to  his  position  till  the  last 
moment,  fighting  as  he  retired,  his  orders  flying  like 
lightning  in  every  direction,  and  he  himself  galloping 
incessantly  through  the  hottest  fire,  now  rallying  his 
men,  now  planting  a  battery,  he  seemed  omnipresent 
and  to  bear  a  charmed  life. 

Horse  after  horse  sank  under  him,  he  himself  was 
struck  again  and  again,  and  yet  he  not  only  kept  the 
field,  but  blazed  like  a  meteor  over  it.  At  noon  of 
that  Sabbath  day  he  was  dismounted,  his  hand  in  a 
sling  and  bleeding,  giving  directions  to  his  chief  of 
artillery,  while  it  was  one  incessant  crash  and  roar  all 
around  him.  Suddenly  he  '^aw  to  the  right  his  men 
giving  way  before  a  cloud  of  Confederates.  ''  I  was 
looking  for  that,"  he  exclaimed.  The  next  moment 
the  battery  he  had  been  placing  in  position  opened, 
sending  death  and  destruction  into  the  close-packed 

The  Confederate  commander,  glancing  at  the  bat- 
tery, ordered  the  cavalry  to  charge  it.  Seeing  them 
coming  down,  Sherman  quickly  ordered  up  two  com- 
panies of  infantry,  which,  pouring  in  a  deadly  volley, 
sent  them  to  the  right  about  with  empty  saddles. 
The  onset  was  arrested  and  our  troops  rallied  with 
K'enewed  courage. 


1  Thus  he  acted  all  that  fearful  Sabbath  day.  As 
Sheridan  was  the  rock  that  saved  Rosecrans  at  Stone 
River,  and  Thomas  the  one  that  saved  him  at  Chicka- 
mauga,  so  Sherman  was  the  rock  that  saved  Grant  at 
Shiloh.  At  its  close  his  old  legion  met  him,  and  sent 
;up  three  cheers  at  the  sight  of  his  well- remembered 

The  Battle  Depended  on  Sherman. 
;  Rousseau,  in  speaking  of  his  conduct  in  this  battle, 
isaid,  "  No  man  living  could  surpass  him."  General 
Nelson  a  few  days  before  his  death  remarked,  "  Dur- 
ing eight  hours  the  fate  of  the  armxy  on  the  field  of 
Shiloh  depended  on  the  life  of  one  man  :  if  General 
Sherman  had  fallen  the  army  would  have  been  cap- 
i.ured  or  destroyed."  Grant  said,  "  To  his  individual 
efforts  I  am  indebted  for  the  success  of  that  battle ; " 
imd  Halleck  in  his  despatch  bore  this  unqualified  tes- 
imony :  "It  is  the  unanimous  opinion  here  that  Brig- 
idier-General  W.  T.  Sherman  saved  the  fortunes  of 
he  day  on  the  6th  of  April."  "  He  was  a  strong  man 
p  the  high  places  of  the  field,  and  hope  shone  in  him 
ike  a  pillar  of  fire  when  it  had  gone  out  in  all  other 

The  next  day,  when  Buell's  fresh  battalions  took 
lie  field,  Sherman  again  led  his  battered  regiments 
Tto  the  fight,  and  enacted  over  again  the  heroic 
eeds  of  the  day  before ;  for,  as  Rousseau  said,  he 
fights  by  the  week."  Untiring  to  the  last,  he  pushed 
ut  the  third  day,  after  the  victory,  and  whipped  the 
nemy's  cavalry,  taking  a  large  supply  of  ammunition. 


In  the  subsequent  advance  to  Corinth  his  divisk 
bore  the  most  conspicuous  part,  and  was  the  first 
enter  the  deserted  works  of  the  enemy.     In  the  mej 
time  he  had  been  promoted  to  be  major-general 

He  could  Afford  now  to  Laugh. 

He  could  now  laugh  at  the  slander  that  had 
annoyed  him  and  joke  of  it  publicly.  There  wei 
two  General  Shermans  ^n  the  army  before  Corini 
the  only  difference  in  their  names  being  a  transpoi 
tion  of  the  initials,  W.  T.  and  T.  W.  T.  W.  wi 
known  as  the  Port  Royal  Sherman,  on  account  of 
operations  there  after  the  capture  of  the  place 
DuPont.  He  was  a  very  unpopular  man  with 
troops  on  account  of  a  fretful,  peevish  dispositiol 
exhibiting  itself  not  only  in  words,  but  in  a  disagree 
i*ble,  nervous  manner.  He  was  equally  unpopuh 
with  the  officers,  who  discussed  his  peculiarities  freeli 
One  day,  General  W.  T.  Sherman  was  calling  o^ 
Steadman,  when  some  one  gave  a  ludicrous  accoun 
of  the  behavior  of  T.  W.  Sherman  on  a  certai: 
occasion,  which  created  a  great  deal  of  merrimeni 
Sherman  joined  in  it,  and  jokingly  remarked,  "01 
il'.at  is  the  crazy  Sherman,  is  it?" 

The   Conquerors. 

At  the  close  of  this  chapter  it  can  hardly  b 
deemed  out  of  place  to  notice  the  influence  cf  Shilo. 
and  Corinth  on  the  fortunes  of  some  of  the  principa 
actors.  Among  the  Confederates,  Beauregard  wa 
the  man  principally  affected.     He  had  the  greatcs 



)pportunity.  He  sustained  the  greatest  loss.  The 
ififect  of  Shiloh  and  Corinth  was  undoubtedly  injuri- 
')us,  but  it  was  not  lasting.  Beauregard  suffered  the 
ess  that  neither  at  Shiloh  nor  at  Corinth  did  any 
•ival  of  equal  capacity  come  to  the  front. 

On  the  National  side  three  men  shared  largely  of 
he  favors  of  fortune — Halleck,  Grant,  and  Sherman, 
-lalleck  reaped  a  glory  which  was  scarcely  all  his 
)wn.  Grant,  in  spite  of  a  treatment  which  must  be 
pronounced  unjust,  not  only  preserved  his  reputation, 
Dut  secured  the  opportunity  of  making  himself  what 
le  soon  afterward  was  recognized  to  be,  the  leading 
i'epresentatlve  on  the  field  of  the  Northern  cause. 

Sherman  in  the  one  battle  and  in  the  other  sur- 
passed himself  in  deeds  of  skill  and  daring,  and 
i^arned  his  right  and  title  to  a  place  in  the  front  rank 
rf  the  great  military  men  whom  the  war  was  gradu- 
ally develop)''g — «i  p*ace  which  he  never  afterward 


General  Sherman's  Achievements  at  Vicksburg  i 

After  the  battle  of  Corinth,  which  was  fought  on 
the  4th  of  October,  1862,  the  army  under  General 
Grant  fell  back  to  the  position  which  it  formerly  occu  ; 
pied,  and  remained  in  comparative  inactivity  until  the 
beginning  of  November.  It  was  stationed  from  Mem- 
phis to  Bridgeport,  Tennessee,  along  the  Memphis 
and  Charleston  railroad.  Its  strong  points  were 
Memphis,  Grand  Junction,  and  Corinth.  The  army 
was  arranged  in  four  divisions. 

General  Sherman,  with  the  first  division,  was  at  t 
Memphis;  General  Hurlbut,  with  the  second,  was  at  i 
Jackson  ;  General  C.  S.  Hamilton,  with  the  third,  was 
at  Corinth;  and  General  T.  A.  Davies,  with  the 
fourth,  was  at  Columbus.  Grant's  headquarters  were 
at  Jackson,  Tennessee,  a  point  in  the  West  where  the 
Central  Mississippi  railroad  unites  with  the  Mobile 
and  Ohio.  That  general  had  not  abandoned  the  plan 
vliich  was  inaugurated  at  Henry  and  Donelson.  His 
vhole  soul  was  bent  on  the  capture  of  Vicksburg.  A 
variety  of  circumstances,  however,  had  necessitated 
delay.  The  removal  of  Halleck  to  Washington  had 
devolved  upon  him  the  entire  care  of  the  Departm.ent 
of  the  Tennessee — a  department  which  included,  in 
addition   to  Cairo,   Forts   Henry  and    Donelson,  the 



whole  of  Northern  Mississippi,  and  those  portions  of 
Tennessee  and  Kentucky  west  of  the  Tennessee 
River.  This,  however,  was  not  the  only  or  even  the 
most  important  reason. 

A  Weakened  Army. 

The  army  which  had  fought  and  won  at  Shiloh,  at 
Corinth,  and  at  luka  had  been  greatly  weakened,  a 
large  proportion  of  its  strength  having  been  sent  to 
Kentucky  to  resist  the  invasion  of  Bragg.  It  was 
necessary,  therefore,  for  Grant,  while  perfecting  his 
plans  and  rearranging  his  troops,  to  wait  for  reinforce- 
ments. As  soon  as  the  reinforcements  arrived  he  was 
ready  to  move. 

The  National  gunboats  had  swept  the  Mississippi 
from  Cairo  to  Memphis,  and  between  those  two  points 
every  Confederate  stronghold  had  been  deserted  or 

,  destroyed.  Farragut,  with  a  portion  of  his  fleet,  had 
pushed  his  way  up  to  Vicksburg  after  the  rapture  of 
New  Orleans.  He  was  accompanied  by  General  F. 
Williams  with  an  infantry  force  of  four  regiments. 
While    Farragut    bombarded  the   city,  Williams  was 

[Cutting  a  canal  with  the  view  of  diverting  che  waters 
of  the  Mississippi  from  their  proper  channel,  thus 
[leaving  Vicksburg  high  and  dry  on  all  sides. 

Fruitless  Siege. 

The  siege  lasted  some  seventy  days.     It  was  all  to 

no  purpose.     Farragut,  who  failed  to  make  any  srri- 

ous  impression  on  the   Confederate  works,  began  Ko 

fear  for  his   own    safety.     The  canal  also   proved  a 

(Complete  failure.     The  fleet  and  the  land  /brce  Ix^ch 


found  It  necessary  to  retire,  and  Vicksburg  remained 
to  obstruct  the  navigation  of  the  great  river. 

On  the  4th  of  November,  Grant  began  to  move. 
He  transferred  his  headquarters  from  Jackson  to  La 
Grange,  some  few  miles  to  the  west  of  Grand  Junction. 
He  soon  discovered  that  the  Confederates,  under  Gen-^ 
eral  John  C.  Pemberton,  a  Pennsylvanian,  who  had 
superseded  Van  Dorn,  were  in  considerable  strength 
immediately  in  his  front.  Pemberton,  in  fact,  had 
taken  a  strong  position  behind  two  lines  of  defences, 
the  outer  being  the  Yallabusha  and  the  inner  being 
the  Tallahatchie — two  streams  which  after  their  junc- 
tion form  the  Yazoo  River.  Both  of  these  streams 
cross  the  Mississippi  Central  railroad  between  Grand 
Junction  and  Grenada.  The  banks  of  the  Tallahatchie 
were  strongly  fortified.  Grant's  first  intention  was  to 
offer  Pemberton  battle,  defeat  him,  and  force  his  way 
to  Vicksburg. 

Sherman  and  Grant  Laying-  Plans. 

On  the  8th  he  sent  out  McPherson  with  ten  thousand 
infantry  and  fifteen  hundred  cavalry,  with  instructions 
to  drive  from  Lamar  a  body  of  Confederates  who 
were  holding  the  railroad.  McPherson  accomplished 
his  task  in  the  most  effectual  manner,  the  Confed- 
erates having  been  driven  back  as  far  as  Holly 
Springs.  The  time  had  now  come  to  make  a  deter 
mined  effort  to  open  the  Mississippi. 

About  the  17th  of  November,  Grant  summoned 
Sherman  to  meet  him  at  Columbus,  and  at  the  inter- 
view which   there   took   place   the   views  of  the  two 





generals  were  freely  exchanged,  Grant  explaining  to 
Sherman  his  plan  and  giving  him  his  orders. 

It  was  Sherman's  suggestion  that  a  portion  of  Cur- 
tis's  army,  which  was  stationed  at  Helena,  should 
be  brought  over  to  Delta  with  a  view  to  co-operate 
with  Grant  in  his  general  movement  toward  Vicks- 
burg.  These  troops  which,  in  the  absence  of  General 
Curtis,  who  was  at  St.  Paul,  were  under  the  tempo- 
rary command  of  General  Frederick  Steele,  were 
promptly  at  the  place  appointed  on  the  eastern  bank 
oi  the  Mississippi.  They  numbered  some  seven 
thousand  men,  and  were  under  the  joint  command  ol 
Generals  A.  P.  Hovey  and  C.  C.  Washburne. 

Ordered  to  scour  the  country  to  the  south  and  east 
in  the  rear  of  the  Confederate  army,  to  destroy  the 
railroads  and  bridges  so  as  to  cut  off  supplies,  anc 
generally  to  prepare  the  way  for  Grant's  advance 
they  accomplished  their  task  in  the  most  effectua. 
manner,  and  then  returned  to  the  Mississippi. 

Confederates  Fall  Back. 

Pemberton,  on  discoverinor  that  the  railroads  were 
badly  damaged  and  that  the  rolling-stock  was  de- 
stroyed. Grant  meanwhile  pressing  on  his  front 
deemed  it  prudent  to  fall  back  on  Grenada. 

On  the  1st  of  December,  Grant  was  at  Holl) 
Springs.  On  the  5th  he  was  at  Oxford,  where  h( 
established  his  headquarters.  It  now  became  i 
serious  question  with  General  Grant  how  far  he  wa: 
wise  in  allowing  himself  to  be  tempted  to  advance 
into  the  enemy's  country.     The  State  of  Mississipp 


'I  was  but  sparsely  peopled,  and  he  had  no  means  of 
knowing  whether  its    resources    were    equal    to    the 
wants  of  a  large  army  possibly  cut  off  from  its  base 
'  of  supplies.     Had  he  known  what  he    knew   after- 
'  ward,  the  caution  would  have  been  unnecessary,  and 
'  he  would  doubtless  have  continued  his  onward  march. 
On  the  5th  of  December,  Sherman,  on  his  way  to 
1  join  Grant  and    bringing    with  him    from    Memphis 
'  some  sixteen  thousand  men,  arrived  at  College  Hill, 
about  ten  miles  from  Oxford,  whence  he  reported  to 
'  his  chief.     On  the  8th  he  received  from  Grant  a  let- 
ter requesting  his  immediate  presence  at  Oxford,  and 
enclosing  a  message  from  Halleck  to  Grant  author- 
'  Izing  the  latter  to  prosecute  the  new  plan  he  had  just 
submitted  to  him,  to  move  his  troops  as  he  thought 
best,  to  retain  till  further  orders  all  Curtis*s  troops 
now  in  his  department,  to  telegraph  to  General  Allen 
in  St.  Louis  for  all  the  steamboats  he  might  need,  and 
to  ask  Porter  to  co-operate  with  his  gunboats. 

Plan  of  Land  and  Jjaval  Attack. 

On  his  arrival  at  Oxford,  Sherman  found  Grant 
surrounded  by  his  staff.  The  new  plan  was  discussed 
and  approved.  It  will  be  seen  that  Grant  made  up 
his  mind  that,  for  the  safety  of  his  men  as  well  as  for 
the  final  success  of  the  expedition,  it  was  necessary 
to  take  full  advantage  of  the  river  communication 
with  Vicksburg.  It  was  agreed  that  a  large  force  on 
transports  should  proceed  down  the  Mississippi  under 
convoy  of  Porter's  gunboats — that  on  reaching  the 
mouth  of  the  Yazoo  they  should  open  up  that  water 


line,  and  by  a  joint  attack  of  the  land  and  naval  forces 
attempt  to  capture  Vicksburg  in  the  rear.  Grant 
meanwhile  was  to  press  forward  toward  Jackson, 
which  is  only  some  forty-six  miles  to  the  west  of 
Vicksburg,  offering  Pemberton  battle,  and  following 
him  up  close  in  the  event  of  his  retreat,  in  the  hope 
of  finding  Sherman  on  the  Yazoo  with  supplies  or  in 
possession  of  Vicksburg. 

Happily,  Grant  had  been  left  complete  control 
of  the  whole  movement,  Halleck  having  offered  no 
special  advice  and  imposed  no  conditions.  He  could 
move  at  will,  and  he  could  place  in  prominent  com- 
mand the  men  of  his  own  choice. 

Sherman's  Coniinaud. 

Sherman,  who  commanded  the  right  wing  of  Grant's 
army,  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  river  ex- 
pedition, and  received  his  instructions.  Grant  had 
the  greater  pleasure  in  appointing  Sherman  to  this 
command  that  McClernand,  who  had  great  influence 
with  the  President,  w^as  known  to  be  intriguing  for  an 
independent  command  on  the  Mississippi.  Sherman 
was  therefore  ordered  to  take  command  of  the  force? 
at  Memphis,  and  those  also  at  Helena  and  Deltc 
under  General  Steele,  to  descend  the  river  by  trans- 
ports, with  the  gunboat  fleet,  commanded  by  Admiral 
Porter,  as  a  convoy,  and  to  attack  Vicksburg  by  the 
29th  of  November. 

McClernand  was  to  take  the  forces  at  Cairo  and 
to  proceed  to  Vicksburg,  so  as  to  be  in  time  to  lend 
Sherman  effective  aid  as  soon  as  he  made  the  attack. 


Grant  himself,  as  we  have  said,  was  to  move  rapidly 
on  the  Confederates  to  the  north  and  east  of  Vicks- 
burg,  to  follow  them  if  they  should  retreat  toward  the 

I  city,  and  to  take  part  with  Sherman,  if  necessary,  in 

I  the  reduction  of  the  place. 

Ready  for  Action. 
It  was  a  well-conceived  plan.     Its  success,  however 

;  depended  on  the  prompt  and  faithful  execution  of  all 
its  parts.     Grant  knew  that  it  was  unsafe  to  trust  for 

I  supplies  solely  to  the  enemy's  country.  He  had 
therefore  repaired  the  Central  Mississippi  railroad  as 
far  as  Oxford,  where,  for  the  present,  he  had  estab- 
lished his  headquarters,  and  Holly  Springs,  which  was 
entrusted  to  the  care  of  Colonel  R.  C.  Murphy,  was 

:  retained  as  a  grand  depot  and  hospital. 

!  Let  us  see  how  this  plan  was  carried  out.  Grant 
had  taken  great  care  that  no  misfortune  should  befall 
him  in  his  rear.     He  had  left  small  but  adequate  gar- 

I  risons  at  Columbus,  at  Humboldt,  Trenton,  Jackson, 

?  Bolivar,  Corinth,  Holly  Springs,  Coldwater,  Davis's 
Mills,  and  Middlebury.  He  had  taken  particular  care 
of  Holly  Springs,  for  he  knew  that  the  treasures  at 
that  place  presented  a  powerful  temptation  to  Van 
Dorn.  On  the  night  of  the  19th  he  warned  Murphy 
of  his  danger,  and  informed  him  that  he  had  sent  four 
thousand  men  to  enable  him  to  repel  any  attack  which 
might  be  made  upon  him.  Murphy,  it  would  seem, 
paid  little  heed  to  the  instructions  given  him.  He 
made  no  extra  preparations  to  resist  the  enemy,  and 
was  clearly  unequal  to  the  occasiui*. 


On  the  morning  of  the  20th,  at  daybreak,  Van  Dorn. 
executing  a  brilHant  cavalry  operation,  rushed  upon 
the  place  with  tremendous  fury.  Murphy  offered  no 
resistance.  The  Second  IlHnois,  however,  refused  to 
surrender,  and  gallantly  fought  their  way  out  with  a 
loss  of  only  seven  men.  Murphy,  with  the  rest  of  his 
men,  accepted  a  parole.  Van  Dorn  seized  all  the 
property,  valued  at  over  fifteen  hundred  thousand 
dollars,  taking  with  him  what  he  could  carry  and  de- 
stroying the  remainder.  He  set  fire  to  the  buildings, 
not  even  sparing  the  hospital,  which  was  filled  with 
sick  and  wounded  soldiers,  and  committed  an  act  of 
inhuman  barbarity. 

"Cowardly  and  Disgraceful  Conduct." 

This  was  the  second  time  that  Murphy  had  been 
guilty  of  such  conduct.  He  did  the  same  thing  at 
luka.  General  Grant  was  wild  with  rage.  It  was  his 
opinion  that  with  *'  all  the  cotton,  public  stores  and 
substantial  buildings  about  the  depot  "  Murphy  ought 
to  have  been  able  to  keep  the  assailants  at  bay  until 
relief  arrived.  It  was  only  four  hours  after  the  catas- 
trophe when  the  four  thousand  men  sent  to  his  aid 
arrived  on  the  spot.  Grant  was  particularly  incensed 
at  Murphy  for  accepting  a  parole  for  himself  and  his 
men.  A  cartel  had  been  agreed  to  by  the  rival  com 
manders,  and  it  had  been  stipulated  that  each  party 
should  take  care  of  his  own  prisoners. 

If  Murphy  had  refused  parole  for  himself  and  men, 
Van  Dorn  would  have  been  "  compelled  to  release 
them  unconditionally  or  to  have  abandoned  all  further 


aggjessive  movements  for  the  time  being."  In  a 
I  severe  order  on  the  9th  of  January,  General  Grant 
dismissed  Murphy  from  the  army,  the  order  to  take 
effect  "from  December  20th,  the  date  of  his  cowardly 
and  disgraceful  conduct." 

The  disaster  at  Holly  Springs  was  ruinous  to 
Grant's  plan.  It  robbed  him  of  supplies  which  it 
was  intended  should  sustain  the  army  for  several 
weeks.  To  replace  them  it  would  be  necessary  to 
put  in  operation  all  the  capacity  and  force  of  the 
Columbus  railroad,  but  this  railroad  had  been  de 
stroyed,  and  weeks  would  be  exhausted  before  it 
could  be  put  in  working  order.  Ignorant  of  the 
resources  of  the  country,  and  not  knowing  whether, 
in  the  event  of  his  pressing  forward,  he  should  find 
Sherman  in  the  vicinity  of  Vicksburg,  he  deemed  it 
lis  duty  to  fall  back.  Me  immediately  recrossed  the 

The  Game  of  War. 

Having  no  other  means  of  subsisting  his  army,  he 
made  requisitions  on  the  inhabitants  as  he  moved 
along.  On  the  23d  of  December  he  was  at  Holly 
Springs,  now  a  scene  of  wreck  and  ruin,  and  a  few 
days  later  he  re-entered  La  Grange  and  Grand  Junc- 
tion, where  he  was  once  more  in  communication  with 
Corinth  and  Memphis.  Pemberton  made  no  attempt 
to  pursue.  On  the  contrary,  taking  advantage  of 
the  retreat  of  his  antagonist,  he  withdrew  the  greater 
portion  of  his  forces  from  Grenada  and  concentrated 
toward  Vicksburg. 


On  the  same  day  that  Van  Dorn  made  his  raid  on 
Holly  Springs  an  attack  was  made  by  a  Confederate 
force  on  Davis's  Mills,  a  little  farther  to  the  north.  In 
the  neighborhood  of  Jackson,  Tennessee,  a  vital  point 
in  Grant's  line  of  communications,  an  attack  was  made 
by  a  body  of  cavalry  under  Forrest  on  the  19th.  The 
telegraph  wires  were  cut  and  the  railroad  was  de- 

Hopes  Blasted. 

On   the   following  day  Forrest  presented  himself 
before    Humboldt   and    Trenton.     These    and   other 
stations  along  the  railroad,  such  as  Dyer's,  Ruther- 
ford, and  Kenton,  fell  an  easy  prey  to  the  enemy.     It 
seemed  to  be  the  purpose  of  the  Confederates  to  de-* 
stroy  every  railroad  bridge  from  Columbus  to  Corinth,  Ij 
and  thus  to  cut  Grant  off  from  all  his  communications) 
and  supplies. 

So  far,  they  had  carried  out  their  purpose  with  de- 
termination and  with  not  a  little  success.  Never  was 
campaign  opened  under  apparently  happier  auspicies. 
The  rich  bud  of  promise,  however,  was  cruelly  blasted. 

Grant's  plan  of  the  campaign  had  failed.  Mean- 
while, what  of  Sherman?  On  the  20th,  the  very  day 
on  which  Van  Dorn  and  Forrest  struck  the  blow 
A'hich  compelled  Grant  to  fall  back  and  abandon  his 
part  of  the  joint  undertaking,  Sherman  took  his  de- 
parture from  Memphis.  Taking  with  him  over  twenty 
thousand  troops  in  transports,  he  left  as  a  guard  to 
the  city  a  strong  force  of  infantry  and  cavalry,  and 
the  siege-guns  in  position  with  a  complement  of  gun^^ 


ners.  On  the  following  day,  at  Friar's  Point,  he  was 
joined  by  Admiral  Porter  in  his  flag-ship  Black 
Hawk,  with  the  Marmora,  Captain  Getty,  and  the 
Conestoga,  Captain  Selfridge,  which  were  to  act  as  a 
convoy.  The  remainder  of  Porter's  fleet  was  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Yazoo.  On  the  same  evening,  the 
2 1st,  the  troops  at  Helena  embarked  in  transports 
and  came  to  Friar's  Point.  Sherman's  force  was  now 
at  least  thirty  thousand  strong.  All  the  arrange- 
ments were  completed,  and  the  joint  expedition  was 
moving  down  the  river  the  following  morning. 

A  Strangle  Story. 

Sherman  got  away  just  in  time  to  secure  for  him- 
self the  glory  or  dishonor  of  the  expedition.  Had 
he  lingered  a  day  longer  he  would  have  been  super- 
seded in  his  command  by  General  McCIernand.  It  is 
a  strange  story,  and  one  which,  for  the  sake  of  all  the 
parties  concerned,  it  would  be  well  if  the  world  could 
forget.  We  will  not  enter  into  details.  It  has  already 
been  stated  that  General  McCIernand  was  a  warm 
personal  friend  of  President  Lincoln,  and  that  he 
was  ambitious  of  an  independent  command  on  the 

It  is  not  necessary  to  say  that  Sherman  was  a  man 
according  to  Grant's  own  heart.  Since  that  great 
day  at  Shiloh  their  fates  had  been  linked  together, 
and  they  had  been  to  each  other  like  David  and 
Jonathan.  Sherman  was  also  a  great  favorite  with 
Halleck,  the  commander-in-chief  at  Washington. 
But  for  the  personal  wishes  of  Grant  and  Halleck, 


both  of  whom  knew  well  that  Sherman  was  the  man  i 
for  the  position,  McCleiiiand  would  have  been  ap-  > 
pointed  by  Lincoln  in  tiie  hrst  instance  to  the  com-  i 
mand  of  the  river  expedition. 

McClernand,  however,  was  not  to  be  put  off:  and 
Lincoln,   who    was    always    unwilling    to    disoblige  a  ; 
friend,  was   weak  enough  to  yield  to  his  entreaties 
On  the    1 8th  of  December  an   order  from  the  Presi-  i 
dent   reached   Grant,  directing  him   to  divide  all  his 
forces  into  four  army  corps,  to    assign   one  corps  to  < 
McClernand,  and  to  place   him  at  the  head  of   the 
troops  destined  for  the  attack  upon  Vicksburg. 

Embarrassing"  Situation.  | 

Grant  could  hardly  fail  to  see  in  this  order  a  blow  t' 
aimed  at  himself.     It  was  a   most  awkward  circum- 
stance, and  reflected  little  credit  on  the  wisdom  and  ^ 
good  sense  of  the  President.     Good  and  great  as  he . 
was,  Lincoln  was  not  without  his  weaknesses.   He  was  i 
vain  enough  to  imagine  that  he  knew  quite  as  much 
as   his  generals  in  the  field,  and  he  was  disposed  to 
deal  with  military  officers  as  he  was  in  the  habit  of 
dealing  with  politicians. 

It  is  not  much  to  be  wondered  at  if  Grant  was  stag- 
gered by  this  order  and  if  he  was  slow  to  put  it  in 
execution.  It  was  not  difficult  for  him  to  find  an  ex- 
cuse. He  was  in  the  midst  of  his  preparations  for  an 
onward  march.  The  reconstruction  of  his  army,  ac- 
cording to  the  instructions  received,  occupied  him  the 
whole  of  the  19th.  The  disaster  at  Holly  Springs, 
compelling  a  backward  movement,  occurred  on  the 



20th,  and  the  raids  of  Forrest  on  the  same  day  de- 
prived him  of  the  use  of  the  telegraph. 

Every  Inch  a  Soldier. 

As  it  was,  Sherman  had  proceeded  down  the  river 
before  any  counter-instructions  reached  Memphis.  If 
Sherman  had  any  reason  to  fear  a  counter-order,  his 
haste  to  get  ready  and  his  prompt  departure  but  re  , 
sealed  the  soldierly  spirit  and  true  character  of  the 
nan.  As  the  result  proved,  it  was  well  for  Sherman, 
well  for  General  Grant,  and  well  for  the  nation  at 
brge  that  Lincoln's  order  did  not  take  effect  before 
|;he  20th  of  December. 

On  Christmas  Day  the  expedition  under  Sherman 
ind  Porter  had  reached  Milliken's  Bend,  when  Sher- 
fnan  detached  Burbridge's  brigade  of  A.  J.  Smith's 
'division  to  break  up  the  railroad  leading  from  Vicks- 
Durg  to  Shreveport,  Louisiana.  Leaving  A.  J.  Smith's 
division  to  await  the  return,  the  remaining  divisions 
oroceeded  on  the  26th  to  the  mouth  of  the  Yazoo, 
md  up  that  river  to  Johnson's  plantation,  some 
^.hirteen  miles,  and  there  disembarked. 

I  Insurmountable    Obstacles. 

J  The  disembarkation  was  conducted  without  any  op- 
position. Steele's  division  landed  farthest  up  the  river, 
ibove  what  is  called  Chickasaw  Bayou  ;  Morgan's 
division,  a  little  lower  down,  at  the  house  of  Johnson, 
Vhich  had  been  burned  by  the  gunboats  on  a  former 
!)ccasion  ;  Morg^an  L.  Smith's  division,  below  that  of 
Morgan  ;  and  A.  J.  Smith's,  which  arrived  next  night, 
below  that  of  M.  L.  Smith.     The  ground  on  which 


Sherman  now  found  himself  presented  obstacles 
of  which  formerly  he  had  but  a  very  imperfect 

Vicksburg  is  built  on  a  range  of  bluffs  known  as  the 
Walnut  Hills.  These  hills,  which  take  their  rise  a 
little  below  the  city,  extend  for  the  most  part  in  a 
north-easterly  direction,  terminating  in  Haines'  Bluff 
a  distance  of  some  thirteen  or  fourteen  miles.  The 
configuration  of  these  hills  has  been  compared  to  the 
ridge  at  Inkerman,  to  which  it  is  said  they  bear,  in 
some  particulars,  a  striking  resemblance.  Their  aver- 
age height  is  about  two  hundred  feet. 

Natural  Defences. 

Where  the  Mississippi  touches  their  base  at  Vicks^ 
burg,  and  for  some  miles  both  above  and  below,  they 
are  precipitous.  Along  their  entire  length,  indeed, 
from  Vicksburg  to  Haines'  Bluff,  their  face  is  veryi 
abrupt  and  cut  up  by  numerous  valleys  and  ravines. 
The  only  approach  to  the  city  by  land  from  up  the 
river  is  by  climbing  their  almost  perpendicular  front. 
The  ground  beyond  is  high,  broken,  and  somewhat 
rolling,  gradually  descending  to  the  Big  Black  River. 
The  Yazoo,  which  skirts  the  ridge  at  Haines'  Bluff 
about  nine  miles  above  Vicksburg  by  the  road  along 
the  foot  of  the  bluffs,  flows  in  a  south-western  direction, 
and  before  discharging  its  waters  into  the  Mississippi 
crosses  an  old  arm  of  the  river,  which  now  forms  a 
semicircular  lake. 

The  Yazoo  evidently  in  times  gone  by  clung  to  the 
foot  of  the  hills,  and  traces  of  its  former  whereabouts 


ire  to  be  seen  in  the  numerous  bayous  and  channels 
Sy  which  the  intervening  ground  is  cut  up.  One  of 
.hese  bayous  puts  off  from  the  Yazoo  about  one-third 
dF  the  distance  below  Haines'  Bluff,  running  at  right 
iingles  with  the  river  until  it  approaches  the  bluffs, 
A^hen  it  turns  and  follows  their  base  until  it  empties 
tself  into  the  Mississippi.  It  is  called  Chickasaw 

Frowning  Batteries. 
I  Between  the  bayou  and  the  hills  there  was  an  irreg- 
ular strip  of  land  on  which  the  trees  had  been  felled 
;o  form  an  abattis.  It  was  dotted  also  with  rifle-pits. 
Rifle-trenches  abounded,  too,  along  the  front  of  the 
Diuffs,  and  the  heights  above  were  crowned  with  bat- 

About  a  mile  to  the  north-east  of  the  bayou,  and 
Darallel  with  it,  there  is  a  deep  slough,  which  makes 
1  sharp  turn  as  it  approaches  the  bluffs,  and  enters 
l^hickasaw  Bayou  at  the  point  where  the  latter  is 
:hecked  in  its  course  and  turns  to  flow  alongr  the  base 
of  the  hills.  There  was  thus  a  fortified  line  some 
;welve  or  thirteen  miles  in  length,  formed  of  abattis 
md  rifle-pits,  with  an  impassable  ditch  in  front,  and 
terminating  in  the  powerful  fixed  batteries  at  Haines' 
Bluff  on  the  one  hand,  and  in  the  heavy  batteries  and 
leld-works  above  Vicksbure  on  the  other. 

The  land  lying  between  the  Yazoo  and  the  Chick- 
isaw  was  not  only  low  and  swampy  :  it  was,  except 
n  one  or  two  places  where  there  were  plantations, 
densely  "/-r^oded.     The  distance  from  Johnson's  Land- 



ing  to  the  Chickasaw  was  about  six  miles.  Such  wa5 
the  ground  over  which  Sherman  proposed  to  march 
his  men.  Such  were  the  obstacles  to  be  overcome 
before  he  could  enter  Vicksburg.  To  the  Nationa 
commander,  however,  and  to  his  officers  these  obsta 
cles  were,  as  yet,  but  imperfectly  known.  | 

Slieniian's  Valiant  Army. 

General  Sherman's  army  was  organized  in  fourdi' 
visions.  The  First  division,  comprising  three  brieadesi' 
was  under  Brigadier-General  George  W.  Morgan  j 
Second  division,  three  brigades,  under  Brigadier-Gem 
eral  Morgan  L.  Smith  ;  Third  division,  three  brigades.) 
under  Brigadier-General  A.J.  Smith  ;  Fourth  divisions 
four  brigades,  under  Brigadier-General  Fredericki 
Steele.  The  brigade  commanders  of  the  Fourth  divis- 
ion were  Generals  Frank  P.  Blair,  John  M.  Thayer 
C.  E.  Hovey,  and  Colonel  Hassendurbel. 

According  to  Sherman's  plan  of  attack,  Generali 
Steele  was  to  hold  the  extreme  left.  General  Morgan 
the  left  centre.  General  M.  L.  Smith  the  right  centre, 
and  General  A.  J.  Smith  the  extreme  right.  As  the 
latter  general  had  not  yet  arrived  from  Milliken's 
Bend,  where  we  left  him  waiting  for  Burbridge,  Gen- 
eral Frank  P.  Blair,  with  his  brigade,  was  detached 
from  Steele's  division  and  placed  on  Morgan's  right. 

Clever  Strateg-y. 

The  object  of  this  arrangement  was  to  distract  the 
enemy's  attention,  leading  him  to  expect  an  attack  at 
a  number  of  different  points.  Instructions,  however, 
had  been  given  to  each  of  the  commanders  to  con- 


verge  toward  the  point  of  attack,  at  or  near  Bar- 
field's  plantation.  There  it  had  been  discovered  the 
bayou  could  be  crossed  at  two  points — at  a  sand-bar 
and  at  a  narrow  levee. 

On  the  27th  the  army  be^^an  to  move.  General 
Steele,  who  had  been  ordered  to  take  position  on  the 
iirther  side  of  the  slough  above  this  bayou,  expe- 
rienced great  difficulty  in  landing  his  troops.  So  soft 
and  slushy  was  the  ground  and  so  dense  was  the 
brushwood  that  he  found  it  necessary  to  construct 
roads  for  moving  his  wagons  and  artillery.  When 
night  came  he  had  only  advanced  some  two  miles 
from  the  shore. 

During  the  greater  portion  of  next  day  he  pushed 
forward  his  command,  but  he  was  compelled  to  report 
to  Sherman  that  he  found  it  physically  impossible  to 
reach  the  bluffs  from  his  position,  and  that  to  persist 
in  the  attempt  would  inevitably  lead  to  the  ruin  of 
his  troops  and  the  loss  of  his  field  equipage. 

Pressing  Forward. 

He  was   therefore   ordered  to  leave   some  of  his 

troops  behind  him  as  a  show  of  force,  to  hasten  to  the 

west  side  of  the  Chickasaw  Bayou,  and  to  take  a  posi 

nil  on   Morgan's    left.     On   the    27th,   Blair  moved 

slowly   toward    the    bluffs,   his    desire    being  to  give 

Steele  time  to  come  into  position  on   the  left.      He 

'  succeeded  in  silencing  one  of  the  enemy's  batteries  at 

i  the  point  where  he  expected  Steele  would  be  able  to 

join  him,  and  held  his  ground. 

On  the  28th  the  various  divisions  pressed  forward, 


and  the  National  troops  were  in  full  possession  on 
the  Yazoo  side  of  the  bayou,  with  one  bridge  thrown 
dcross  and  with  two  bridges  partially  constructed. 
During  the  course  of  the  day,  while  reconnoitring, 
General  M.  L.  Smith  was  severely  wounded  in  the 
hip,  and  compelled  to  retire  to  his  steamboat. 

Selecting  Positions, 

His  command  devolved  on  General  Stuart;  but 
Sherman,  feeling  convinced  that  A.  J.  Smith  could 
accomplish  nothing  on  the  extreme  right,  because  of 
the  heavy  fire  of  the  forts  immediately  in  his  front, 
ordered  him  to  leave  Burbridge  in  position  at  that 
point,  and  to  come  up  with  a  portion  of  his  forces 
to  the  point  selected  for  crossing  the  bayou,  and 
entrusted  him  with  the  execution  of  the  task.  Such 
was  the  state  of  things  on  the  night  of  the  28th. 

General  Morgan  was  in  position  on  the  west,  or 
rather  south-west,  side  of  the.  Chickasaw ;  General 
Blair  was  a  little  to  his  right,  near  the  angle  of  the 
bayou  ;  General  M.  L.  Smith's  division,  under  Gen- 
eral Stuart,  was  on  the  right  centre ;  General  A.  J. 
Smith's,  which  was  farther  to  the  right,  had  taken 
position  near  the  place  where  the  bayou  was  to  be 
crossed  ;  and  General  Steele  was  moving  up  on  the 
(eft,  to  act  as  a  reserve  to  Morgan. 

The  Grand  Attack. 

On  the  morning  of  the  29th  all  things  were  in 
readiness  for  the  attack.  It  was  Sherman's  object, 
as  he  himself  has  told  us,  to  make  a  lodgment  on 
the  foot-hills  and  bluffs  abreast  of  his  position,  while 


diversions  were  being  made  by  the  navy  at  Haines' 
Bluff  and  by  the  First  division  directly  toward  Vicks- 
burg.     We  have  already  mentioned  that  there  were 

( two  crossings — one  in  front  of  Morgan,  and  another 
a  little  farther  to  the  south-west,  in  front  of  M.  L. 
Smith.  An  attempt  was  made  by  A.  J.  Smith  to 
throw  a  light  flying  bridge  over  the  bayou,  more  to 
the  right.  On  the  extreme  left,  a  little  above  the 
angle  of  the  Chickasaw,  near  the  house  of  Mrs.  Lake, 
Blair's  men  had  succeeded  in  constructing  a  bridge, 

ibut  not  without  great  difficulty  and  with  very  con- 

:siderable  loss. 

Storm  of  Fire. 

Sherman  expected  great  things  from  General 
Morgan,  who,  as  we  have  seen,  commanded  the 
first  division  and  was  to  lead  the  attack  in  person. 
Sherman  pointed  out  to  him  the  place  where  he 
could  pass  the  bayou,  and  received  for  answer,  ''Gen- 
eral, in  ten  minutes  after  you  give  the  signal  I'll  be 
on  those  hills."  His  position  was  one  of  considerable 
difficulty.  The  crossing  was  narrow,  and  immediately 
opposite,  at  the  base  of  the  hills,  there  was  a  Con- 
(Cderate  battery,  supported  by  infantry  posted  on  the 
jpurs  of  the  hills  in  the  rear.  This  was  the  real  point 
)f  attack,  but  to  distract  the  attention  of  the  enemy 
Dherman's  instructions  were  that  the  initial  move- 
nents  should  be  made  at  the  flanks. 

It  was  about  noon  before  the  signal  was  given  foi 
■  general  forvi^ard  movement  across  the  bayou  and 
oward  the  enemy's  position.     A  heavy  artillery  fire 


was  opened  all  along  the  National  line.  It  recalleci 
the  memory  of  luka  and  Corinth.  The  Confederate 
batteries  made  a  prompt  reply,  and  were  soon  fol 
lowed  by  the  infantry,  which  opened  a  perfect  tempesj 
of  lead  on  the  advance  ranks  of  Moro^an  and  A.  ] 

In  the  midst  of  this  fierce  storm  of  cannon-shot  an( 
musketry,  DeCourcy's  brigade  of  Morgan's  divisio 
succeeded  in  crossing  the  bayou  ;  but  the  fire  was  s 
terrific  that  they  fled  for  cover  behind  the  bank,  an 
could  not  be  moved  forward.  General  Blair  mear 
while  had  crossed  the  bayou  by  the  bridge  above  thi 
angle,  and  had  reached  the  slough,  the  bottom  o 
which  was  quicksand  and  the  banks  of  which  wer 
covered  with  felled  trees,  these  obstacles  greatl 
impeding  his  advance. 

Desperate  Assault. 

With  great  difficulty,  and  not  until  his  ranks  wei 
thrown  into  some  disorder,  was  the  crossing  of  th 
slough  accomplished.  This  done,  it  was  necessai 
before  reaching  the  enemy's  works  to  traverse 
sloping  plateau  raked  by  a  direct  and  enfilading  fii 
from  heavy  artillery  and  swept  by  a  storm  of  bulle 
from  the  rifle-pits. 

Nothing  daunted,  Blair  and  his  brave  brigade — h 
own  and  his  officers'  horses  having  been  left  behin 
some  of  them  floundering  in  the  mire  and  vain 
seeking  a  foothold  in  the  quicksand — went  boundir 
across  the  plateau.  Rushing  upon  the  rifle-pits,  th( 
captured  the    first  line,    and    then    the    second,   ar 


made  a  desperate  effort  to  gain  the  crest  of  the  hill 
on  which  the  batteries  were  planted. 

Colonel  Thayer  of  Steele's  division  had  followed 
Blair  with  his  brigade  over  the  same  bridge.  Entering 
the  abattis  at  the  same  point,  he  turned  somewhat  to 
the  right,  and  emerged  upon  the  plateau  almost  simul- 
taneously with  Blair  and  about  two  hundred  yards 
to  his  right.  Unfortunately,  however,  Thayer  found 
diat  he  was  followed  by  only  one  regiment ;  his  second 
regiment  after  his  movement  had  commenced  having 
been  ordered  to  the  support  of  Morgan,  and  the  other 
two  regiments  having  followed  this  one  by  mistake. 
It  was  a  sad  blunder,  and  one  which  contributed  not  a 
little  to  the  disaster  of  the  day. 

Thayer  discovered  the  mistake  before  he  had  fairly 
brought  his  troops  into  acdon,  but  he  was  too  brave  a 
man  to  halt  or  hesitate  in  the  circumstances.  On  he 
pushed  to  the  right  of  Blair,  and  rendered  effective  aid 
in  the  capture  of  the  second  line  of  rifle-pits.  The 
odds  were  fearfully  against  him. 

An  Unequal  Strug-gle. 

Leaving  his  regiment  to  hold  the  position  it  had 
won,  he  hurried  back,  with  Blair's  consent,  to  obtain 
reinforcements.  It  was  a  trying  interval.  The 
moments  seemed  hours.  ''  It  was  a  struggle,"  as  has 
been  well  said,  "  between  three  thousand  in  the  open 
iground  below  and  ten  thousand  behind  intrenchments 
above."  The  hillsides  bristled  with  bayonets  and 
blazed  with  the  fire  of  musketry,  while  from  the  angry 
mouths  of  huge  cannon  destruction  was  poured  forth 


upon  the  shattered  and  rapidly-thinning  ranks  of  the 

Blair,  impatient  for  the  return  of  Thayer,  rushed 
back  himself  to  persuade  the  advance  of  more  troops. 
It  was  all  in  vain.  Both  Thayer  and  himself  failed  in 
obtaining  reinforcements.  No  help  reached  them ; 
no  diversion  was  made  in  their  favor.  They  had  no 
choice  but'  to  order  a  retreat.  Blair  and  Thayer  fell 
back  with  a  loss  of  at  least  one-third  of  their  men,  and 
De  Courcy,  who  had  been  attacked  on  the  flank  by  , 
the  Seventeenth  and  Twenty-sixth  Louisiana,  lost  four  i 
flags,  three  hundred  and  thirty-two  men  made  pri- 
soners, and  about  five  hundred  small-arms.  ; 

Heroic  Bravery.  j 

The  attack  was  a  complete  failure.  Somehow,  the  i| 
signal  for  attack  was  imperfectly  understood.  Either 
that  or  it  was  not  heard  at  all  on  the  right.  Two  i 
divisions  had  remained  immovable  while  a  handful  of  v 
men  were  being  crushed  in  a  desperate  attempt  on 
the  left.  A.  J.  Smith  had  done  nothing.  Stuart  had 
managed  to  push  one  regiment  across — the  Sixth 
Missouri — which  had  orders  to  undermine  the  bluff. 
The  position  of  those  men  was  one  which  severely 
tried  their  faith  and  patience.  They  were  exposed  to 
the  vertical  fire  of  the  Confederate  sharpshooters  who 
occupied  the  ridge  ;  and  a  battalion  of  the  Thirteenth 
regulars,  who  were  stationed  opposite,  and  who  at- 
tempted to  protect  them  from  the  Confederate  fire, 
proved  equally  dangerous  with  the  enemy  above. 
"Shoot   hiorher!"    shouted   the    Nationals    below  the 


bluff.  "Shoot  lower!"  cried  the  Confederates.  After 
dark  this  regiment  was  brought  back  over  the  bayou. 
The  remainder  of  Steele's  division  did  not  get  up  in 
time  to  be  of  any  assistance  to  Blair.  Morgan  failed 
to  make  good  his  promise.  He  did  not  even  obey 
his  orders. 

Disobedience  and  Disaster. 

General  Sherman  was  particularly  severe  on  Mor- 
gan. To  him  and  to  his  conduct  he  attributed  the 
failure  of  the  attack.  "This  attack  failed,"  he  has 
since  told  us  in  his  memoirs,  "  and  I  have  always  felt 
that  it  was  due  to  the  failure  of  General  G.  W.  Mor- 
gan to  obey  his  orders  or  to  fulfil  his  promises  made 
in  person.  Had  he  used  with  skill  and  boldness  one 
of  his  brigades,  in  addition  to  that  of  Blair,  he  could 
have  made  a  lodgment  on  the  bluff,  which  would  have 
opened  the  door  for  our  whole  force  to  follow." 

Sherman  was  naturally  mortified  at  the  "lame  and 
impotent  conclusion  "  of  a  movement  which  he  had 
fondly  and  confidently  believed  would  result  in  a 
great  and  decisive  victory.  Baffled,  and  even  humil- 
iated, he  was  not  dismayed.  He  resolved  to  make 
another  attack,  and  arrangements  were  made  to  push 
forward  General  Hovey  to  the  position  from  which 
Blair  had  been  driven  ;  Morgan's  division,  with  the 
brigades  of  Blair  and  Thayer,  to  follow  and  support. 
For  some  reason  it  was  not  done,  and  next  morning  it 
was  found  to  be  impossible,  because  of  the  increased 
strength  of  the  Confederates  at  the  menaced  point. 
Firing   was    continued    on    both   sides   during  Tues- 


day,  and   on   Wednesday,  the   31st,   a   flag  of  truce  I 
was  sent    in,    and    the    dead  were    buried    and    the 
wounded    cared    for. 

The  Sad  Burial.  j 

An  eye-witness  has  given  us  a  sad  picture  of  the  ? 
battle-field  on    that    day   of   burial:   "All   across  the 
plain,  scattered  among  the  abattis  and   hid  away  in 
little  entanglements  of  bogs  or  tufts  of  bushes,  they  jj 
lay.  Confederates  and  Federals  side  by  side,  showing  ^ 
how  the  battle  had  rolled  and  surged  with  the  alter- 
nate charges  of  either  party. 

"  But  the  saddest  sight  of  all  was  that  of  the  unfor- 
tunate wounded,  who  had  lain  through  all  these  weary 
hours  since  the  battle,  uncared  for,  many  of  them, 
because  the  nature  of  tlieir  wounds  prevented  them 
from  moving ;  others  w^ere  held  fast  by  a  little  knot  i 
of  corpses  which  chance  had  thrown  upon  them  ;  and  :' 
still  others,  perhaps  not  wounded  at  all  at  first,  but 
being  caught  beneath  the  horses  they  rode  as  they 
fell,  were  pinned  to  the  earth.  The  frantic  appeals 
for  water,  for  food,  or  other  succor  of  such  of  these 
miserable  victims  of  war  as  could  speak  at  all  were 
most  heartrending." 

The  Great  Commander's  New  Resolve. 

Sherman  was  still  dissatisfied,  and  resolved  to  make 
another  attack.  After  consulting  with  Admiral  Porter, 
it  was  agreed  that  a  combined  naval  and  land  assault 
should  be  made  on  Haines'  Bluff,  the  key  of  the  Con- 
federate position.  Porter  was  to  proceed  up  the 
Yazoo  with  his  gunboats  and  open  fire  on  the  bluffs, 


iivhile  General  Steele  was  to  land  his  division  out  of 
range  of  the  enemy's  guns,  then  to  push  forward  and 
take  the  position  by  storm.  The  attack  was  to  be 
made  during  the  dark  hours.  By  two  o'clock  on  the 
morning  of  Thursday,  the  ist  of  January,  the  necessary 
arrangements  were  completed.  A  heavy  fog,  how- 
ever, had  enveloped  the  entire  district,  and  so  dense 
was  it  that  Porter  found  it  impossible  to  steer  the 

It  was  utterly  out  of  the  question  to  make  any 
further  efforts.  On  the  night  of  the  29th  December 
there  had  been  a  tremendous  rainstorm  ;  all  the  low 
ground  was  flooded,  and  the  men,  who  had  been  biv- 
lOuacking  for  five  successive  days  in  those  wretched 
swamps  without  fire,  were  suffering  cruelly  from  damp 
and  cold.  On  the  2d  of  January,  Sherman  placed  his 
troops  on  board  the  transports,  and  the  fleet  sailed 
down  to  the  mouth  of  the  Yazoo. 

'  Sherman's  Disappointment. 

Thus  ended,  somewhat  ingloriously,  the  second  cam- 
paign against  Vicksburg.  Sherman  had  accomplished 
nothing.  He  had,  however,  made  great  sacrifices, 
his  loss  in  killed  and  wounded  and  prisoners  amount- 
ing to  nearly  two  thousand  men.  Such  was  the  batde 
of  Chickasaw  Bayou,  or,  as  it  is  sometimes  but  less 
correctly  named,  the  batde  of  Haines'  Bluff. 

It  was  a  sad  disappointment  to  the  people  of  the 
North,  and  Sherman,  from  whom  great  things  were 
expected,  came  in  for  a  large  share  of  abuse.  Several 
of  the  correspondents  on  the  spot,  ignorant  of  some 


of  the  causes  of  the  failure,  and  not  knowing  as  ye 
the  fate  which  had  befallen  Grant,  were  unnecessaril" 
severe  in  their  condemnation  of  Sherman.  That  h 
meant  well,  that  he  was  resolved  to  win,  and  that  hi 
plan  was  well  conceived,  there  can  be  no  doubt.  Bu 
somehow  the  execution  was  not  equal  to  the  concep: 

A  Fatal  Mistake. 

There  was  some  mistake  in  giving  the  signal,  ano 
the  real  assault  was  made  by  only  three  thousana 
men.  If  Blair  had  been  sustained  in  his  attack,  as  h(i 
ought  to  have  been  sustained,  the  National  arm} 
would  most  undoubtedly  have  effected  a  lodgmen 
on  the  heights  ;  and,  although  hard  fighting  must  have 
followed,  with  doubtful  success,  it  is  not  at  all  impos 
sible  that  Sherman  might  have  reaped  all  the  glory 
due  to  the  capture  of  Vicksburg.  He  proved  his 
generalship  in  the  face  of  impossibilities. 

Blair  will  be  remembered  as  the  hero  of  Chickasaw 
Bayou.  He  fought  like  a  warrior  of  old,  face  to  face 
and  hand  to  hand  with  the  foe.  After  Blair  praise  is 
due  to  Thayer,  who  gallantly  sustained  his  companion 
in  arms.  The  battle-ground  no  doubt  had  much  to  do 
with  the  defeat. 

To  any  one  of  less  daring  than  Sherman,  familiar 
with  the  district  and  well  informed  as  to  the  strength 
of  the  enemy's  position,  the  undertaking  might  have 
seemed  impracticable  from  the  outset ;  and  it  is  ques- 
tionable whether  even  he,  had  he  possessed  a  fuller 
knowledge  of  the  difficulties  which  beset  him,  would 


have  imperilled  his  fame  and  risked  the  lives  of  his 
soldiers  in  a  task  so  apparently  hopeless. 

Success  Impossible. 

It  was  doubtless  a  mistake  not  to  have  more 
thoroughly  and  officially  reconnoitred  the  ground 
before  choosing  it  as  a  field  of  action.  After  all, 
however,  it  was  an  experiment  which  might  have  been 
successful,  and  it  was  not  the  only  unsuccessful  ex- 
periment which  had  been  made  before  Vicksburg  was 
captured.  As  it  was,  everything  might  have  been 
well  if  Grant  had  been  able  to  carry  out  his  part 
of  the  plan.  The  retreat  of  the  latter  from  Oxford, 
leaving,  as  it  did,  Pemberton  free  to  concentrate  his 
troops  for  the  defence  of  Vicksburg,  largely  dimin- 
ished Sherman's  chances  of  success. 

The  Confederates  were  jubilant  after  this  first 
victory.  It  was  undoubtedly  a  great  triumph.  Gen- 
eral Pemberton,  not  without  reason,  felt  proud  that 
he  had  baffled  Grant  in  person,  compelling  him  to 
retreat,  and  that  he  had,  temporarily  at  least,  saved 
Vicksburg  by  the  defeat  of  the  greatest  of  Grant's 
lieutenants.  These  rejoicings  in  the  South  were  not 
unmixed  with  sorrow.  The  more  thoughtful  of  the 
Confederates  knew  that  defeat  only  intensified  the 
purpose  of  the  North. 

We  left  the  transports  and  the  fleet  on  their  way 
down  the  Yazoo.  At  the  mouth  of  that  river  General 
McClernand  was  waiting  with  orders  from  the  War 
Department  to  take  command  of  the  entire  expedi- 
tion.    That  general,  it  will   be  remembered,  was  ap 


pointed  to  this  command  by  the  direct  influence  of 
President  Lincoln.    It  was  a  severe  blow  to  Sherman, 
who  felt  it  keenly.    It  was  some  consolation,  however,  j 
to  him  to  know  that  the  appointment — which  had  been 
made  weeks  ahead,  and  which  had  no  connection  with  j 
the  recent  disaster — was  not  intended  as  a  disgrace. 

With  a  modesty  which  became  a  man  of  his  high 
spirit   he    accepted    the    situation,  and    explained   to 
McClernand  what  had   been  done,  accepting  the  en- 
tire  responsibility  of  the   failure.     Referring   to  the 
trains   of  cars    which   could  be   heard   coming    in  to  •« 
Vicksburg  almost  every  hour,  and  the  fresh  troops  ij 
seen   on   the  bluffs,  he   gave   it  as   his   opinion    that  : 
Pemberton's  army  must  have  been  pressed  back  and  t 
that  Grant  must  be  at  hand. 

He  then  learned,  for  the  first  time,  what  had  be- 
fallen Grant;  McClernand  stating  that  Grant  was 
not  coming  at  all,  that  the  depot  at  Holly  Springs 
had  been  captured  by  Van  Dorn,  that  Grant  had 
fallen  back  from  Coffeeville  and  Oxford  to  Holly 
Springs  and  La  Grange,  and  that  when  he  passed 
down  Quimby's  division  of  Grant's  army  was  actually 
at  Memphis  for  stores.  By  common  consent,  all 
further  attempts  against  Vicksburg,  for  the  present, 
were  abandoned,  and  the  entire  force  left  the  Yazoo 
and  returned  to  Milliken's  Bend  on  the  Mississippi. 

On  the  4th  of  January,  McClernand  issued  his 
General  Order  No.  i,  assuming  command  of  what 
was  to  be  called  the  Army  of  the  Mississippi,  and,  fol- 
lowing  the    plan   which    had    been    agreed    upon  at 


Washington,  and  which  had  been  adopted  in  the 
, armies  of  the  East,  dividing  his  forces  into  two  corps. 
The  "first  was  to  be  commanded  by  General  Morgan, 
and  *vas  to  be  composed  of  his  own  and  A.  J.  Smith's 
idivi^^ions,  and  the  second  to  consist  of  Steele's  and 
Stuart's  divisions,  was  to  be  commanded  by  Gen- 
eral Sherman.  The  rest  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennes- 
see was  similarly  divided,  General  Hurlbut  being 
placed  in  command  of  one  corps,  and  General  Mc- 
^Pherson  in  command  of  the  other.  The  supreme 
command  of  these  four  corps  was  retained  by  Gen- 
'cral  Grant.  On  the  same  day  General  Sherman 
issued  the  following  order  : 

Headquarters  Right  Wing  Army  of  Tennessee, 
Steamer  Forest  Queen,  Milliken's  Bend, 
January  4,  1863. 

Pursuant  to  the  terms  of  General  Order  No.  i, 
made  this  day  by  General  McClernand,  the  tide  of  our 
'army  ceases  to  exist,  and  constitutes  in  the  future  the 
Army  of  the  Mississippi,  composed  of  two  'army 
corps,'  one  to  be  commanded  by  General  G.  W.  Mor- 
o^an,  and  the  other  by  myself.  In  relinquishing  the 
command  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee  and  restrict- 
ing my  authority  to  my  own  corps,  I  desire  to  express 
to  all  commanders,  to  soldiers  and  officers  recendy 
3peradng  before  Vicksburg,  my  hearty  thanks  for  the 
'^eal,  alacrity,  and  courage  manifested  by  them  on  all 
bccasions.  We  failed  in  accomplishing  one  great 
purpose  of  our  movement,  the  capture  of  Vicksburg, 
3ut  we  were  part  of  a  whole.     Ours  was  but  part  of 


a  combined  movement  in  which  others  were  to  assist 
We  were  on  time;  unforeseen  contingencies  must  havj 
delayed  the  others. 

We  have  destroyed  the  Shreveport  road,  we  ha^ 
attacked  the  defences  of  Vicksburg  and  pushed  thj 
attack  as  far  as  prudence  would  justify  ;  and,  havinj 
found  it  too  strong  for  our  single  column,  we  ha^ 
drawn  off  in  good  order  and  good  spirits,  ready  fc 
any  new  move.  A  new  commander  is  now  here 
lead  you.  He  is  chosen  by  the  President  of 
United  States,  who  is  charged  by  the  Constitution 
maintain  and  defend  it,  and  he  has  the  undoubt( 
riorht  to  select  his  own  accents. 

I  know  that  all  good  officers  and  soldiers  will  giv( 
him  the  same  hearty  support  and  cheerful  obedience 
they  have  hitherto  given  me.  There  are  honors 
enough  in  reserve  for  all,  and  work  enough,  too. 
Let  each  do  his  appropriate  part,  and  our  nation  must, 
in  the  end,  emerge  from  the  dire  conflict  purified  and 
ennobled  by  the  fires  which  now  test  its  strength  and 
purity.  All  officers  of  the  general  staff  not  attached 
to  my  person  will  hereafter  report  in  person  and  by 
letter  to  Major-General  McClernand,  commanding 
tlie  Army  of  the  Mississippi,  on  board  the  steamer 
1  igress  at  our  rendezvous  at  Haines'  Landing  and  at 
Montgomery  Point. 
By  order  of 

Major-General  W.  T.  Sherman. 

J.  H,  Hammond, 

Assistant- Adjutant  General, 


Before  the  arrival  of  McClernand,  Sherman  and 
^orter  had  agreed  upon  a  plan  for  the  reduction  of 
i^ort  Hindman,  or,  as  it  was  called,  Arkansas  Post. 
\bout  forty  or  forty-five  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Arkansas  there  is  a  piece  of  elevated  ground,  the  first 
,iigh  land  on  the  banks  of  the  river  after  leaving  the 
Vlississippi.  At  this  point  the  river  makes  a  sharp 
oend.  Here  the  French  had  a  trading-post  and  a 
.ettlement  as  far  back  as  1685. 

Sherman  Bent  on  Conquest. 

I  The  Confederates  had  taken  advantage  of  the  place 
o  erect  some  fortifications,  the  principal  work  being 
\amed  Fort  Hindman,  after  the  famous  guerilla  chief, 
khind  these  works  they  kept  several  steamboats, 
vhich  were  wont  to  sweep  down  the  river  and  inter- 
ept  supplies. 

Sherman  had  experienced  some  inconvenience  from 
he  existence  of  this  stronghold.  He  had  left  Memphis 
,Q  such  haste  that  he  had  not  been  able  to  take  with 
iiim  a  suf^clent  supply  of  ammunition  for  his  guns. 
The  Blue  Wing,  a  small  steamer  carrying  a  mail,  towing 
jome  coal-barges,  and  having  with  her  the  necessary 
applies,  had  been  sent  after  him.  This  boat  had 
»een  pounced  upon  at  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas, 
aptured,  and  with  all  her  supplies  taken  up  to  Fort 

It  was  Sherman's  conviction,  from  the  moment  he 
earned  of  the  fate  of  the  Blue  Wing,  that  before  any 
'peration  could  be  successfully  conducted  against 
/^icksburg  by  way  of  the  Mississippi  it  v/ould  be  neces- 


sary  to  reduce  Fort  Hindman  and  make  an  end  of  the 
Arkansas  pirates. 

The  Plan  Approved. 

Sherman  communicated  his  purpose  to  McClernand, 
and  asked  permission  to  go  up  the  Arkansas  and 
clear  out  the  post.  McClernand,  who  had  not  as  yet, 
so  far  as  appearances  indicated,  formed  any  plan  of 
his  own,  went  with  Sherman  on  board  the  Black  Hawk 
to  consult  with  Porter.  Porter,  who  had  the  highest 
esteem  for  Sherman,  not  only  approved  of  the  enter- 
prise, but  expressed  a  desire  to  go  up  the  river  him- 
self, in  place  of  trusting  the  expedition  to  any  of  his 
subordinates.  It  was  Sherman's  expectation  that  he 
would  be  sent  with  his  own  corps  alone  on  this  busi- 
ness ;  but  McClernand  concluded  to  go  himself  and 
to  take  with  him  his  whole  force. 

The  troops,  which  had  not  yet  disembarked  from 
the  transports,  were  ordered  to  remain  on  board. 
Sherman's  corps  was  in  two  divisions.  The  first, 
which  consisted  of  three  brigades,  commanded  re- 
spectively by  Blair,  Hovey,  and  Thayer,  was  under 
Brigadier-General  Frederick  Steele.  The  second, 
which  consisted  of  two  brigades,  commanded  by 
Colonels  G.  A.  Smith  and  T.  Kilby  Smith,  was  under 
Brigadier-General  Stuart.  The  transports  with  the 
troops  on  board,  convoyed  by  the  gunboats,  of  which 
three  were  ironclads,  proceeded  up  the  Mississippi. 

Expedition  ag^ainst  Fort  Hindman. 

The  force  under  McClernand  amounted  to  some 
twenty-six  thousand  or  twenty-seven  thousand  men, 


comprising  forty  regiments  of  infantry,  ten  batteries 
with  several  guns  of  heavy  caHbre,  and  about  fifteen 
hundred  horse.  On  the  8th  of  January  the  expedi- 
tion was  at  the  mouth  of  the  White  River.  This 
river,  which  is  one  of  the  principal  streams  in 
Arkansas,  rises  a  few  miles  east  of  Fayetteville, 
flows  north-east  into  Missouri,  then  returns  into 
Arkansas,  and,  pursuing  a  south-easterly  course, 
enters  the  Mississippi  about  fifteen  miles  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Arkansas  River.  It  is  navigable  by 
steamboats  for  about  three  hundred  and  fifty  miles. 
About  fifteen  miles  from  its  mouth  there  is  a  chan- 
nel or  "cut-ofT,"  through  which  it  discharges  a  por- 
tion of  its  waters  into  the  Arkansas.  If,  as  some- 
I  times  happens,  the  Arkansas  should  be  higher  than 
I  the  White  River,  the  state  of  things  is  reversed,  and 
the  waters  of  the  Arkansas  seek  the  Mississippi 
through  the  channel  of  the  White  River.  The  "  cut- 
off "  at  this  season  of  the  year  is  always  well  filled 
'    and  easily  navigable. 

A  Formidable  Stronghold. 

I  On  the  morning  of  the  9th  the  expedition,  having 
r  ascended  the  White  River,  had  reached  the  mouth  of 
the  "cut-off"  There  was  no  delay  in  making  the 
passage  through  to  the  Arkansas,  a  distance  of  about 
eight  miles.  Steaming  up  the  Arkansas,  the  boats 
'  reached  Notrib's  farm,  about  four  miles  below  Fort 
Hindman,  shortly  after  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
Here  they  halted,  and  during  the  night  the  artillery 
and  wagons  were  got  on  shore,  the  troops  disembark- 


ing  in  the  morning.  Arkansas  Post  is  on  the  north 
side  or  left  bank  of  the  Arkansas,  at  a  point  where 
the  river  makes  a  sharp  elbow  by  flowing  north,  then 
east,  then  again  abruptly  to  the  south.  The  principal 
work,  as  we  have  said,  was  Fort  Hindman.  Its  guns 
commanded  the  river  as  it  stretched  to  the  east  and 
after  it  bent  toward  the  south.  This  fort  was  a  reofu 
lar  square  bastioned  work,  one  hundred  yards  each 
exterior  side,  with  a  deep  ditch  about  fifteen  feet 
wide  and  a  parapet  eighteen  feet  high.  It  was  armed 
with  twelve  guns,  two  of  which  were  eight-inch  and 
one  nine-inch. 

Hold  the  Fort  or  Die. 

The  garrison,  which  numbered  only  five  thousand 
men,  was  under  the  command  of  General  T.  J. 
Churchill,  who  was  under  the  direction  of  General 
T.  H.  Holmes,  then  commanding  at  Little  Rock. 
Churchill  had  received  instructions  to  "  hold  on  until 
}ie!p  should  arrive  or  all  were  dead."  This  order 
showed  the  spirit  of  the  enemy. 

The  disparity  of  forces  was  great.  It  was  twenty- 
six  thousand  or  twenty-seven  thousand  against  five 
thousand.  The  strong  position  held  by  the  Confed- 
erates, however,  did  much  to  compensate  for  inferiority 
of  numbers.  The  fort  itself  was  strong,  and  its  ap 
proaches  were  of  the  most  difficult  description. 
Fronting  on  the  river,  it  was  protected  on  the  west 
by  a  bayou,  on  the  east  by  a  swamp  which  did  not 
quite  reach  the  edge  of  the  water.  Between  the  fort 
and  the  swamp  there  was  a  ravine  which  stretched 


down  to  the  river,  and  the  front  of  this  ravine  was 
well  fortified. 

The  position  had  thus  to  be  approached  through 
the  elevated  ground  which  lay  between  the  bayou  and 
the  swamp.  The  encampments  of  the  Confederates 
were  established  in  front  of  the  fort,  in  the  centre  of 
the  plateau  dotted  with  clumps  of  trees.  There  was 
an  outer  line  of  intrenchments  which  stretched  across 
the  entire  ground. 

Vigrorous  Bombardment. 

On  the  loth  the  army  was  kept  busy  endeavoring 
to  get  a  position  in  rear  of  the  fort,  Sherman  on  the 
right  and  Morgan  on  the  left.  Some  mistakes  were 
made  in  consequence  of  a  want  of  knowledge  of  the 
ground.  In  the  afternoon,  and  while  the  land  forces 
were  still  seeking  position.  Porter  was  making  good 
use  of  his  flotilla.  As  he  moved  up  the  river  he 
shelled  the  rifle-pits  along  the  levee  and  drove  the 
Confederates  inside  the  fort.  When  about  four  hun- 
dred yards  from  Fort  Hindman  he  brought  into  action 
[lis  three  iron-clads,  the  Baron  de  Kalb,  the  Louisville, 
md  the  Cincinnati,  and  for  half  an  hour  the  firing  was 
<:ept  up,  the  guns  of  the  fort  replying  vigorously  and 
A^ith  rapidity. 

On  the  morning  of  the  nth,  McClernand,  who  had 
lis  quarters  still  on  board  the  Tigress,  had  come  up 
md  taken  a  position  in  the  woods  to  the  rear.  Early 
n  the  forenoon  he  sent  a  message  to  Sherman,  asking 
lim  why  the  attack  was  not  begun.  It  had  been  un- 
lerstood  beforehand  that  the  opening  of  fire  by  the 



gunboats  on  the  fort  should  be  the  signal  for  a  general 

The  Thunder  of  Guns. 

Sherman  therefore  replied  that  all  was  ready ;  that 
he  was  within  five  or  six  hundred  yards  of  the  enemy's 
works ;  that  the  next  movement  must  be  a  direct 
assault  along  the  whole  line  ;  and  that  he  was  waiting 
to  hear  from  the  gunboats.  Half  an  hour  or  there- 
about afterward  was  heard  the  clear,  ringing  sound 
of  the  navy  guns,  the  firing  becoming  louder  and  more 
rapid  as  they  neared  the  fort. 

The  National  field-pieces  opened  fire  along  the 
whole  line.  The  thunder  was  terrific.  The  Con- 
federates, most  of  whom  were  Texan  volunteers,  made 
a  gallant  resistance.  A  regiment  of  cavalry,  aban- 
doning their  horses,  fought  on  foot,  and  rendered  for 
a  time  effective  service  in  resisting  the  advance  of  the 
Nationals.  It  was  impossible  for  them  to  resist  the 
fierce  onset  made  by  overwhelming  numbers  resolved 
to  win  or  die. 

A  Storm  of  Bullets. 

Sherman  pressed  forward  on  the  right,  Morgan  on 
the  left,  each  driving  the  Confederates  back  and  grad- 
aally  obtaining  possession  of  the  wooded  ground  in 
front  of  the  newly-erected  parapet,  but  not  without 
considerable  loss.  The  Confederate  firing  was  heavy, 
but  the  National  soldiers  took  advantage  of  the  clumps 
of  trees  and  felled  logs  to  shield  themselves  from  the 
storm  of  bullets.  Gradually  the  edge  of  the  wood^ 
was  reached,   the  ground  was  clear,  and  there  was 

VU"K^RTTR^,    AND    T'l^    A  PPT?  O  A(    H  KS. 


nothing  to  protect  them  from  the  decimating  fire  of 
the  eneni)'. 

Meanwhile,  the  gunboats  were  pouring  a  murder- 
ous fire  upon  the  fort  and  sweeping  the  adjoining 
ground  above  and  below  with  grape  and  shrapnel. 
Porter  had  brought  into  action  not  only  the  iron-clads, 
but  the  ram  Monarch,  Commander  Ellet,  and  even  the 
frailer  vessels,  as  he  tells  us,  that  amid  the  clouds  of 
smoke  they  might  "  do  the  best  they  could." 

The  Fort  Silenced. 

It  was  not  long  until  the  effects  of  this  terrific  firing 
began  to  be  visible.  All  the  adjoining  ground  was 
cleared  of  the  foe  ;  nearly  all  the  artillery-horses  in 
the  fort  were  killed  ;  and  one  by  one  the  guns  were 
beincr  silenced.  Shortly  after  three  o'clock  the  firing^ 
from  the  fort  altogether  ceased.  The  cannonading^ 
however,  was  kept  up  by  the  gunboats.  Porter,  who 
had  taken  a  regiment  on  board,  was  proceeding  with 
the  Black  Hawk  to  attempt  a  landing  and  to  take 
possession,  when  a  white  flag  was  raised  in  token  of 
surrender.  He  immediately  ordered  the  firing  to 

We  left  the  troops  in  the  clearing  at  the  edge  of 
the  woods,  fully  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fire  from  the 
parapet  outside  the  fort.  This  line  had  three  sections 
of  field-guns,  and  they  were  handled,  according  to  the 
testimony  of  Sherman  himself,  with  great  skill  and 
energy.  Hovey  was  Vv^ounded  ;  Thayer  had  his  horse 
shot  under  him  ;  and  so  thick  and  fast  were  the  round- 
shot  falling  about  Sherman  and  his  staff  that  they  felt 


it  necessary  to  scatter,  Sherman  himself  dismounting. 
Morgan  at  this  crisis  unfortunately  found  himself  in 
front  of  the  ravine,  beyond  which  it  was  impossible 
to  pass. 

Prodigies  of  Valor. 

Sherman  was  now  well  engaged  on  the  right,  and 
Morgan,  finding  himself  thus  hindered,  sent  a  few 
rei^iments  to  his  aid.  The  burden  of  the  fiofht,  as  at 
Chickasaw,  had  fallen  on  the  brigades  which  now 
composed  the  division  of  General  Steele.  Blair  and 
Thayer  and  Hovey  performed  prodigies  of  valor. 

On  the  right  the  Confederate  batteries  had  been  all 
but  silenced.  Morgan's  men,  on  the  left,  had  done 
splendid  work  before  they  were  brought  to  a  standstill 
at  the  ravine.  A.  J.  Smith's  brigades  had  pressed  the 
Confederates  back  step  by  step  until  they  were  within 
two  hundred  yards  of  the  fort.  Burbridge  expressly 
distinguished  himself  But  for  the  ravine  an  attempt 
would  have  been  made  by  the  One-hundred-and- 
Twentieth  Ohio  to  scale  and  carry  by  assault  the 
eastern  side  of  the  fort. 

Almost  at  this  moment,  however,  Sherman,  as  his 
attention  was  arrested  by  the  flags  of  the  gunboats 
visible  above  the  parapet  of  Fort  Hindman,  saw  a 
man  jump  on  the  nearer  parapet  at  the  point  where 
entered  the  road  which  divided  the  peninsula.  "  Cease 
firing  !  "  he  ordered,  and  the  words  were  passed  along 
the  line  with  amazing  rapidity.  The  firing  soon 
ceased.  Sherman  knew  that  something  extraordinary 
was  going  on,  and  so  gave  this  order. 


The  White  Flag. 

In  a  few  seconds  the  fort  was  invaded  on  every 
side  by  the  National  troops.  Colonel  Dayton  was 
ordered  forward  to  the  place  where  was  hung  out  the 
large  white  flag,  and  as  soon  as  his  horse  was  seen 
on  the  parapet  Sherman  advanced  with  his  staff.  It 
appeared  afterward  that  the  white  flag  was  hung  out 
without  even  the  knowledge  of  Churchill.  It  made 
little  difference.  The  batde  had  really  been  won  on 
the  land  as  well  as  on  the  river  side  of  the  fort.  The 
surrender  was  subsequently  made  in  due  form — Col- 
onel Dunnington,  the  commander  of  the  fort,  sur- 
rendering to  Admiral  Porter,  and  Colonel  Churchill 
surrendering  to  the  military  authorities. 

The  National  loss  in  killed,  wounded,  and  missing 
amounted  to  nine  hundred  and  seventy-seven  men. 
On  the  Confederate  side  there  were  only  sixty  killed 
and  eighty  wounded.  Five  thousand  soldiers,  with 
their  officers,  made  prisoners,  and  all  the  property  of 
the  place,  including  some  seventeen  guns,  consti- 
tuted the  prize  of  victory.  General  Burbridge  was 
singled  out  for  the  honor  of  planting  the  National 
standard  on  Fort  Hindman.  Such  was  the  battle  of 
Arkansas  Post. 

Sherman  Rohbed  of  his  Honors. 

General  Sherman  was  dissatisfied  with  the  arrange- 
ments made  by  General  McClernand  immediately 
after  the  surrender.  The  post  of  honor,  the  occupa- 
tion of  Fort  Hindman,  was  given  to  A.  J.  Smith  of 
Morgan's  division,   Sherman  being  ordered  to  hold 


the  lines  outside  and  go  on  securing  the  prisoners 
and  stores.  McClernand's  reason  for  so  doing  was  that 
he  did  not  wish  to  interfere  with  the  actual  state  of 
facts — the  status  quo  at  the  time  of  surrender. 

It  is  undeniable  that  it  was  Sherman's  plan  through- 
out ;  that  his  corps  bore  the  burden  of  the  fight ;  that 
after  the  surrender  his  troops  were  in  possession  of 
two  of  the  three  brigades  which  constituted  the  op- 
posing force  ;  and  that  he  was  in  possession  of  all  the 
ground  outside  the  *'  fort  proper."  McClernand  was 
proud  of  his  success  and  manifested  not  a  little 
vanity.     His  star,  he  said,  was  ever  in  the  ascendant. 

In  his  memoirs  Sherman  tells  us  that  McClernand 
was  extremely  jealous  of  the  navy,  and  that  in  his  re- 
port he  ignored  altogether  the  action  of  Porter  s  fleet. 
This  was  the  less  to  be  regretted  that  Porter  told  his 
own  story  in  a  very  handsome  and  effective  way.  It 
is  only  simple  truth  to  say  that  the  battle  was  fought 
and  won  by  the  fleet  before  the  land  troops  had  any 
certainty  of  success. 

Petty  Rivalry. 

There  was.  In  fact,  a  feeling  of  jealousy  among  the 
commanders — a  feeling  which  was  not  wholly  to  dis- 
appear until  the  arrival  of  Grant,  In  whose  presence, 
and  under  the  influence  of  whose  more  commanding 
genius,  jealousy  and  selfishness  gave  place  to  a  spirit 
of  honorable  rivalry  and  dutiful  obedience. 

The  day  after  the  batde  was  devoted  to  burying 
the  dead.  The  prisoners  were  all  collected  and  sent 
to  St.  Louis.     The  victory  at  Arkansas  Post  opened 

31 2  GENEKAL  SHERMAN.  |: 

the  way  for  a  successful  expedition  to  Little  Rock, 
the  capital  of  the  State  of  Arkansas.  Sherman  ex- 
pressed a  desire  to  be  sent  on  this  expedition.  Mc- 
Clernand,  however,  did  not  deem  it  advisable.  A 
combined  expedition  was  therefore  sent  up  the  White 
River  as  far  as  St.  Charles,  Des  Arc,  and  Duval's 
Bluff  under  General  Gorman  and  Lieutenant-com- 
manding J.  G.  Walker.  The  expedition  was  com- 
pletely successful. 

Meanwhile,  the  works  at  Fort  Hindman  were  dis- 
mantled and  blown  up,  and  on  the  13th  the  troops 
were  re-embarked  and  proceeded  down  the  Arkansas 
to  Napoleon.  There  instructions  were  received  from 
General  Grant,  who  ordered  McClernand  to  take  the 
entire  expedition  down  the  river  to  Milliken's  Bend 
and  await  his  arrival.  This  place  was  reached  on  the 
2 1  St  of  January. 

The  Second  Assault. 

In  itself,  the  movement  against  Arkansas  Post  was 
a  small  affair ;  it  was  so  regarded  by  General  Grant ; 
it  ought  to  have  been  successfully  accomplished  by 
one  corps  and  by  a  portion  of  the  fleet — instead  of 
the  combined  strength  of  both — and  that  was  Sher- 
man's idea  ;  but  resulting  as  it  did  in  victory,  it  served 
the  double  purpose  of  employing  troops  which  would 
otherwise  have  been  idle,  and  of  cheering  the  hearts 
of  a  people  who  were  somewhat  despondent. 

In  the  Vicksburg  campaign  which  succeeded,  Sher- 
man bore  a  prominent  part  with  his  command — in  the 
expedition  up  Steele's  Bayou  to  the  Yazoo  in  March; 


the  feint  upon  Haines'  Bluff,  April  29  to  May  i  ;  the 
movement  to  Grand  Gulf,  May  i  to  6 ;  the  capture  of 
Jackson,  May  14;  the  occupation  of  Walnut  Hills,  and 
'subsequent  assaults  upon  the  land-defences  of  Vicks- 
burg,  May  19  and  22,  in  each  attempt  the  colors  of 
the  corps  being  planted  on  the  enemy's  works ;  and 
in   the   siege   operations   which    resulted   in   the   sur- 
render of  the  city  July  4,  1863,  when  Sherman  with 
a  detached  command  was  at  once  ordered  to  pursue 
Johnston,  who  with  a  relieving  force  had  been  lying 
east  of  the  Big  Black,  but  retreating  hastily  on  the 
news  of  the  surrender.     By  the   loth  he  was  driven 
behind  the  intrenchments  of  Jackson.     Siege  opera- 
tions were  actively  pressed,  but  on   the  night  of  the 
1 6th  Johnston   succeeded  in   escaping,   thus   proving 
himself  to  be  the  "  hero  of  retreats."     Steele's  divis- 
on   pursued   to    Brandon,   and   after   destroying   the 
-ailroads  in  all   directions  Sherman  fell  back  to  the 
-vest  of  the  Big  Black,  along  which  he  lay  when  sum- 
noned,  September   22,  to   the   relief  of  Rosecrans's 
)eleaguered    army   at   Chattanooga.      Meanwhile    he 
lad  been  appointed  brigadier-general  in  the  regular 
irmy,  to  date  from  July  4.     By  the  27th  of  September 
he  last  of  his  command  were  embarked  at  Vicksburtr 
.nd  by  October  4,  Memphis  was  reached,  whence  he 
narched  eastward,  repairing  the  railroad  as  he  pro- 
eeded,  until   the   27th,  when  orders   reached   him  at 
Puscumbia  from  General  Grant,  who  had  superseded 
vosecrans,   to   abandon   all   work   and   hasten   on   to 

Sherman's  Superb  Valor  at  Chattanooga. 

After  Vicksburg  came  the  battle  of  Chickamaugc 
It  was  a  Confederate  victory,  but  it  was  barren  o 
results.  The  losses  on  both  sides  were  heavy.  Th 
Nationals  lost  sixteen  thousand  three  hundred  an 
fifty  men  and  fifty-one  guns.  The  Confederates  1 
about  eighteen  thousand.  Chickamauga  was  a  bat 
almost  without  a  plan.  It  resulted  to  the  credit  o 
neither  of  the  generals-in-chief.  It  made  an  end  0| 
General  Rosecrans,  and  nearly  ruined  Bragg.  It 
but  one  hero,  and  that  was  General  Thomas.  "Tl 
Rock  of  Chickamauga  "  will  live  for  ever  in  America,  ^ 
history.  | 

After  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Rosecrans  pre 
ceeded  to  throw  up  fortifications  around  Chattanoogc 
In  this  work  he  found  an  able  and  efficient  assistan 
in  General  James  St.  Clair  Morton.  Within  twent} 
four  hours  after  falling  back  from  Rossville  he  wa 
strongly  intrenched — so  strongly  that  Bragg  coul' 
not,  with  safety,  venture  upon  an  offensive  movemen' 
Bragg,  in  truth,  was  in  great  trouble.  He  felt  bitte 
disappointment  because  the  late  battle  had  no 
resulted  in  more  complete  success.  He  was  dissatis 
fied  with  the  conduct  of  several  of  his  officers.  H 
had  not  lost  the  confidence  of  Jefferson  Davis,  bu 



with  the  authorities  at  Richmond  generally  he  was  in 
bad  odor.  He  was  expected  by  them  to  perform 

The  suggestions  offered  him  were  as  numerous  as 
they  were  absurd.  Bragg,  however,  had  will  enough 
to  abide  by  his  own  counsel,  and  sense  enough  to  at- 
tempt the  one  thing  which  was  practicable.  If  he 
could  not  force  his  way  into  Chattanooga,  he  might 
at  least  starve  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  into  sub- 
mission or  retreat. 

Tactics  of  Brag-g". 

With  this  end  in  view  the  Confederate  general 
drew  a  cordon  around  the  city  and  interrupted  or  cut 
off  the  various  lines  of  communication.     He  made 

1  himself  master  of  the  south  bank  of  the  Tennessee, 
opposite  Moccasin  Point,  and  then  broke  the  line  of 
communication  between  Chattanooga  and  Bridgeport. 
He  destroyed  the  bridge  at  the  latter  place,  and  thus 
severed  the  communication  with  Nashville,  the  base 

i  of  supplies. 

The  Army  of  the  Cumberland  became  a  cause  of 
great  anxiety  to  the  authorities  at  Washington.  It 
was  felt  that  if  something  were  not  done  to  relieve 
it,  and  that  quickly,  the  army  ran  the  risk  of  being 
utterly  destroyed,  and  Chattanooga  and  East  Ten- 
nessee would  again  be  brought  under  Confederate 
rule.  In  these  circumstances  the  Government  fell 
back  on   the   conqueror  of  Vicksburg.     Grant    was 

j  ordered  to  Chattanooga  to  take  sole  command.  He 
was  then  at  New  Orleans,  confined  by  an  injury  sus- 



tained  in  falling  from  his  horse.  As  soon  as  he  was 
able  he  hastened  to  Indianapolis,  where  he  met  Stan- 
ton, the  Secretary  of  War,  and  received  from  his 
hands  the  order  appointing  him  to  the  command  of 
the  new  military  Division  of  the  Mississippi,  compris- 



ing  the  three  departments  and  armies  of  the  Ohio, 
the  Cumberland,  and  the  Tennessee.  By  the  same 
order  General  Rosecrans  was  relieved  of  the  com- 
mand of  the  Department  and  Army  of  the  Ten- 

At  the  request  of  General  Grant,  the  Department  of 
the  Cumberband  was  oriven  to  Thomas,  and  that  of  the 




Tennessee  to  Sherman.  On  the  i8th  of  October,  1863, 
Grant  having  arrived  at  Louisville,  formally  assumed 
the    command    and    issued 
his  first  order.     Rosecrans 
on    the    19th,  after  Issuing 
a  touchino-  farewell  address 


■to  the  troops,  left  for  Cln- 

'cinnati.     Thither  also  were 

ordered  Generals   McCook 

and  Crittenden,  whose  corps 

were  now  consolidated  into 

one.  From  Louisville,  Grant 

telegraphed      to     Thomas, 

"  Hold   Chattanooga  at  all 

hazards." — "  I  will  hold  the  town   until   we  starve," 

was  the  prompt  and  characteristic  reply. 

It  was  not  enough,  however,  to  bring  Grant  to 
Chattanooga.  It  was  necessary  that  he  should 
have  under  him  a  competent  army.  Arrangements 
had  already  been  made  for  Increasing  the  strength  of 
the  National  army  at  Chattanooga.  As  soon  as  it 
became  known  that  General  Longstreet  had  gone  to 
Tennessee,  instructions  were  sent  to  Grant  and  other 
commanders  in  the  South  and  West  to  send  Rose- 
crans all  possible  assistance.  Grant  was  yet  at  New 
Orleans,  and  as  Sherman,  who  represented  him  at 
Vicksburg,  did  not  receive  the  despatch  until  several 
days  had  elapsed,  there  was  some  unavoidable  delay 
in  sending  reinforcements  from  the  neighborhood  of 



As  early  as  the  27th  of  September,  Sherman,  with  I 
the  Fifteenth  corps,  in  obedience  to  the  orders  from 
Grant,  had  set  out  for  Memphis  on  his  way  to  Chat- 
tanooga.    Meanwhile,    fearful    of   the    consequences 
which  must  result  if  Rosecrans  should  be  tempted  to 


abandon  his  position  and  attempt  to  retreat,  the  Gov- 
ernment had  detached  the  Eleventh  and  Twelfth 
corps  from  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and,  placing 
them  in  charge  of  General  Hooker,  hurried  them 
along  by  rail  to  Chattanooga. 


Never  before,  not  even  at  Solferino  and  Magenta, 
had  railroads  been  more  effectively  used  for  trans- 
porting troops  and  all  the  necessary  material  of  war 
than  on  this  occasion.  It  was  Stanton's  project,  and 
in  giving  it  effect  he  bent  upon  it  all  the  energies  of 
his  powerful  mind  and  will.  In  seven  days  the  two 
corps,  some  twenty-three  thousand  strong,  with  artil- 
lery-trains, baggage,  and  animals,  were  transferred 
from  the  Rapidan  to  Stevenson,  Alabama,  a  distance 
of  1 192  miles. 

The  Situation  Critical. 

Grant   reached  Nashville  on  the   21st  of  October. 

[He  there  met  and  had  an  interview  with   Rosecrans 

land  Hooker.     On  the  23d  he  arrived  at  Chattanooga. 

j  Next  morning  he  made  a  recon- 
noissance   of  the    ground   and 

i  determined  on  his  plan  of  ac- 

j  tion.  He  found  that  Rosecrans 
had  allowed  the  enemy  to  oc- 
cupy all  the  heights  around  his 
position,  and  that   neither  the 

I  river  nor  the  railroad  could  be 

!  used.  Unless  the  river  or  the  maj.-gen.  jos.  hooker. 
roads  could  be  opened  there  was  no  choice  but  re- 
ireat;  and  retreat,  in  the  present  condition  of  the 
army,  would  be  certain  ruin. 

'  Thomas  anrl  his  chief  engineer,  General  William  F. 
Smith,  had  decided  upon  a  plan  by  which  they  hoped 
to  be  able  to  regain  possession  of  Lookout  Valley 
and  to  re-establish  communications  with  Bridgeport 


by  way   of  Brown's    Ferry.     Hooker,    by   order 
Thomas,  had  already  concentrated  at  the  latter  plac 
This  plan  met  the  hearty  approval  of  General  Grai 
who  proceeded  Immediately  to   put  it  in   executloi 
Hooker  was  to  cross   the  Tennessee  at  Bridgepol 


and   push  on   by  the  main  wagon-road  to  Wauhatchie 
in  Lookout  Valley. 

Palmer,  who  was  now  opposite  Chattanooga,  was 
to  move  down  the  north  side  ot  the  river  to  a  point 
opposite  Whiteside,  where  he  was  to  cross  the  river 
and  hold  the  road  passed  over  by  Hooker.  W.  F. 
Smith  was  to  q-q  down  the  river  from  Chattanooea, 
under  cover  of  the  darkness,  with  about  four  thousand 


troops,  to  cross  at  Brown's  Ferry  and  to  seize  the 
range  of  hills  at  the  mouth  of  Lookout  Valley.  A 
pontoon-bridge  was  to  be  thrown  over  the  river  at 
Brown's  Ferry,  so  as  to  open  communications  between 
Hooker  and  Thomas.  The  movements  of  Hooker 
and  Palmer  might  be  made  in  open  day,  but  Smith's 
success  depended  largely  on  secrecy.  These  move- 
bents  were  prompdy  and  successfully  executed,  and 
jwere  of  great  importance. 

The  Question  of  Supplies  Settled. 
I    The  Confederates,  unwilling  to  abandon  the  position, 
bade  a  fierce  attack;  but,  finding  their  efforts  useless, 
Ichey    withdrew    up    the   valley    toward   Chattanooga. 
The   remainder  of  Smith's   force,   some  twelve  hun- 
red  strong,  under  General  Turchin,  having  moved 
eanwhile  down  the  north  bank  of  the  stream,  across 
loccasin  Point,  reached  Browm's  Ferry  before  day- 
ight.     They  were  rapidly  ferried  across,  and  by  ten 
b'clock  a  pontoon-bridge    connected   the    north    and 
isouth  banks  of  the  Tennessee.     On  the  morning  of 
the  28th,  as  has  been  stated,  Hooker,  with  the  Elev- 
enth   corps,    Major-General    Howard,    and     Geary's 
'division   of  the  Twelfth   corps,  appeared  in  Lookout 
Valley  at  Wauhatchie,  his  left  connecting  with  Smith 
at  the  pontoon-bridge. 

These  movements  secured  for  the  Nationals  the 
possession  of  the  roads  and  the  river,  and  all  fears 
3f  starvadon  in  Chattanooga  were  now  abandoned, 
'General  Thomas's  plan,"  said  Grant  in  his  telegram 
bo  Halleck,  "  for  securing  the  river  and  southside  road 


:o  Bridgeport  has  proved  eminently  successful.     The 
question  of  supplies  may  now  be  regarded  as  settled." 

Brag-g's  Stubborn  Resistance. 

Bragg  was  not  willing  that  his  antagonist  shouldl 
retain  the  great  advantage  he  had  won  without  making 
another  attempt  to  dislodge  him.  Lookout  Valley,! 
which  lies  between  Raccoon  and  Lookout  mountains, 
and  which  has  an  average  width  of  about  two  miles, 
is  divided  toward  its  centre  by  a  series  of  wood- 
crowned  heights,  some  of  them  rising  to  an  elevation 
of  two  hundred  and  three  hundred  feet. 

These  heights,  as  well  as  the  more  commanding 
positions  on  Raccoon  and  Lookout  mountains,  were 
in  the  hands  of  the  Confederates.  From  these  emi- 
nences the  position  and 
movements  of  the  National 
army  could  be  easily  seen. 
McLaws,  of  Longstreet's 
^^^^^^S^,.-,;!S*        ^^x      corps,     was     on     Lookout 

Mountain,  eagerly  watching 
Hooker.  It  was  his  deter- 
mination to  fall  upon  and 
crush  that  branch  of  the 
National  army  so  soon   as 

MAJ  -GEN.  O.  O.  HOWARD.  111 

he  should  see  a  favorable 
opportunity.  On  the  night  of  the  28th,  Geary's  di- 
vision, on  Hooker's  right,  was  lying  at  Wauhatchie, 
Howard's  corps,  as  has  been  mentioned,  having  been 
thrown  out  in  the  direction  of  Brown's  Ferry.  Mc- 
Laws, desirous  to  take  Geary  by  surprise,  descended 



at  midnight,  and  with  fierce  energy,  his  men  uttering 
wild  screams  as  they  advanced,  fell  upon  Geary's 
pickets,  driving  them  in. 



The  batteries  on  Lookout  Mountain  now  opened 
ire,  and  while  Geary's  camp  was  furiously  attacked 
)n  three  different  sides  by  the  on-rushIng  Confeder- 
ites,  his  men  were  exposed  to  a  very  tempest  of  shot 
uid    shell.       Geary,    however,    was    not    unprepared. 


Knowing  that  he  was  Hable  to  be  attacked  at  any 
moment,  he  had  been  holding  himself  in  a  state  of 
readiness.  When,  therefore,  McLaws'  men  came  up 
they  were  warmly  received. 

Full  in  the  faces  of  the  too-confident  Confederates 
Geary's  brave  fellows  poured  a  deadly  fire  of  mus- 
ketry. Such  a  reception  had  not  been  expected. 
The  advancing  columns  recoiled.  Geary,  however, 
was  greatly  outnumbered,  and  the  battle  continued. 
Hooker  was  aroused  by  the  booming  of  cannon  and 
the  shrill  rattling  of  musketry.  He  knew,  from  the 
direction  whence  these  sounds  issued,  that  Geary  had 
been  attacked.  Howard  was  ordered  to  double-quick 
his  nearest  division,  that  of  Schurz,  to  the  aid  of 

**  Forward,   Boys !  " 

"Forward  to  their  relief,  boys!"  shouted  Hooker 
as  Schurz's  men  streamed  past  him  through  the  dark- 
ness. They  had  advanced  but  a  short  distance  when, 
suddenly,  there  came  a  blaze  of  musketry  from  the 
hills,  showing  that  the  Confederates  were  close  at 
hand,  as  well  as  in  force  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Geary's  position.  Tyndale's  brigade  was  detached 
and  ordered  to  charge  the  heights,  while  Schurz,  with  ij 
the  remainder  of  his  troops,  moved  on  toward  Geary. 
A  thin  brigade  of  Steinwehr's  division,  commanded  by 
Colonel  Orlan  Smith  of  the  Seventy-third  Ohio,  now 
came  up,  and  it  was  found  that  the  hill  to  the  rear  of 
Schurz  was  occupied  by  the  enemy. 

This  hill  Smith  was  ordered  to  carry  with  the  bay- 


I  onet.  The  moon  was  shining  bright  and  clear,  but 
the  hill  was  precipitous,  seamed  with  ravines,  covered 
with  thick  brushwood,  and  rose  to  the  height  of  two 
hundred  feet.     It  was  a  daring — it  seemed  almost  a 

j  foolhardy — experiment ;  but  the  order  had  been  given 
and  it  must  be  obeyed.  On  and  up  the  slope  rushed 
the  brave  fellows  of  the  Seventy-third  Ohio  and  of 
the  Thirty-third  Massachusetts,  until  they  had  almost 
reached  the  rifle-pits,  when  they  were  received  by  a 
volley  from  some  two  thousand  muskets  and  driven 
back  in  confusion  to  the  foot  of  the  hill, 

A  Grand  Charge. 

There,  however,  they  re-formed,  and,  although  now 
fully  aware  of  the   nature  of  the  ground   and  of  the 
difficulties  to  be  encountered,  those  noble  regiments 
again  breasted  the  hill,  and  in  spite  of  the  destructive 
.  volleys  which  tore  through  their  ranks,  and  the  shout- 
ing and  yelling  and  taunting   sneers   of  the  men  on 
the   summit,  they  pressed   on,   without  firing  a  shot, 
;  toward  the  blazing  rifle-pits,  and  then,  with  one  bound, 
!  bayonet  in  hand,  swept  the  enemy  before  them. 
,       It  was  not  until  the  enemy  was  in  full  retreat  and 
^1  until  shouts  of  victory  were  rending  the  midnight  air 
that  the  first  volley  was  fired.     It  was  a  sort  of  parting 
salute,  given  in  a  species  of  wild  glee  by  the  Nation- 
j  als,  but  not  particularly  agreeable  to   the  retreating 
i  foe,  and  not  likely  soon  to  be  forgotten  by  any  of  the 
I   Confederates  who  survived  that  moonlight  struggle. 
Geary   meanwhile,   although    contending   with   vastly 
superior  numbers  and  sometimes   nearly  overborne, 


held  his  ground  with  characteristic  tenacity,  and  at 
length,  after  three  hours'  fighting,  he  hurled  his  as- 
sailants back  toward  Lookout  Mountain. 

Historic  Deeds. 

The  charge  made  by  Orlan  Smith  has  been  singled 
out  as  one  of  the  most  brilliant  charges  of  the  war.  It 
delighted  and  astonished  Hooker.  *'  No  troops,"  he 
said,  "  ever  rendered  more  brilliant  service."  It  won 
special  commendation  from  so  reserved  a  man  as 
Thomas.  "  The  bayonet  charge  of  Howard's  troops," 
said  he  in  his  letter  of  congratulation  to  Hooker, 
''  made  up  the  side  of  a  steep  and  difficult  hill  over 
two  hundred  feet  high,  completely  routing  and  driving 
the  enemy  from  his  barricades  on  its  top,  and  the  re- 
pulse by  Geary's  division  of  greatly  superior  numbers 
who  attempted  to  surprise  him,  will  rank  among  the 
most  distinguished  feats  of  arms  in  this  war." 

Sliernian  Pushing-  Forward. 

While  these  events  were  taking  place  at  Chattanoo- 
ga, Sherman  was  pressing  forward  from  Memphis.  He 
had  left  Vicksbuig  for  Memphis,  on  his  way  to  Chatta- 
nooga, on  the  27th  of  September.  His  own  corps 
followed  him  up  the  river  in  steamboats.  He  had 
been  preceded  by  the  divisions  of  Osterhaus  and  John 
E.  Smith.  Arriving  at  Memphis  on  the  2d  of  October, 
he  received  a  letter  from  Halleck  instructing  him  to 
move  by  the  line  of  the  Memphis  and  Charleston  rail- 
road to  Athens,  and  to  report  thence  to  Rosecrans  at 

He  was  to  repair  the  railroads  as  he  advanced  and 



to  depend  on  his  own  line  for  supplies.  On  his  way 
to  Corinth,  on  Sunday,  the  nth,  having  with  him  as 
an  escort  a  battalion  of  the  Thirteenth  regulars,  he 
arrived  at  Colliersville  about  noon,  just  in  time  to  save 
the  Sixty-sixth  Indiana,  Colonel  D.  C.  Anthony,  from 
being  overwhelmed  and  probably  destroyed  by  a  body 
of  Confederate  cavalry,  some  three  thousand  strong 
with  eight  guns,  under  the  command  of  General 

Rapid  Advances. 

He  reached  Corinth  that  Sunday  evening.  With- 
out delay  he  pushed  on  to  luka.  At  Tuscumbia,  on 
the  27th,  his  advance,  under  General  PVank  Blair, 
came  into  contact  with  a  Con- 
federate force  some  five  thou- 
sand strong,  under  General  S. 
D.  Lee.  The  Confederate  cav- 
alry were  severely  punished, 
and  Lee  gave  no  further  an- 
noyance to  the  troops  on  their 
march.  The  National  troops 
had  been  repairing  the  roads 
as  they  moved  along,  in  obedi- 
ence to  instructions  received  from  Halleck.  On  the 
same  day  on  which  Blair  chastised  Lee,  Sherman 
received  a  despatch  from  Grant  urging  him  to  dis 
continue  his  work  on  the  railroad  and  hasten  forward 
with  all  possible  despatch,  with  his  entire  force,  to 

Happily,  he  had  made  arrangements  with  Admiral 




Porter  to  have  boats  waiting  for  him  at  Eastport.  By 
means  of  these  he  passed  his  troops  across  the  Ten- 
nessee and  hurried  eastward,  Blair  covering  his  rear, 
and  reached  Bridgeport  on  the  14th.  On  the  day  fol- 
lowing he  joined  Grant  at  Chattanooga,  and  the  two 
together  reconnoitred  the  ground,  Grant  explaining 
his  proposed  plan  of  attack  so  soon  as  the  Army  of 
the  Tennessee  was  forward  and  ready  for  action. 

'*Okl  Teciimseli"  there. 

Sherman  arrived  at  Chattanooga  at  a  most  oppor- 
tune moment.  It  seemed  as  if  the  fates  were  working 
in  the  interest  of  General  Grant  and  the  army  under 
his  command.  The  plans  of  the  general  commanding 
had  worked  to  perfection  ;  they  had  been  admirably 
carried  out,  and  they  had  been  attended,  so  far,  with 
complete  success. 

And  now,  when  Sherman,  his  trusted  right  arm, 
came  up  with  his  well-trained  veterans,  Bragg  had 
invited  attack  by  committing  a  huge  and  irreparable 

blunder.  It  was  known 
to  the  Confederate  com- 
mander that  Burnside  at 
an  earlier  date  had  gen- 
eral instructions  to  push 
forward  from  Knoxville 
and  form  a  connection  with 
Rosecrans.  Believing  that 
if  such  a  connection  were 
MAj.-GEN.  A.  E.  BURNSIDE.  uow    formed    it    would    be 

fatal  to  his  prospects,  and  in  the  vain  hope  of  cutting 


his  rival  off  and  beating  him  in  detail,  he  detached 
Longstreet  from  the  army  in  front  of  Chattanooga 
and  ordered  him  to  attack  Burnside  and  take  pos- 
session of  Knoxville.  A  more  fatal  blunder  he  could 
not  have  committed.  He  could  not,  had  such  been 
his  object,  have  played  more  completely  into  the 
hands  of  his  antagonist.  Grant  saw  his  opportunity, 
but  he  resolved  to  wait  until  the  arrival  of  Sherman, 
so  as  to  be  able  to  turn  it  to  full  and  satisfactory 
account     He  was  now  ready. 

Burnside  Hemmed  in. 

Grant  was  not  insensible  to  the  perilous  position 
in  which  Burnside  was  now  placed,  nor  was  he  in- 
different to  his  calls  for  help.  But  he  knew  that 
Burnside  would  be  relieved  most  effectually  by  the 
plan  which  he  himself  proposed  to  carry  out — that 
the  threatened  catastrophe  at  Knoxville  would  be 
best  averted  by  a  decisive  victory  at  Chattanooga. 

The  great  battle  of  Chattanooga — by  far  the  most 
picturesque  battle  in  the  war — was  now  about  tc 
be  fought.  Grant's  plans,  as  we  have  seen,  were 
matured  and  ready  for  execution.  It  was  now  the 
middle  of  November.  Sherman's  corps  had  arrived 
at  Bridgeport  on  the  14th.  Grant  made  up  his  mind 
to  make  the  general  attack  on  the  21st.  He  had 
discovered  that  the  north  end  of  the  Missionary 
Ridge  was  imperfectly  guarded,  as  also  the  western 
bank  of  the  river  from  the  mouth  of  the  South 
Chickamauga  down  toward  Chattanooga.  This  point 
invited  attack.     This,  however,  was  not  all.     A  sue- 


cessful  blow  given  in  that  direction  would  make  a 
junction  impossible  between  Bragg  and  Longstreet. 
The  northern  end  of  Missionary  Ridge  therefore  he 
singled  out  as  the  special  point  of  attack.  While 
the  attack  should  seem  to  be  general  and  bearing 
heavily  on  the  Confederate  left,  he  proposed  to  mass 
his  converging  forces  on  the  point  thus  indicated. 

Sherman's  Difficulties. 

Sherman,  with  his  own  troops  and  one  of  Thomas's 
divisions,  was  to  cross  the  Tennessee  just  below  the 
mouth  of  the  South  Chickamauga,  and  secure  the 
heights  as  far  as  the  railroad  tunnel.  Thomas  was  to 
co-operate  with  Sherman  by  concentrating  his  troops 
on  his  own  left,  leavino^  a  thin  line  to  ouard  the  works 
on  the  rio^ht  and  centre.  Hooker  was  to  assail  the 
Confederate  left  and  drive  it  from  Lookout  Mountain. 
Grant  was  the  more  anxious  to  make  the  attack  on 
the  2 1  St  that  on  the  day  before  he  received  from 
Bragg  a  letter  suggesting  the  removal  of  non-com- 
batants from  Chattanooga — a  letter  intended  to  convey 
the  idea  that  an  attack  on  that  place  was  meditated, 
but  which  really  confirmed  the  report  brought  by  a 
deserter,  and  confirmed  Grant  in  the  belief  that  Bragg 
was  about  to  retreat. 

The  general  attack  which  was  to  be  made  on  the 
2 1  St  was  countermanded.  Sherman  had  experienced 
unexpected  difficulty  in  passing  his  troops  across 
Brown's  Ferry  in  consequence  of  the  heavy  rains. 
The  pontoon-bridge  at  last  gave  way.  Osterhaus, 
whose   division  was   still  on  the  southern  side  of  the 




river  and  without  the  means  of  crossing,  was  ordered 
to  report  to  General  Hooker,  with  whom  he  remained. 
Howard  was  at  the  same  time  called  to  Chattanooga^ 
and  temporarily  attached  to  the  command  of  General 
Thomas.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  23d  the  Fifteenth 
corps,  under  the  immediate  command  of  General  Blair, 
having  flung  pontoon-bridges  across  the  Tennessee 
at  the  point  indicated  above,  and  also  across  the 
Chickamauga,  were  advancing  to  their  position  on  the 
extreme  left  of  the  National  army. 

Grant,  now  impatient  of  delay,  and  determined  that 
if  Bragg  really  meant  to  retire,  he  should  not  retire 
uninjured  and  in  good  order,  had  instructed  Thomas 
on  the  morning  of  the  23d  to  advance  and  give  the 
enemy  an  opportunity  of  developing  his  lines. 

Brilliant    Scene. 

The  day  was  unusually  beautiful.  The  men,  now 
that  they  were  relieved  from  their  prison-house  in 
Chattanooga  and  well  fed,  were  in  excellent  spirits. 
They  were  dressed  in  their  best  uniforms  and  accom- 
panied by  new  bands  of  music.  The  neighboring 
heights  were  crowded  with  spectators.  The  magnifi 
cent  array,  the  steady  step,  the  splendid  uniforms,  the 
burnished  bayonets  glittering  in  the  clear  November 
sunlight, — it  was  a  holiday  picture.  It  seemed  a  dress- 
parade  or  review,  and  was  so  regarded  for  a  time  by 
the  Confederates,  who  witnessed  the  spectacle  from 
the  side  and  summit  of  Missionary  Ridge. 

Wood's  division  of  Granger's  corps  moved  in  ad- 
vance  on  the   left,   Sheridan's  division    of  the  same 



corps  being  on  the  right.  Palmer  of  the  Fourteenth 
corps  supported  Granger's  right,  with  Baird's  division 
refused ;  Johnson's  division  of  Palmer's  remaining 
under  arms  in  the  intrenchments,  to  be  ready  to  rein- 
force at  any  point.     Howard's  corps  was  formed  in 


mass  behind  that  of  Granger.  As  soon  as  Thomas's 
men  began  to  move  forward  the  heavy  guns  of  Fort 
Wood  opened  upon  the  enemy's  first  position. 

Upon  the  ramparts  of  the  fort  Grant,  Thomas, 
Granger,  and  Howard  stood  watching  the  advance. 
It  was  a  splendid  sight.  On  moved  the  mighty  mass 
as  if  it  had  been  one  solid  unit.  Cheers  were  heard 
to  arise  from  the  ranks  of  the  advancing  columns. 
The  pickets  of  the  enemy  were  seen  to  break  and  fly 
in  confusion  before  them.  In  spite  of  the  well- 
directed  fire  from  Its  summit,  Wood  had  already 
reached  the  base  of  Orchard  Knob,  a  steep,  craggy 
hill    rising   above    the    general    level    of    the    valley, 


midway  between  the  river  and  the  ridge  and  about  a 
mile  from  Fort  Wood. 

Without  halting-,  Wood  ordered  his  men  to  charge. 
It  was  done  in  gallant  style,  the  rifle-pits  on  the 
summit  being  carried  and  two  hundred  men  made 
prisoners.  A  heavy  battery  was  advanced  to  the 
captured  position  from  Fort  Wood,  and  the  place  was 
held.  This  was  an  important  gain  to  the  Nationals 
and  they  made  the  most  of  it. 

Simultaneously  with  this  movement  of  General 
Thomas  against  Orchard  Knob,  a  cavalry  brigade  by 
order  of  General  Grant  was  operating  on  Bragg's 
extreme  right  and  rear.  No  other  movement  of  any 
consequence  took  place  on  the  23d. 

Sherman  on  Missionary  Ridge. 

Sherman  all  night  through  was  pushing  his  troops 
across  the  river.  As  early  as  daylight  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  24th  he  had  eight  thousand  men,  with  artil- 
lery and  horses,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Tennessee. 
At  one  o'clock  p.  m.  the  march  was  taken  up  by  three 
columns,  each  head  of  column  covered  by  a  line  of 
skirmishers  with  supports.  It  was  a  dull,  drizzly  day. 
The  clouds  were  low,  and  the  movements  of  the 
troops  could  not  be  easily  seen  by  the  enemy. 

At  half-past  three  o'clock  Sherman  had  possession 
of  the  whole  northern  extremity  of  Missionary  Ridge, 
as  far  almost  as  the  railroad  tunnel.  In  the  afternoon 
and  during  the  night  he  threw  up  intrenchments  and 
established  himself  in  a  really  strong  position.  Sher- 
man had  thus,  so  far,  carried  out  his  part  of  the  gen- 


eral  plan.  Such  was  the  state  of  things  on  the 
National  left  at  the  close  of  Tuesday,  the   24th. 

On  the  National  right  matters  were,  If  possible, 
even  more  favorable.  Hooker  had  performed  a  bril- 
liant feat  of  arms  on  Lookout  Mountain.  At  four 
o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  24th  he  had  reported 
that  his  troops  were  in  position  and  ready  to  advance. 
Soon  afterward  the  movement  commenced.  It  had 
been  Hookers  intention  to  push  his  men  across 
Lookout  Creek  and  strike  the  enemy  in  front.  It 
was  a  hazardous  undertaking,  for  Lookout  Mountain, 
with  its  high  palisaded  crest,  its  steep,  rugged  slopes, 
its  numerous  rifle-pits,  its  encircling  lines  of  earth- 
works and  redans,  was  deemed  by  Bragg  Impreg- 

It  so  happened,  however,  that  Lookout  Creek  was 
so  swollen  by  the  recent  hee  y  rains  that  it  was  im- 
passable. A  direct  movement  by  the  main  road  could 
not  be  attempted  until  temporary  bridges  were  con- 
structed. Hooker  therefore  ordered  Geary,  with  his 
own  division  and  Whittaker's  brigade  of  Cruft's  divis- 
ion, to  march  to  Wauhatchie,  to  cross  the  creek  there, 
and  move  down  on  the  right  bank,  while  he  employed 
the  remainder  of  his  forces  In  throwing  bridges  across 
on  the  main  road. 

The  day  was  favorable  for  conducting  such  opera- 
tions. A  heavy  mist  enveloped  the  mountain  and 
spread  itself  over  the  adjoining  valleys.  The  atten- 
tion of  the  enemy  had  been  drawn  to  the  bridge- 
builders,  of  whom  an  occasional  glimpse  could  be  had 


as  the  mist  drifted  with  the  breeze ;  but  no  notice  had 
been  taken  of  Geary,  who  reached  his  appointed  place 
at  Wauhatchie  unobserved. 

The  Confederates  Surprised. 

It  was  about  eight  o'clock  when  he  began  to  cross 
the  creek.  Passing  over  without  molestation,  he  sur- 
prised and  captured  the  picket-guard,  and,  immediately 
facing  to  the  north,  he  extended  his  line  on  the  right 
to  the  base  ot  the  mountain.  The  Confederates, 
caught  at  once  on  both  flank  and  rear,  offered  a  stub- 
born resistance.  Meanwhile,  the  bridges  were  con- 
structed, and,  Osterhaus's  division  having  been  brought 
up  from  Brown's  Ferry,  the  Nationals  were  soon  in 
great  force  on  the  right  bank  of  the  creek.  Under 
cover  of  the  two  batteries — the  Ohio  on  Bald  Hill,  and 
the  New  York  on  the  hill  in  the  rear — Hooker's  men 
went  dashing  down  the  valley,  sweeping  everything 
before  them,  capturing  the  rifle-pits,  and  making  a 
large  number  of  prisoners. 

At  the  same  time,  the  troops  to  the  right,  passing 
directly  under  the  muzzles  of  the  Confederate  guns, 
were  rushing  up  the  rugged  sides  of  the  hill,  leaping 
over  boulders  and  ledges  of  rock,  cutting  their  way 
through  the  abattis,  and  gradually  forcing  position 
after  position  until  the  plateau  was  cleared  and  the 
retreating  Confederates  were  seen  plunging  them- 
selves down  the  jagged  and  precipitous  face  of  the 
mountain,  and  flying  in  confusion  and  utter  rout 
toward  Chattanooga  Valley.  Hooker  had  not  ex- 
pected to  accomplish  so  much  in  the  same  space  of 


time.     Nay,  he  had  been  unwilHng  that  his  men  should 
attempt  so  much. 

The  Men  would  not  Halt. 

Not  knowing  to  what  extent  the  enemy  might  be 
reinforced,  and  fearing  disaster  from  the  rough  cha- 
racter of  the  ground,  he  had  given  directions  that  the 
men  should  halt  when  they  reached  the  high  ground. 
But  aroused  to  the  highest  pitch  of  enthusiasm 
and  with  a  flying  foe  before  them,  a  halt  was  im- 

It  was  now  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and 
such  was  the  density  of  the  mist  which  shrouded  the 
mountain  and  hung  heavily  over  the  valley  that  it  was 
found  necessary,  temporarily  at  least,  to  suspend 
operations.  Hooker,  not  deeming  it  advisable  to 
descend  into  the  valley  in  pursuit,  established  his  line 
on  the  east  side  of  the  mountain,  his  right  resting  on 
the  palisades,  his  left  near  the  mouth  of  Chattanooga 

The  battle  had  literally  been  fought  above  the 
:louds.  It  was  not  until  nightfall  that  the  sky  cleared, 
and  revealed  to  thousands  in  the  valley  below  the 
ictual  progress  which  Hooker  had  made.  As  soon  as 
t  became  known  that  behind  that  veil  of  clouds  a 
^reat  batde  had  been  fought  and  won,  and  that  the 
NTational  arms  had  been  victorious,  the  soldiers  gave 
A^ay  to  the  wildest  enthusiasm,  and  loud  cheers  for 
'Old  Hooker"  coming  up,  resounding  from  the  valley, 
vere  echoed  and  re-echoed  among  the  blood-stained 



The  night  which  followed  was  beautiful  In  the 
extreme.  The  mist  disappeared,  and  a  full  moon 
shed  her  mellow  lio^ht  over  a  scene  of  matchless  mao-. 
nificence.  It  was  Hooker's  conviction  that  the  enemy 
would  withdraw  from  the  summit  of  the  mountain 
before  daylight.  In  anticipation  of  such  a  movement 
he  detached  parties  from  several  regiments  with  in- 
structions to  scale  the  palisades.  When  morning 
came  the  Confederates  were  gone. 

Frowning  Artillery. 

Such  was  the  condition  of  things  on  the  night  of 
the  24th  and  the  morning  of  the  25th  of  November. 
The  National  army  maintained  an  unbroken  line, 
with  open  communications  from  the  north  end  of 
Lookout  Mountain  through  the  Chattanooga  Valley, 
to  the  north  end  of  Missionary  Ridge. 

The  morning  of  the  25th  rose  in  beauty.  Far 
almost  as  the  eye  could  reach  the  sun  fell  upon  the 
compact  lines  of  polished  steel.  In  front,  towering 
up,  the  huge  form  of  Missionary  Ridge,  its  precipitous 
sides  defying  attack,  its  summit  swarming  with  armed 
men  and  crowned  with  artillery;  away  to  the  right 
and  standinor  out  clear  and  well  defined  the  bold  out- 
lines  of  Lookout  Mountain  ;  Hooker's  men  spread  out 
in  the  valley  below  to  the  right,  Sherman's  massed  in 
compact  phalanx  above  to  the  left,  while  Thomas's 
well-trained  bands,  eager  and  ready  for  the  fray,  are 
gathered  together  in  close  array  around  the  head- 
quarters of  the  chief, — such  was  the  sight  which  met 
the  eye  of  the  beholder  as  he  stood  on  Orchard  Knob 


on  the  morning  of  the  day  which  was  to  witness  the 
final  struggle  and  the  crowning  National  victory  at 
Chattanooga.  It  was  a  magnificent  spectacle,  and 
one  which  it  rarely  falls  to  the  lot  of  mortals  to 

Brag^g-  versus  Sherman. 

At  an  early  hour  the  preparations  were  complete. 
The  sun  had  arisen,  however,  before  the  bugle  sounded 
''Forward!"  Hooker  had  received  orders  to  move 
on  the  Confederate  left  ;  Sherman  was  to  move 
against  the  right;  while  the  centre,  under  the  Im- 
mediate eye  of  General  Grant,  was  to  advance  later 
in  the  day  and  whenever  the  developments  made  on 
either  wing  should  justify  the  attack.  Shortly  after 
sunrise  Hooker,  who  has  left  a  small  force  on  Lookout 
Mountain,  Is  seen  with  the  mass  of  his  troops  moving 
down  the  eastern  slope  of  the  mountain  and  sweeping 
across  the  valley. 

Sherman  moved  at  the  same  time  on  the  Con- 
federate right,  and  it  soon  begins  to  be  evident  that 
Bragg,  believing  that  the  main  attack  is  to  be  made  on 
bis  right.  Is  massing  his  troops  on  Sherman's  front.  A 
fierce  artillery  duel  at  once  commenced  between  Or- 
chard Knob  and  Missionary  Ridge.  Hooker,  pressing 
on  toward  Rossville  Gap,  encountered  an  unexpected 
obstacle  at  Chattanooga  Creek.  The  bridge  had  been 
destroyed  by  the  Confederates  as  they  retired  from 
the  valley  In  the  early  morning.  It  was  an  unfortunate 
circumstance,  necessitating-  as  it  did  ^  delay  of  thr^e 


As  soon  as  the  bridge  was  completed  the  troops 
were  pushed  over.  Rossville  Gap  was  quickly  occu- 
pied, and  Hooker,  moving  Osterhaus  along  the  east 
side  of  the  ridge,  Geary  at  its  base,  with  the  batteries 
on  the  west  side,  and  Cruft  on  the  ridge  itself,  marched 
northward,  driving  the  enemy  before  him.  Shortly 
after  sunset  the  victory  on  the  National  right  was 
complete.  Breckenridge  had  proved  himself  no  match 
for  Hooker. 

The  Desperate  Striigg-le. 

Let  us  now  see  what  was  going  on  toward  the 
left  and  at  the  centre.  On  the  morning  of  the  25th, 
Sherman  was  in  the  saddle  before  it  was  light. 
During  the  night  he  had  strongly  intrenched  his 
position.  His  order  of  battle  was  similar  to  that  of 
Hooker.  General  Corse,  with  three  of  his  own  regi- 
ments and  one  of  LIghtburn's,  moved  forward  on  the 
crest  of  the  hill ;  General  Morgan  L.  Smith,  with  his 
command,  advanced  along  the  eastern  base ;  while 
Colonel  Loomis,  supported  by  the  two  reserve  brig- 
ades of  General  John  E.  Smith,  advanced  along  the 
western  base.  The  briorades  of  Cockerell  and  Alex- 
ander  and  a  portion  of  LIghtburn's  remained  behind, 
holding  the  position  first  occupied.  Almost  from  the 
commencement  of  the  forward  movement  the  ad- 
vancing columns  were  exposed  to  the  guns  of  the 

The  tide  of  battle  ebbed  and  flowed,  victory  now 
leaning  to  the  one  side  and  now  to  the  other.  It 
was  a  desperate  grapple  and  the  loss  of  life  was 


terrible.  No  decided  progress  was  being  made  on 
either  side.  Corse  found  it  impossible  to  carry  the 
works  in  his  front ;  the  Confederates  were  equally 
unable  to  drive  him  from  the  position  he  had  won. 
The  columns  which  under  Loomis  and  Smith  moved 
along  the  sides  of  the  ridge,  encountering  fewer 
difficulties,  were  attended  with  better  success.  Smith 
kept  gaining  ground  on  the  left  spur  of  Missionary 
Ridge,  while  Loomis  on  his  side  got  abreast  of  the 
tunnel  and  the  railroad  embankment. 

The  fire  of  the  one  and  the  other,  striking  the  Con- 
federates on  both  flanks  and  slightly  In  rear  of  their 
front,  had  the  effect  of  withdrawing  attention,  and 
thus  to  a  certain  extent  of  relieving  the  assaulting 
party  on  the  crest  of  the  hill. 

It  was  now  about  three  o'clock.  The  battle  was 
raging  with  tremendous  fury.  Column  after  column 
of  the  enemy  came  streaming  down  upon  Sherman's 
men,  gun  upon  gun  pouring  upon  them  its  concen- 
trated shot  from  every  hill  and  spur  as  they  vainly 
struggled  in  the  valley  ^nd  attempted  to  force  their 
way  to  the  farther  height.  Neither,  however,  was 
gaining  any  advantage. 

They  Held  their  Ground. 

Almost  at  the  crisis  of  the  fight  it  seemed  to  the 
anxious  watchers  at  Chattanooga  as  If  Sherman  was 
losing  ground.  There  was,  indeed,  a  backward 
movement.  It  had  seemed  to  General  J.  E.  Smith 
that  Colonel  Wolcott,  who  now  commanded  on  the 
crest — Corse   having   been    wounded    early    in    the 


day — was    sorely  pressed   and  in    danger   of  being 

He  therefore  sent  to  his  aid  the  two  reserve 
brigades  of  Runion  and  Mathias.  Having  crossed 
the  intervening  fields  and  climbed  the  hillside  in  spite 
of  a  most  destructive  fire  of  artillery  and  musketry, 
they  effected  a  junction  with  Wolcott.  The  ridge, 
however,  being  narrow,  they  were  forced  to  take 
position  on  the  western  face  of  the  hill,  where,  being 
exposed  to  attack  on  right  and  rear,  the  enemy,  rush- 
ing from  the  tunnel  gorge,  fell  upon  them  in  over- 
whelming numbers,  drivino-  them  down  the  hill  and 
back  to  the  lower  end  of  the  field.  There  they  were 
re-formed,  and  the  Confederates  who  had  ventured 
to  pursue  were  struck  heavily  on  their  flank,  and 
compelled  to  retire  to  the  slielter  of  their  works  on 
the  wooded  hills.  It  was  this  backward  movement 
of  Smith's  brigades  which,  being  seen  at  Chatta- 
nooga, created  the  impression  that  a  repulse  had 
been  sustained  by  the  National  left. 

Impatient  for  the  Fray. 

Sherman  has  taken  some  pains  to  correct  this  false 
impression,  and  informs  us  that  the  *'  real  attacking 
columns  of  General  Corse,  General  Loomis,  and 
General  Morgan  L.  Smith  were  not  repulsed,"  but, 
on  the  contrary,  held  their  ground  and  struggled  "all 
day  persistently,  stubbornly,  and  well." 

Long  and  wearily  had  Sherman  waited  for  the 
attack  in  the  centre.  An  occasional  shot  from  Or- 
chard  Knob,  and    some   artillery  and  musketry  fire 


away  in  the  direction  of  Lookout,  were  the  only  signs 
of  activity  in  the  National  ranks  on  his  right.  It  was 
not  until  shortly  after  three  o'clock  that  he  saw  a  white 
line  of  .^moke  in  front  of  Orchard  Knob,  the  line  ex- 
tending farther  and  farther  to  the  right.  It  was  evi- 
dent that  something  decisive  was  happening.  He 
had  faith  in  the  result,  for  he  knew  that  by  his  repeated 
and  persistent  attacks  he  had  compelled  Bragg  to  con- 
centrate large  masses  of  his  troops  on  his  own  right. 
He  had  thus  weakened  the  Confederate  centre  and 
created  the  opportunity  for  Grant  and  Thomas. 

During  these  hours  of  sore  trial  and  deep  anxiety 
Grant's  attention  was  quite  as  much  directed  to  the 
left  as  was  that  of  Sherman  to  the  centre.  Grant's 
headquarters  were  at  Orchard  Knob.  He  had  a  com- 
mandine  view  of  the  entire  battle-eround.  He  knew 
that  Bragg  was  concentrating  on  his  own  right,  and, 
determined  to  penetrate  the  National  left  and  force 
his  way  to  Chattanooga,  was  hurling  against  Sherman 
his  well-disciplined  legions  in  overwhelming  masses. 
He  feared  lest  his  trusted  lieutenant,  sorely  pressed, 
should  be  yielding  to  impatience  because  of  the  con- 
tinued inaction  at  the  centre. 

But  it  was  necessary  to  wait  for  Hooker,  who,  as 
has  been  stated,  had  been  delayed  three  hours  in  re- 
constructing the  bridge  across  Chattanooga  Creek. 
It  was  desirable  at  least  that  the  Confederate  left 
should  be  well  engaged,  as  well  as  the  Confederate 
right,  before  the  decisive  blow  was  dealt  at  the  centre. 
With  any  other  commander  on  his  left  Grant  might 


have  risked  too  much  by  leaving  him  so  long,  unaided 
or  unrelieved,  to  struggle  against  the  strong  position 
and  the  ever-increasing  numbers  of  the  enemy. 

**A  Wall  of  Adamant." 

Grant,  however,  had  not  forgotten  Shiloh.  He 
remembered  how  on  that  day,  at  the  foot  of  the 
bridore  over  Snake  Creek,  Sherman  had  stood  Hke  a 
wall  of  adamant,  his  men  massed  around  him,  and 
presenting  to  the  almost  triumphant  foe  what  seemed 
a  huge  and  solid  shield  of  shining  steel,  effectually 
resisting  and  ultimately  turning  the  tide  of  battle. 
What  he  had  done  then  he  had  on  many  a  batde-field 
since  proved  his  ability  and  willingness  to  do  again. 
Grant  was  asking  much  from  his  lieutenant,  but  he 
felt  convinced  that  Sherman  would  not  be  found 
wanting.  Meanwhile,  he  had  the  satisfaction  of  per- 
ceiving that  his  plan  was  worjcing  admirably.  Bragg, 
completely  out-generalled,  was  weaking  his  own  centre 
and  preparing  for  him  his  opportunity. 

It  was  now  half-past  three  o'clock.  Grant  was 
pacing  to  and  fro  on  Orchard  Knob.  Concerned  for 
the  welfare  of  Sherman,  seeing  his  opportunity  rapidly 
ripening,  and  impatient  to  strike,  yet  unwilling  by 
premature  action  to  imperil  the  hoped-for  and  what 
seemed  the  inevitable  result,  he  kept  turning  his  eyes 
wistfully  in  the  direction  in  which  Hooker  should 
make  his  appearance. 

The  Moment  Arrives. 

Still  there  were  no  signs  of  his  coming.  Hooker, 
as  the  reader  knows,  was  successfully  moving  along 


the  ridge  and  driving  the  enemy  before  him.  But 
Grant  was  as  yet  ignorant  at  once  of  the  cause  of  his 
delay  and  of  the  progress  he  had  made.  The  oppor- 
tune moment,  however,  had  come.  He  saw  that 
Bragg  had  greatly  weakened  his  centre  to  support 
his  right,  and,  having  faith  that  Hooker  must  be  close 
at  hand,  he  gave  Thomas  the  order  to  advance. 

The  thunderbolt  was  hurled.  The  signal-guns  were 
fired — one — two — three — four — hvG — six — and  the 
divisions  of  Wood,  Baird,  Sheridan,  and  Johnson, 
long  since  impatient  of  delay,  advanced  with  firm 
and  steady  step.  These  were  preceded  by  a  double 
line  of  skirmishers,  drawn  mostly  from  the  divisions 
of  Wood  and  Sheridan.  The  orders  were  to  carry 
the  rifle-pits  at  the  base  of  the  ridge,  and  then  to  re- 
form and  push  their  way  to  the  summit. 

The  whole  movement  was  conducted  with  the 
regularity  and  precision  of  clockwork.  The  skir- 
mishers dashed  forward,  the  main  body  following 
within  easy  supporting  distance. 

The  Ridg-e  Ablaze. 

Missionary  Ridge  all  at  once  seems  ablaze.  On  all 
the  forts  and  batteries  the  heavy  guns  open  fire,  and 
from  their  hollow  mouths  they  bellow  harsh  thunder 
and  vomit  forth  their  missiles  of  destruction.  Full 
thirty  guns  are  pouring  shot  and  shell  into  the  ad- 
vancing columns.  Nothing,  however,  can  cool  the 
ardor  or  restrain  the  impetuosity  of  the  National 
soldiers.  "Rolling  on  the  foe,"  on  moves  this  "fiery 
mass  of  living  valor." 


The  picture  of  the  poet  becomes  here  a  living 
reaHty.  The  brigades  of  Hazen  and  WilHch  are 
already  at  the  base  of  the  mountain.  Like  "bees 
out  of  a  hive,"  to  use  the  expressive  words  of  Gen- 
eral Grant,  the  gray-coated  Confederates  are  seen 
swarming  out  of  the  rifle-pits  and  rushing  up  the 

Fired  now  with  the  wildest  enthusiasm,  the  brave 
Nationals,  scarcely  taking  time  to  re-form,  push  their 
way  up  the  steep  and  rugged  sides  of  the  mountain. 
They  are  fully  exposed  now  to  a  terrific  fire  from  the 
enemy's  guns  on  the  heights  above  them.  Shell, 
canister,  shrapnel,  bullets,  are  falling  upon  them  with 
deadly  effect. 

The  Old  Flag"  climbs  Hig-lier. 

Nothing  daunted,  however,  on  they  pressed,  and 
from  Orchard  Knob  the  National  colors  are  seen 
fluttering  higher  and  still  higher  and  gradually  nearing 
the  summit.  Order  now  begins  to  disappear.  The 
brigades,  partly  because  of  the  nature  of  the  ground 
and  partly  because  of  the  severity  of  the  fire,  break 
up  into  groups.  There  is,  however,  neither  lack  of 
purpose  nor  lack  of  enthusiasm.  Every  group  has  its 
flag,  and  In  wedge-like  form,  each  eager  to  be  first  and 
emulous  of  the  other,  is  seen  pressing  onward  and 
upward.  It  seems  as  if  the  color-bearers  are  running 
a  race.  To  plant  the  first  color  on  the  summit  appears 
to  be  the  ambition  of  every  brigade,  of  every  group, 
of  every  soldier.  Now  they  are  clambering  over  the 
rugged    ledges,    now    they    are    seeking   momentary 


shelter  In  the  ravines  or  behind  the  overhanging 
rocks ;  but  they  are  ever,  in  spite  of  the  heavy  guns 
and  the  murderous  volleys  of  musketry  from  the  rifle- 
pits,  nearing  the  summit. 

Down  go  the  Standard-bearers. 

Meanwhile,  the  work  of  destruction  had  been  terri- 
ble. The  color-bearers  had  suffered  fearfully.  The 
first  to  reach  the  summit  was  a  group  of  men  from 
the  First  Ohio  and  a  few  others  from  other  regiments 
under  the  lead  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Langdon.  Six 
color-bearers  of  this  party  had  fallen,  when  Langdon, 
waving  forward  his  men  and  leaping  over  the  crest, 
was  instantly  shot  down.  The  breach,  however,  had 
been  made,  and  the  brigades  of  Hazen  and  Willich 
were  soon  on  the  summit.  These  were  quickly  fol- 
lowed by  the  brigades  of  Sheridan's  division,  Sheridan 
himself  taking  an  active  part  and  specially  command- 
ing the  attention  of  General  Grant,  by  his  wonderful 
command  of  his  men  and  his  intrepid  bearing. 

The  National  advance  was  within  a  few  hundred 
yards  of  Bragg's  headquarters.  There  were  still  des- 
perate hand-to-hand  struggles  after  the  Nationals 
had  reached  the  summit.  But  as  the  shouting  victors 
came  pouring  into  the  works,  bayonetting  the  cannon- 
eers at  their  guns,  the  bold  and  resolute  front  gave 
way.  It  was  now  sunset.  The  Confederates  were  in 
full  retreat,  their  own  guns  turned  upon  them  by  the 
triumphant  Nationals.  It  was  only  with  difficulty  that 
Bragg  was  able  to  make  good  his  escape,  along  with 
Breckenridge,  who  by  this  time  had  joined  him.    Mis- 


sionary    Ridge   was   now  occupied  and  held  by  the 
National  troops. 

Sherman  Drives  the  Enemy. 

Hooker,  as  we  have  seen,  had  been  victorious  on 
the  right;  Sherman  had  held  his  ground,  and,  after 
a   gallant   and  protracted   struggle  against  superior 
numbers,  had  driven  the  enemy  from  his  front;  and 
now  the  brave  and  well-trusted  soldiers  of  the  Armyi, 
of  the  Cumberland  had  pierced  and  routed  the  Con-j 
federate    centre.      The    battle    of  Chattanooga   had. 
been  fought  and  won. 

The  modesty  of  Grant,  the  utter  absence  of  vain-i^ 
glory,  is  strikingly  revealed  in  the  despatch  which  hei 
sent  to  General  Halleck  immediately  after  the  batde. 
"Although  the- battle  lasted,"  he  says,  "from  early 
dawn  till  dark  this  evening,  I  believe  I  am  not  prema- 
ture in  announcing  a  complete  victory  over  Bragg. 
Lookout  Mountain  top,  all  the  rifle-pits  in  Chattanooga 
Valley,  and  Missionary  Ridge  entire  have  been  carried 
and  are  now  held  by  us." 

The  Last  Strug-gle. 

The  final  struggle  of  the  day  was  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  tunnel  on  Thomas's  left  and  in  Sherman's 
front.  At  that  point  the  Confederates  made  a  most 
obstinate  resistance.  This  resistance  and  the  dark- 
ness which  intervened  prevented  an  immediate  pur- 
suit. During  the  night  Missionary  Ridge  blazed  with 
Union  camp-fires,  the  Confederates  having  fallen  back 
in  the  direction  of  Ringgold  by  the  way  of  Chicka- 
mauga  Station.     Bragg  left  behind  him  some  six  hun- 


dred  prisoners,  besides  a  large  number  of  stragglers, 
forty  guns,  upward  of  seven  thousand  small-arms,  and 
a  large  quantity  of  ammunition. 

Next  morning  Sherman,  Palmer,  and  Hooker  were 
in  eager  pursuit.  Sherman  pushed  on  toward  Grays- 
ville,  passing  Chlckamauga  Station,  where  he  found 
everything  In  flames.  The  Immediate  result  of  the 
victory  at  Chattanooga  was  the  relief  of  Knoxville. 
Burnslde,  It  will  be  remembered,  after  having  been 
relieved  of  the  command  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac, 
was  assigned  on  the  26th  of  March  to  the  command 
of  the  Department  of  the  Ohio.  His  headquarters 
were  at  Cincinnati,  and  his  army,  about  twenty  thou- 
sand strong,  was  at  Camp  Nelson,  near  Richmond, 
Kentucky.  When  Rosecrans  commenced  his  onward 
movement  toward  Chattanooga,  Burnslde,  who  had 
been  ordered  to  co-operate  with  him  and  to  effect  a 
junction  between  his  own  right  and  the  left  of  Rose- 
crans, commenced  on  the  i6th  of  August  his  march 
for  East  Tennessee.  That  district  of  country  was 
then  held  by  the  Confederate  general  Buckner,  whose 
headquarters  were  at  Knoxville. 

The  Situation  at  Knoxville. 

Burnslde,  more  intent  on  restoring  the  authority  of 
the  National  Government  In  East  Tennessee,  moved 
in  the  direction  of  Knoxville,  although  repeatedly 
ordered  to  reinforce  Rosecrans,  believing  It  to  be  all- 
Important  that  the  place  should  be  permanently  occu- 
pied by  National  troops. 

If  Kno?cville  was  to  be  taken,  It  must  be  taken  by 


Storm.  Preparations  for  a  final  effort  were  accord 
ingly  hurried  forward.  The  point  chosen  for  attack 
was  Fort  Sanders,  on  the  north-west  angle  of  the 
fortifications  and  commanding  an  approach  by  the 
river.  It  was  a  work  of  great  strength,  the  ditch 
being  ten  feet  deep  and  the  parapet  of  more  than 
ordinary  height.  Around  and  in  front  of  it  several 
acres  of  thick  pine  timber  had  been  slashed,  and  a 
perfect  entanglement  of  wirework  had  been  formed 
by  connecting  stump  with  stump.  There  were  besides 
numerous  rifle-pits  and  abattis. 

The  fort  was  occupied  by  the  Seventy-ninth  New 
York,  the  Twenty-ninth  Massachusetts,  two  companies 
of  the  Second  and  one  of  the  Twentieth  Michigan. 
The  armament  consisted  of  four  twenty-pounder 
Parrott  guns,  Lieutenant  Benjamin,  Burnside's  chief 
of  artillery  ;  four  light  twelve-pounders,  commanded 
by  Buckley ;  and  two  three-inch  guns.  The  assault- 
ing party  was  composed  of  three  brigades  of  McLaws' 
division,  with  those  of  Wolford,  Humphreys,  Ander- 
son, and  Bogart.  They  were  picked  men,  the  fiower 
of  Longstreet's  army. 

The  Confederate  Yell. 

In  the  gray  of  the  morning  of  the  29th  the  assault 
•was  made,  with  a  vigor  and  determination  not  sur- 
passed in  the  previous  history  of  the  war.  What  with 
the  fierce  yells  of  the  Confederates,  the  ratde  of  mus- 
ketry, the  screaming  of  shells,  the  thunder  of  artillery, 
the  tumult  for  a  time  was  awful.  The  Confederates, 
as  they  approached,  were  received  with  a  deadly  fire 

\jr  AVt    rv-o 


from  the  batteries  of  the  fort.  Nothing  daunted,  how- 
ever, by  the  destructive  missiles  which  flew  thick  and 
fast  around  them  or  by  the  sight  of  their  fallen  com- 
rades, on  they  pressed,  through  the  abattis,  across  the 
ditch  and  up  the  parapet,  some  of  them  forcing  their 
way  through  the  embrasures.  The  obstacles  encoun- 
tered, the  wire  network  particularly,  made  their  prog- 
ress slow,  and  consequently  kept  them  long  exposed 
to  the  double-shotted  guns  which  Ferrero,  the  com- 
mander of  the  fort,  kept  in  active  play. 

The  Assault  Fails. 

When  the  assailants  reached  the  parapet  their 
ranks  were  greatly  thinned,  but  their  spirits  were  not 
subdued.  One  officer  actually  reached  the  summit, 
and,  planting  upon  it  the  flag  of  the  Thirteenth  Mis- 
sissippi, called  for  surrender.  It  was  a  vain  call,  for 
the  next  moment  his  body,  pierced  by  a  dozen  bullets, 
the  flag  still  in  his  hand,  was  rolling  into  the  ditch. 
Hand-grenades  were  freely  used  by  the  defenders, 
and  they  had  terrible  effect. 

The  assault,  gallant  as  it  was,  proved  a  complete 
failure.  It  was  tried  a  second  time  by  another 
column,  but  the  result  was  the  same.  The  fighting 
was  discontinued.  A  truce  was  granted  to  the  Con- 
federates to  carry  away  their  wounded  and  to  bury 
their  dead.  Longstreet,  still  hoping  against  hope 
and  unwilling  to  retire,  maintained  the  siege. 

The  ground  in  front  of  the  fort  was  strewn  with 
the  dead  and  wounded.  In  the  ditch  alone  were  over 
two  hundred  dead  and  wounded,     "In  this  terrible 


ditch,"  says  Pollard,  "the  dead  were  piled  eic^ht  or 
ten  feet  deep.  In  a  comparatively  short  time  we  lost 
seven  hundred  men  in  killed  and  wounded  and  dhr- 
oners.  Never,  excepting  at  Gettysburg,  was  there  m 
the  history  of  the  war  a  disaster  adorned  with  the 
glory  of  such  devout  courage  as  Longstreet's  repulse 
at  Knoxville." 

Meanwhile,  relief  was  coming  from  Grant  to  Burn- 
side.  Why  was  this  relief  so  long  delayed  ?  On  the 
evening  of  the  25th,  as  soon  as  success  at  Chatta- 
nooga had  been  assured,  Grant  had  ordered  General 
Gordon  Granger  to  start  for  the  relief  of  Knoxville 
with  his  own  Fourth  corps  and  detachments  fromi 
others — twenty  thousand  in  all.  Granger  was  to 
move  with  four  days'  rations,  arrangements  having 
been  made  to  send  after  him  a  steamer  with  supplies. 
<*You  will  Assume  Conimaiid." 

When  Grant  returned  from  the  front  on  the  28th 
he  found,  much  to  his  astonishment,  that  Granger 
had  not  yet  got  off,  and  that  he  was  preparing  to 
move  "with  reluctance  and  complaints."  Grant  fell 
back  upon  Sherman,  who  was  ever  willino-  and  ever 
ready.  "I  am  inclined  to  think,"  said  Grant,  in  a 
letter  to  Sherman,  "I  shall  have  to  send  you.  In 
plain  words,  you  will  assume  command  of  all  the 
forces  now  moving  up  the  Tennessee." 

Wlien  he  received  the  letter  from  Grant,  Sherman 
was  at  Calhoun,  at  the  railroad  crossing  of  the  Hia- 
wassee.  If  he  had  been  less  of  a  soldier  he  mieht 
easily  nave  found  cause  of  complaint.     It  was  only 


seven  days  since  he  had  marched  his  troops  from 
the  west  side  of  the  Tennessee,  with  only  two  days' 
rations,  without  change  of  clothing,  with  but  a  single 
blanket  or  coat  to  a  man  from  himself  to  the  private 
soldier.  What  provisions  they  had  were  picked  up 
by  the  way. 

Slierman  Hastening  to  the  Rescue. 

Murmur  or  complaint,  however,  with  Sherman, 
there  was  none.  To  hear  was  to  obey.  It  was 
enough  for  him  that  twelve  thousand  of  his  fellow- 
soldiers  were  beleaguered  at  Knoxville,  eighty-four 
miles  away,  and  that  if  not  relieved  within  three  days 
they  might  be  at  the  mercy  of  the  enemy. 

With  his  hardy  and  untiring  veterans  Sherman  i 
was  quickly  on  his  way.  The  roads  were  bad,  and, 
as  the  pontoon-bridge  at  Loudon  had  been  destroyed,  | 
there  was  unexpected  difficulty  and  consequent  delay. 
After  considerable  progress  had  been  made  the  troops 
were  compelled  to  turn  to  the  east  and  to  trust  to 
General  Burnside's  bridge  at  Knoxville.  A  bridge 
was  flung  across  the  Little  Tennessee  at  Morgan- 
town,  and  by  daybreak  on  the  5th  of  December  the 
entire  Fifteenth  corps  was  over.  Meanwhile,  the 
cavalry  command,  which  had  moved  forward  in  ad^ 
vance,  had  reached  Knoxville  on  the  3d  of  December, 
the  very  day  on  which  Burnside  expected  his  supplies 
would  give  out. 

The  Siege  Ended. 

On  the  night  of  the  5th  a  messenger  from  Burnside 
arrived  at  Sherman's  headquarters,  announcing 


Longstreet  was  in  full  retreat  toward  Virginia  and 
that  the  National  cavalry  were  in  pursuit.  As  soon 
as  Sherman's  cavalry  appeared,  Longstreet,  discover- 
ing that  his  flank  was  turned,  raised  the  siege  and 
retreated  toward  Russellville  in  the  direction  of  Vir 
ginia.  The  National  cavalry  followed  for  some  dis- 
tance in  close  pursuit.  This  ended  the  siege  of 

Burnside  had  offered  a  noble  resistance  and  had 
retrieved  some  of  the  laurels  lost  at  Fredericksburg. 
He  was  not  without  oblioations  to  Sherman,  nor  was 
he  ungrateful.  In  a  letter  to  that  general  he  fully 
acknowledged  those  obligations,  and  thanked  both 
him  and  his  command  for  so  promptly  coming  to  his 
relief.  "  I  am  satisfied,"  he  said,  "  that  your  approacJ/ 
served  to  raise  the  siege." 

Sherman,  too,  had  great  reason  to  be  proud  of 
himself  and  his  command.  They  had  been  constantly 
in  motion  since  they  left  the  Big  Black  in  Missisippi. 
For  long  periods  they  had  been  without  regular 
rations,  and  the  men  had  marched  through  mud  and 
over  rocks,  sometimes  barefooted,  without  a  murmur 
and  without  a  moment's  delay. 

Marvels  of  Acliieveiiient. 

After  a  march  of  over  four  hundred  miles,  without 
sleep  for  three  successive  nights,  they  crossed  the 
Tennessee,  fought  their  part  in  the  battle  of  Chatta- 
nooga, pursued  the  enemy  out  of  Tennessee,  and 
then  turned  more  than  one  hundred  and  twenty 
miles   north   and  compelled  Longstreet  to  raise   the 


siege  of  Knoxville.  After  the  siege  was  raised, 
Sherman,  with  the  consent  of  Burnside,  leaving  only 
Granger's  command,  fell  back  to  the  line  of  the 


General  Sherman's  Fascinating  Story  of  the 
Battle  of  Chattanooga. 

Having  in  the  preceding  chapter  described  the 
great  general  features  of  the  battle  of  Chattanooga, 
havincr  followed  the  combined  Union  armies  or  to 
their  magnificent  victory,  we  now  take  pleasure  in 
presenting  the  reader  with  an  intensely  interesting 
account  of  the  sanguinary  conflict  from  General  Sher- 
man's own  pen.  This  clear  and  graphic  report  re^ 
lates  especially  his  own  part  in  the  terrible  yet 
glorious  deeds  on  that  world-renowned  battle-field. 
The  report  is  as  follows  : 

Headquarters  Department  and  Army  of  the  Tennessee. 
Bridgeport,  Alabama,  December  19,  1863. 

Brigadier- General  ]oYi^  A.  Rawlins,  Chief  of  Staff  to 
General  Grant,  Chattanooga  : 

General:  For  the  first  time  I  am  now  at  leisure 
to  make  an  official  record  of  events  with  which  the 
troops  under  my  command  have  been  connected 
during  the  eventful  campaign  which  has  just  closed. 

During  the  month  of  September  last  the  Fifteenth 
army  corps,  which  I  had  the  honor  to  command,  lay  in 
camps  along  the  Big  Black,  about  twenty  miles  east 
of  Vicksburg,  Mississippi.  It  consisted  of  four  divis- 
ions.     The  First,  commanded   by  Brigadier-General 



P.  J.  Osterhaus,  was  composed  of  two  brigades,  led 
by  Brigadier-General  C.  R.  Woods  and  Colonel  J.  A. 
Williamson  (of  the  Fourth  Iowa). 

The  Second,  commanded  by  Brigadier-General 
Morgan  L.  Smith,  was  composed  of  two  brigades,  led 
by  Brigadier-Generals  Giles  A.  Smith  and  J.  A.  J. 

The  Third,  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  J, 
M.  Tuttle,  was  composed  of  three  brigades,  led  by 
Brigadier-Generals  J.  A.  Mower  and  R.  P.  Buckland 
and  Colonel  J.  J.  Wood   (of  the  Twelfth  Iowa). 

The  Fourth,  commanded  by  Brigadier-General 
Hugh  Ewing,  was  composed  of  three  brigades,  led  by 
Brigadier-General  J.  M.  Corse,  Colonel  Loomis 
(Twenty-sixth  Illinois),  and  Colonel  J.  R.  Cockerell 
\of  the   Seventieth  Ohio). 

Off  for  Chattanooga. 

On  the  2 2d  day  of  September,  I  received  a  tele- 
graphic despatch  from  General  Grant,  then  at  Vicks- 
burg,  commanding  the  Department  of  the  Tennessee, 
requiring  me  to  detach  one  of  my  divisions  to  march 
to  Vicksburg,  there  to  embark  for  Memphis,  where  it 
vva--  to  form  a  part  of  an  army  to  be  sent  to  Chatta- 
nooga to  reinforce  General  Rosecrans.  I  designated 
the  First  division,  and  at  4  p.  M.  the  same  day  it 
marched  for  Vicksburg,  and  embarked  the  next 

On  the  23d  of  September,  I  was  summoned  to  Vicks- 
burg by  the  general  comirianding,  who  showed  me 
several  despatches    from  th"    i;e'neral-in-chief,   which 


leii  him  to  suppose  he  would  have  to  send  me  and  my 
whole  corps  to  Memphis  and  eastward,  and  I  was  in- 
structed to  prepare  for  such  orders.  It  was  explained 
to  me  that  in  consequence  of  the  low  stage  of  water  in 
the  Mississippi  boats  had  arrived  irregularly,  and  had 
brought  despatches  that  seemed  to  conflict  in  their 
meaning,  and  that  General  John  E.  Smith's  division 
(of  General  McPherson's  corps)  had  been  ordered 
up  to  Memphis,  and  that  I  should  take  that  divis- 
ion, and  leave  one  of  my  own  in  its  stead  to  hold 
the  line  of  the  Big  Black.  I  detailed  my  Third  division 
(General  Tuttle)  to  remain  and  report  to  Major-Gen- 
eral McPherson,  commanding  the  Seventeenth  corps, 
at  Vicksburg  ;  and  that  of  General  John  E.  Smith, 
already  started  for  Memphis,  was  styled  the  Third 
division,  Fifteenth  corps,  though  it  still  belongs  to  the 
Seventeenth  army  corps.  This  division  is  also  com- 
posed of  three  brigades,  commanded  by  General 
Mathias,  Colonel  J.  B.  Raum  (of  the  Fifty-sixth 
Illinois),  and  Colonel  J.  I.  Alexander  (of  the  Fifty- 
ninth  Indiana). 

A  River  Fleet. 

The  Second  and  Fourth  divisions  were  started  for 
Vicksburg  the  moment  I  was  notified  that  boats  were 
in  readiness,  and  on  the  27th  of  September  I  embarked 
in  person  in  the  steamer  Atlantic  for  Memphis,  fol- 
lowed by  a  fleet  of  boats  conveying  these  two  divisions. 
Our  progress  was  slow,  on  account  of  the  unprece- 
dentedly  low  water  in  the  Mississippi  and  the  scarcity 
of  coal  and  wood.     We  were  compelled  at  places  to 



gather  fence-rails  and  to  land  wagons  and  haul  wood : 
from  the  interior  to  the  boats  ;  but  I  reached  Memphis 
during  the  night  of  the  2d  of  October,  and  the  other 
boats  came  in  on  the  3d  and  4th. 

On  arrival  at  Memphis,  I  saw  General  Hurlbut,  and 
read  all  the  despatches  and  letters  of  instruction  of 
General  Halleck,  and  therein  derived  my  instructions, 
which  I  construed  to  be  as  follows: 

To  conduct  the  Fifteenth  army  corps,  and  all  other 
troops  which  could  be  spared  from  the  line  of  the 
Memphis  and  Charleston  railroad,  to  Athens,  Ala- 
bama, and  thence  report  by  letter  for  orders  to 
General  Rosecrans,  commanding  the  Army  of  the 
Cumberland  at  Chattanooga ;  to  follow  substantially 
the  railroad  eastward,  repairing  it  as  I  moved ;  to  look 
to  my  own  line  for  supplies  ;  and  in  no  event  to  de- 
pend on  General  Rosecrans  for  supplies,  as  the  roads 
to  his  rear  were  already  overtaxed  to  supply  his 
•^resent  army. 

]  learned  from  General  Hurlbut  that  General  Oster- 

•mus's  division  was  already  out  in    front  of  Corinth. 

md  that  General  John  E.  Smith  was  still  at  Memphis, 

noving  his  troops  and  material  by  railroad  as  fast  as 

ts  limited  stock  would   carry   them.     General  J.  D. 

Webster  was  superintendent  of  the  railroad,  and  was 

enjoined  to  work  night  and  day  and  to  expedite  the 

movement  as  rapidly  as  possible  ;  but  the  capacity  of 

the  road  was  so  small  that  I  soon  saw  that  I  could 

move  horses,  mules,  and  wagons  faster  by  land,  and 

therefore  I  despatched  the  artillery  and  wagons  by  the. 


road  under  escort,  and  finally  moved  the  entire  Fourth 
division  by  land. 

Harassed  by  the  Enemy. 

The  enemy  seems  to  have  had  early  notice  of  this 
movement,  and  he  endeavored  to  thwart  us  from  the 
start.  A  considerable  force  assembled  in  a  threaten- 
ing attitude  at  Salem,  south  of  Salisbury  Station,  and 
General  Carr,  who  commanded  at  Corinth,  felt  com- 
pelled to  turn  back  and  use  a  part  of  my  troops,  that 
had  already  reached  Corinth,  to  resist  the  threatened 

On  Sunday,  October  nth,  having  put  in  motion  my 
whole  force,  I  started  myself  for  Corinth,  in  a  special 
train,  with  the  battalion  of  the  Thirteenth  United 
States  regulars  as  escort.  We  reached  Collierville 
Station  about  noon,  just  in  time  to  take  part  in  the 
defence  made  of  that  station  by  Colonel  D.  C.  An- 
thony of  the  Sixty-sixth  Indiana  against  an  attack 
made  by  General  Chalmers  with  a  force  of  about  three 
thousand  cavalry,  with  eight  pieces  of  artillery.  He 
was  beaten  off,  the  damage  to  the  road  repaired,  and 
we  resumed  our  journey  the  next  day,  reaching  Corinth 
at  night. 

I  immediately  ordered  General  Blair  forward  to 
luka  with  the  First  division,  and  as  fast  as  I  eot 
troops  up  pushed  them  forward  of  Bear  Creek,  the 
bridge  of  which  was  completely  destroyed,  and  an 
engineer  regiment,  under  command  of  Colonel  Flad, 
was  engaged  in  its  repairs. 

Quite  a  considerable  force  of  the  enemy  was  assem- 

5tt'2  GENERAL  ^EEMAN. 

bled  in  our  front,  near  Tuscumbia,  to  resist  oui  ad- 
vance. It  was  commanded  by  General  Stephen  D. 
Lee,  and  composed  of  Roddy's  and  Ferguson's 
brigades,  with  irregular  cavalry,  amounting  in  the 
aggregate  to  about  five  thousand. 

In  person  I  moved  from  Corinth  to  Burnsville  on 
the  1 8th,  and  to  luka  on  the  19th  of  October. 

Admiral  Porter. 

Osterhaus's  division  was  in  the  advance,  constantly 
skirmishing  with  the  enemy;  he  was  supported  by 
General  Morgan  L.  Smith's,  both  divisions  under  the 
general  command  of  Major-General  Blair.  General 
John  E.  Smith's  division  covered  the  working-party 
engaged  in   rebuilding  the  railroad. 

Foreseeing  difficulty  in  crossing  the  Tennessee 
River,  I  had  written  to  Admiral  Porter  at  Cairo, 
asking  him  to  watch  the  Tennessee  and  send  up 
some  eunboats  the  moment  the  staore  of  water  ad- 
mitted  ;  and  had  also  requested  General  Allen,  quar- 
termaster at  St.  Louis,  to  despatch  to  Eastport  a 
steam  ferry-boat. 

The  admiral,  ever  prompt  and  ready  to  assist  us, 
had  two  fine  gunboats  at  Eastport,  under  Captain 
Phelps,  the  very  day  after  my  arrival  at  luka ;  and 
Captain  Phelps  had  a  coal-barge  decked  over  with 
which  to  cross  our  horses  and  wagons  before  the 
arrival  of  the  ferry-boat. 

Still  following  literally  the  instructions  of  General 
Halleck,  I  pushed  forward  the  repairs  of  the  railroad, 
and  ordered  General  Blair,  with  the  two  leading  divis- 


tons,  to  drive  the  enemy  beyond  Tuscumbla.  This 
he  did  successfully,  after  a  pretty  severe  fight  at  Cane 
Creek,  occupying  Tuscumbia  on  the  27th  of  October. 
In  the  mean  time  many  important  changes  in  com- 
mand had  occurred,  which  I  must  note  here  to  a 
proper  understanding  of  the  case. 

The  Coniniands  Assig-iiecl. 

General  Grant  had  been  called  from  Vicksburg  and 
sent  to  Chattanooga  to  command  the  military  Division 
of  the  Mississippi,  composed  of  the  three  Depart- 
ments of  the  Ohio,  Cumberland,  and  Tennessee,  and 
the  Department  of  the  Tennessee  had  been  devolved 
on  me,  with  instructions,  however,  to  retain  command 
of  the  army  in  the  field.  At  luka  I  made  what 
appeared  to  me  the  best  disposition  of  matters  relat- 
ing to  the  department,  giving  General  McPherson  full 
powers  in  Mississippi  and  General  Hurlbut  in  West 
Tennessee,  and  assigned  General  Blair  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Fifteenth  army  corps,  and  summoned 
General  Hurlbut  from  Memphis  and  General  Dodge 
from  Corinth,  and  selected  out  of  the  Sixteenth  corps 
a  force  of  about  eight  thousand  men,  which  I  directed 
General  Dodge  to  organize  with  all  expedition,  and 
with  it  to  follow  me  eastward. 

On  the  27th  of  October,  when  General  Blair,  with 
two  divisions,  was  at  Tuscumbia,  I  ordered  General 
Ewing,  with  the  Fourth  division,  to  cross  the  Ten- 
nessee (by  means  of  the  gunboats  and  scow)  as 
rapidly  as  possible  at  Eastport,  and  push  forward  to 
Florence,  which  he  did :  and  the  same  day  a  messen- 


ger  from  General  Grant  floated  down  the  Tennessee 
over  Muscle  Shoals,  landed  at  Tuscumbia,  and  was 
sent  to  me  at  luka.  He  bore  a  short  message  from 
the  general  to  this  effect:  "Drop  all  work  on  the  rail- 
road east  of  Bear  Creek  ;  push  your  command  toward 
Bridgeport  till  you  meet  orders,"  etc. 

Crossing"  the  Tennessee. 

Instantly  the  order  was  executed ;  the  order  of 
march  was  reversed,  and  all  the  columns  were  directed 
to  Eastport,  the  only  place  where  we  could  cross  the 
Tennessee.  At  first  we  only  had  the  gunboats  and 
coal-barge ;  but  the  ferry-boat  and  two  trai\ 'sports 
arrived  on  the  31st  of  October,  and  the  work  of 
crossing  was  pushed  with  all  the  vigor  possible.  In 
person  I  crossed,  and  passed  to  the  head  of  the  column 
at  Florence  on  the  ist  of  November,  leaving  the  rear 
divisions  to  be  conducted  by  General  Blair,  and 
marched  to  Roo^ersville  and  Elk  River.  This  was 
found  impassable.  To  ferry  would  have  consumed 
too  much  time,  and  to  build  a  bridge  still  more ;  so 
there  was  no  alternative  but  to  turn  up  Elk  River  by 
way  of  Gilbertsboro,  Elkton,  etc.,  to  the  stone  bridge 
at  Fayetteville,  where  we  crossed  the  Elk  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Winchester  and  Deckerd. 

At  Fayetteville,  I  received  orders  from  General 
Grant  to  come  to  Bridgeport  with  the  Fifteenth  army 
corps,  and  to  leave  General  Dodge's  command  at 
Pulaski  and  aloncr  the  railroad  from  Columbia  to 
Decatur.  I  instructed  General  Blair  to  follow  with 
the  Second  and  First  divisions  by  way  of  New  Mar- 


ket,  Larkinsville,  and  Bellefonte,  while  I  conducted  the 
'  other  two  divisions  by  way  of  Deckerd ;  the  Fourth 
division  crossing  the  mountain  to  Stevenson,  and  the 
Third  by  University  Place  and  Swedon's  Cove. 
'      In    person    I    proceeded    by   Swedon's    Cove    and 
Battle  Creek,  reaching  Bridgeport  on  the  night  of 
November  13th.     I   immediately  telegraphed  to  the 
^  commanding  general  my  arrival  and  the  positions  of 
j  my  several  divisions,  and  was  summoned  to  Chatta- 
nooga.    I  took  the  first  steamboat  during  the  night 
of  the  14th  for  Kelly's  Ferry,  and  rode  into  Chatta- 
nooga on  the  15th. 

I  The  Arena  of  Conflict. 

^hen  learned  the  part  assigned  me  in  the  coming 
drama,  was  supplied  with  the  necessary  maps  and  in- 
formation, and  rode  during  the  i6th,  in  company  with 
Generals  Grant,  Thomas,  W.  F.  Smith,  Brannan,  and 

■  others,  to  the  positions  occupied  on  the  west  bank  of 
the  Tennessee,  from  which  could  be  seen  the  camps 
of  the  enemy  compassing  Chattanooga  and  the  line 
of  Missionary  Hills,  with  its  terminus  on  Chickamauga 

;  Creek,  the  point  that  I  was  expected  to  take,  hold,  and 
fortify.  Pontoons,  with  a  full  supply  of  balks  and 
chesses,  had  been  prepared  for  the  bridge  over  the 
Tennessee,  and  all  things  had  been  prearranged  with 
a  foresight  that  elicited  my  admiration.  From  the 
hills  we  looked  down  on  the  amphitheatre  of  Chatta- 
nooga as  on  a  map,  and  nothing  remained  but  for  me 
to  put  my  troops  in  the  desired  position.  The  plan 
contemplated  that.  In  addition  to  crossing  the  Ten- 


nessee  River  and  making  a  lodgment  on  the  terminus 
of  Missionary  Ridge,  I  should  demonstrate  against 
Lookout  Mountain  near  Trenton  with  a  part  of  my 

All  in  Chattanooga  were  impatient  for  action,  ren- 
dered almost  acute  by  the  natural  apprehensions  felt 
for  the  safety  of  General  Burnside  in  East  Tennessee. 

My  command  had  marched  from  Memphis,  three 
hundred  and  thirty  miles,  and  I  had  pushed  them  as 
fast  as  the  roads  and  distance  would  admit,  but  I  saw 
enough  of  the  condition  of  men  and  animals  in  Chat- 
tanooga to  inspire  me  with  renewed  energy.  I 
immediately  ordered  my  leading  division  (General 
Er/ing's)  to  march  via  Shellmound  to  Trenton,  dem- 
onstrating against  Lookout  Ridge,  but  to  be  prepared 
to  turn  quickly  and  follow  me  to  Chattanooga; 
and  in  person  I  returned  to  Bridgeport,  rowing  a 
boat  down  the  Tennessee  from  Kelly's  Ferry,  and 
immediately  on  arrival  put  in  motion  my  divisions  in 
the  order  in  which  they  had  arrived. 

Preparing-  for  the  Attack. 

The  bridge  of  boats  at  Bridgeport  was  frail,  and, 
though  used  day  and  night,  our  passage  was  slow, 
and  the  road  thence  to  Chattanooga  was  dreadfully 
:ut  up  and  encumbered  with  the  wagons  of  the  other 
troops  stationed  along  the  road.  I  reached  General 
Hooker's  headquarters  during  a  rain  in  the  after- 
noon of  the  20th,  and  met  General  Grant's  orders  for 
the  general  attack  on  the  next  day.  It  was  simply 
impossible  for  me  to  fulfil  my  part  in  time ;  only  one 


division  (General  John  E.  Smith's)  was  in  position. 
General  Ewing  was  still  at  Trenton,  and  the  other 
two  were  toiling  along;  the  terrible  road  from  Shell- 
mound  to  Chattanooga.  No  troops  ever  were  or 
could  be  in  better  condition  than  mine,  or  who  la- 
bored harder  to  fulfil  their  part.  On  a  proper  rep 
resentation  General  Grant  postponed  the  attack 
On  the  2 1  St  I  got  the  Second  division  over  Brown's 
Ferry  bridge,  and  General  Ewing  got  up  ;  but  the 
bridge  broke  repeatedly,  and  delays  occurred  which 
no  human  sagacity  could  prevent. 

All  labored  night  and  day,  and  General  Ewing  got 
over  on  the  23d,  but  my  rear  division  was  cut  off  by 
the  broken  bridge  at  Brown's  Ferry  and  could  not  join 
me.  I  offered  to  go  into  action  with  my  three  divis- 
ions, supported  by  General  Jeff  C.  Davis,  leaving 
one  of  my  best  divisions  (Osterhaus's)  to  act  with 
General  Hooker  against  Lookout  Mountain.  That 
division  has  not  joined  me  yet,  but  I  know  and  feel  that 
it  has  served  the  country  well,  and  that  it  has  reflected 
honor  on  the  Fifteenth  army  corps  and  the  Army  of 
the  Tennessee.  I  leave  the  record  of  its  history  to 
General  Hooker  or  whomsoever  has  had  its  services 
during  the  late  memorable  events,  confident  that  all 
will  do  it  merited  honor. 

Silent  Movements. 

At  last,  on  the  23d  of  November,  my  three  divis 
ions  lay  behind  the  hills  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Chickamauga.       I    despatched    the    brigade    of    the 
Second   division    commanded    by   General    Giles    A 


Smith,  under  cover  of  the  hills,  to  North  Chicka 
mauga  Creek,  to  man  the  boats  designed  for  the 
pontoon-bridge,  with  orders  (at  midnight)  to  drop 
down  silently  to  a  point  above  the  mouth  of  the 
South  Chickamauga,  there  land  two  regiments,  who 
were  to  move  along  the  river-bank  quietly  and  cap- 
ture the  enemy's  river-pickets. 

General  Giles  A.  Smith  then  was  to  drop  rapidly 
below  the  mouth  of  the  Chickamauga,  disembark  the 
rest  of  his  brigade,  and  despatch  the  boats  across  for 
fresh  loads.  These  orders  were  skilfully  executed,  and 
every  rebel  picket  but  one  was  captured.  The  bal- 
ance of  General  Morgan  L.  Smith's  division  was  tlien 
rapidly  ferried  across  ;  that  of  General  John  E.  Smith 
followed,  and  by  daylight  of  November  24th  two 
divisions  of  about  eight  thousand  men  were  on  the 
east  bank  of  the  Tennessee,  and  had  thrown  up  a 
very  respectable  rifle-trench  as  a  tete-du-pont. 

As  soon  as  the  day  dawned  some  of  the  boats 
were  taken  from  the  use  of  ferrying,  and  a  pontoon- 
bridge  was  begun  under  the  immediate  direction  of 
Captain  Dresser,  the  whole  planned  and  supervised 
by  General  William  F.  Smith  in  person.  A  pontoon= 
bridge  was  also  built  at  the  same  time  over  Chick 
amauga  Creek  near  its  mouth,  giving  communication 
with  the  two  regiments  which  had  been  left  on  the 
north  side,  and  fulfilling  a  most  important  purpose  at 
a  later  stage  of  the  drama.  I  will  here  bear  my  will- 
ing testimony  to  the  completeness  of  this  whole 


AH  the  officers  charged  with  the  work  were  pres- 
ent, and  manifested  a  skill  which  I  cannot  praise  too 
highly.  I  have  never  beheld  any  work  done  so 
quietly,  so  well ;  and  I  doubt  if  the  history  of  war 
can  show  a  bridge  of  that  extent  (viz.  thirteen  hun- 
dred and  fifty  feet)  laid  so  noiselessly  and  well  in  so 
short  a  time.  I  attribute  it  to  the  genius  and  intelli 
gence  of  General  William  F.  Smith.  The  steamer 
Dunbar  arrived  up  in  the  course  of  the  morning,  and 
relieved  Ewing's  division  of  the  labor  of  rowing 
across ;  but  by  noon  the  pontoon-bridge  was  done, 
and  my  three  divisions  were  across,  with  men,  horses, 
artillery,  and  everything. 

The  Columns  Formed. 

General  Jeff.  C.  Davis's  division  was  ready  to  take 
die  bridge,  and  I  ordered  the  columns  to  form  in 
order  to  carry  the  Missionary  Hills.  The  movement 
had  been  carefully  explained  to  all  division  command- 
ers, and  at  one  p.  m.  we  marched  from  the  river  in 
three  columns  in  echelon — the  left,  General  Morgan 
L.  Smith,  the  column  of  direction,  following  substan- 
tially Chickamauga  Creek ;  the  centre.  General  John 
E.  Smith,  in  columns  doubled  on  the  centre,  at  one 
brigade  interval,  to  the  right  and  rear ;  the  righi 
General  Ewing,  in  column  at  the  same  distance  to 
the  right  rear,  prepared  to  deploy  to  the  right,  on  the 
supposition  that  we  would  meet  an  enemy  in  that 
direction.  Each  head  of  column  was  covered  by  a 
good  line  of  skirmishers,  with  supports.  A  light, 
drizzling  rain    prevailed  and   the   clouds    hung    low, 



cloaking  our  movement  from  the  enemy's  tower  of 
observation  on  Lookout  Mountain. 

Pushing  to  the  Top  of  the  Hill. 

We  soon  gained  the  foot-hills ;  our  skirmishers 
crept  up  the  face  of  the  hills,  followed  by  their  sup- 
ports, and  at  3.30  p.  m.  we  had  gained,  with  no  loss» 
the  desired  point.  A  brigade  of  each  division  was 
pushed  rapidly  to  the  top  of  the  hill,  and  the  enemy 
for  the  first  time  seemed  to  realize  the  movement,  but 
too  late,  for  we  were  in  possession.  He  opened  with 
artillery,  but  General  Ewing  soon  got  some  of  Captain 
Richardson's  guns  up  that  steep  hill,  and  gave  back 
artillery,  and  the  enemy's  skirmishers  made  one  or 
two  ineffectual  dashes  at  General  Lightburn,  who  had 
swept  round  and  got  a  farther  hill,  which  was  the  real 
continuation  of  the  ridge. 

From  studying  all  the  maps  I  had  inferred  that 
Missionary  Ridge  was  a  continuous  hill,  but  we  found 
ourselves  on  two  high  points,  with  a  deep  depression 
between  us  and  the  one  immediately  over  the  tunnel, 
which  was  my  chief  objective  point.  The  ground  we 
had  gained,  however,  was  so  important  that  I  could 
leave  nothing  to  chance,  and  ordered  it  to  be  fortified 
during  the  night.  One  brigade  of  each  division  was 
left  on  the  hill,  one  of  General  Morgan  L.  Smith's 
closed  the  gap  to  Chickamauga  Creek,  two  of  Genera! 
John  E.  Smith's  were  drawn  back  to  the  base  in 
reserve,  and  General  Ewing's  right  was  extended 
down  into  the  plain,  thus  crossing  the  ridge  in  a 
general  line,  facing  south-east. 


Th<^  enemy  felt  our  left  flank  about  4  p.  m.»  and  a 
pretty  smart  engagement  with  artillery  and  muskets 
ensued,  when  he  drew  off;  but  it  cost  us  dear,  for 
General  Giles  A.  Smith  was  severely  wounded,  and 
had  to  go  to  the  rear ;  and  the  command  of  the 
brigade  devolved  on  Colonel  Tupper  (One-hundred- 
and-Sixteenth  Illinois),  who  managed  it  with  skill  dur- 
ing the  rest  of  the  operations.  At  the  moment  of  my 
crossing  the  bridge  General  Howard  appeared,  having 
come  with  three  regiments  from  Chattanooga  along 
the  east  bank  of  the  Tennessee,  connecting  my  new 
position  with  that  of  the  main  army  in  Chattanooga. 
He  left  the  three  regiments  attached  temporarily  to 
General  Ewing's  right,  and  returned  to  his  own  corps 
?^  Chattanooga. 

Orders  fo/  **DawD  of  Day." 

As  night  closed  in  I  ordered  General  Jeff.  C. 
l>avis  to  keep  one  c/  hb  brigades  at  the  bridge,  one 
close  up  to  my  position,  and  one  intermediate.  Thus 
we  passed  the  night,  heavy  details  being  kept  busy 
at  work  on  the  increnchments  on  the  hill.  During 
the  night  the  sky  cleared  away  bright,  a  cold  frost 
filled  the  air  and  our  camp-fires  revealed  to  the 
enemy  and  to  our  friends  in  Chattanooga  our  position 
on  Missionary  Ridge.  About  midnight  I  received,  at 
the  hands  of  Major  Rowley  (of  General  Grant's 
staff),  orderhr  to  attack  the  enemy  at  ''dawn  of  day," 
with  notice  that  General  Thomas  would  attack  ii; 
force  early  in  the  day.  Accordingly,  before  day  I  was 
in  the  saddle,  attended  by  all  my  staff;   rode  to  the 


extreme  left  of  our  position  near  Chickamauga  Creek, 
thence  up  the  hill  held  by  General  Lightburn,  and 
round  to  the  extreme  right  of  General  Ewing.  Catch- 
ing as  accurate  an  idea  of  the  ground  as  possible  by 
the  dim  light  of  morning,  I  saw  that  our  line  of 
attack  was  in  the  direction  of  Missionary  Ridge,  with 
wings  supporting  on  either  flank.  Quite  a  valley  lay 
between  us  and  the  next  hill  of  the  series,  and  this  hill 
presented  steep  sides,  the  one  to  the  west  partially 
cleared,  but  the  other  covered  with  the  native  forest. 

The  crest  of  the  ridee  was  narrow  and  wooded      The 

farther  point  of  this  hill  was  held  by  the  enemy  with  a 
breastwork  of  logs  and  fresh  earth,  filled  with  men 
and  two  guns. 

The  Bugle  Sounds  **  Forward !  " 

The  enemy  was  also  seen  in  great  force  on  a  still 
higher  hill  beyond  the  tunnel,  from  which  he  had  a 
fine  plunging  fire  on  the  hill  in  dispute.  The  gorge 
between,  through  which  several  roads  and  the  rail- 
road  tunnel  pass,  could  not  be  seen  from  our  position, 
but  formed  the  Vi^iXwr^X  place  d' amies,  where  the  ene- 
my covered  his  masses  to  resist  our  contemplated 
movement  of  turning  his  right  flank  and  endangerino; 
his  communications  with  his  depot  at  Chickamauga 

As  soon  as  'possible  the  following  dispositions  were 
made :  The  brigrades  of  Colonels  Cockerell  and  Alex- 
ander  and  General  Lio^htburn  were  to  hold  our  hill  as 
the  key-point.  General  Corse,  with  as  much  of  his 
brigade  as  could  operate  along  the  narrow  ridge,  was 


to  attack  from  our  right  centre.  General  Lightburn 
was  to  despatch  a  good  regiment  from  his  position  to 
co-operate  with  General  Corse ;  and  General  Morgan 
L.  Smith  was  to  move  along  the  east  base  of  Mis- 
sionary Ridge,  connecting  with  General  Corse ;  and 
Colonel  Loomis  in  like  manner  to  move  along  the 
'\  est  base,  supported  by  the  two  reserve  brigades  of 
general  John  E.  Smith. 

Furious  Fighting. 

The  sun  had  hardly  risen  before  General  Corse 
had  completed  his  preparations  and  his  bugle  sounded 
the  "  Forward  !  "  The  Fortieth  Illinois,  supported  by 
the  Forty-sixth  Ohio,  on  our  right  centre,  with  the 
Thirtieth  Ohio  (Colonel  Jones),  moved  down  the  face 
of  our  hill  and  up  that  held  by  the  enemy.  The  line 
advanced  to  within  about  eighty  yards  of  the  in- 
trenched position,  where  General  Corse  found  a 
secondary  crest,  which  he  gained  and  held.  To  this 
point  he  called  his  reserves,  and  asked  for  reinforce- 
ments, which  were  sent;  but  the  space  was  narrow, 
and  it  was  not  well  to  crowd  the  men,  as  the  enemy's 
artillery  and  musketry  fire  swept  the  approach  to  his 
position,  giving  him  great  advantage. 

As  soon  as  General  Corse  had  made  his  prepara- 
tions he  assaulted,  and  a  close,  severe  contest  ensued 
which  lasted  more  than  an  hour,  gaining  and  losing 
ground,  but  never  the  position  first  obtained,  from 
which  the  enemy  in  vain  attempted  to  drive  him. 
General  Morgan  L.  Smith  kept  gaining  ground  on 
the   left   spurs    of    Missionary    Ridge,    and    Colonel 


Loomis  got  abreast  of  the  tunnel  and  railroad  em- 
bankment  on  his  side,  drawing  the  enemy's  fire,  and 
to  that  extent  relieving  the  assaulting-party  on  the 
hill-crest.  Captain  Callender  had  four  of  his  guns 
on  General  Ewing's  hill,  and  Captain  Woods  his 
Napoleon  battery  on  General  Lightburn's ;  also,  two 
guns  of  Dillon's  battery  were  with  Colonel  Alexan- 
der's brigade.  All  directed  their  fire  as  carefully  as 
possible  to  clear  the  hill  to  our  front  without  endan- 
gering our  own  men.  The  fight  raged  furiously  about 
lo  A.  M.,  when  General  Corse  received  a  severe 
wound,  was  brought  ofT  the  field,  and  the  command 
of  the  brigade  and  of  the  assault  at  that  key-point 
devolved  on  that  fine  young,  gallant  officer.  Colonel 
Walcutt,  of  the  Forty-sixth  Ohio,  who  fulfilled  his  part 
manfully.  He  continued  the  contest,  pressing  for- 
ward at  all  points.  Colonel  Loomis  had  made  good 
progress  to  the  right,  and  about  2  p.  m.  General  John 
E.  Smith,  judging  the  battle  to  be  most  severe  on  the 
hill,  and  being  required  to  support  General  Ewing, 
ordered  up  Colonel  Raum's  and  General  Mathias's 
brigades  across  the  field  to  the  summit  that  was 
being  fought  for.  They  movea  p  under  a  heavy  fire 
of  cannon  and  musketry,  and  joined  Colonel  Walcutt ; 
but  the  crest  was  so  narrow  that  they  necessarily 
occupied  the  west  face  of  the  hill. 
"It  was  Not  So." 
The  enemy,  at  the  time  being  massed  in  great 
strength  in  the  tunnel  gorge,  moved  a  large  force 
under  cover  of  the  oround  and  the  thick  bushes,  and 


suddenly  appeared  on  the  right  rear  of  this  command. 
The  suddenness  of  the  attack  disconcerted  the  men, 
exposed  as  they  were  in  the  open  field ;  they  fell  back 
in  some  disorder  to  the  lower  edge  of  the  field  and 
re-formed.  These  two  brigades  were  in  the  nature 
of  supports,  and  did  not  constitute  a  part  of  the  real 
attack.  The  movement,  seen  from  Chattanooga  (five 
miles  off)  with  spy-glasses,  gave  rise  to  the  report, 
which  even  General  Meigs  has  repeated,  that  we  were 
repulsed  on  the  left.  It  was  7iot  so.  The  real  attacking 
columns  of  General  Corse,  Colonel  Loomis,  and  Gen- 
eral Smith  were  not  repulsed.  They  engaged  in  a 
close  struggle  all  day  persistently,  stubbornly,  and 
well.  When  the  two  reserve  brigades  of  General 
John  E.  Smith  fell  back  as  described,  the  enemy  made 
a  show  of  pursuit,  but  were  in  their  turn  caught  in 
flank  by  the  well-directed  fire  of  our  brigade  on  the 
wooded  crest,  and  hastily  sought  cover  behind  the 

Thus  matters  stood  about  3  p.  m.  The  day  was 
bright  and  clear,  and  the  amphitheatre  of  Chattanooga 
lay  in  beauty  at  our  feet.  I  had  watched  for  the  attack 
of  General  Thomas  ''  early  in  the  day 

Column  after  column  of  the  enemy  was  streaming 
toward  me ;  gun  after  gun  poured  its  concentric  shot 
on  us  from  every  hill  and  spur  that  gave  a  view  of 
any  part  of  the  ground  held  by  us.  An  occasional 
shot  from  Fort  Wood  and  Orchard  Knob,  and  some 
musketry-fire  and  artillery  over  about  Lookout  Moun- 
tain, was  all  that  I  could  detect  on  our  side;  but  about 


3  P.  M.  I  noticed  the  white  Hne  of  musketry-fire  in 
front  of  Orchard  Knoll,  extending  farther  and  farther 
right  and  left  and  on.  We  could  only  hear  a  faint 
echo  of  sound,  but  enough  was  seen  to  satisfy  me  that 
General  Thomas  was  at  last  moving  on  the  centre.  I 
knew  that  our  attack  had  drawn  vast  masses  of  the 
enemy  to  our  flank,  and  felt  sure  of  the  result.  Some 
guns  which  had  been  firing  on  us  all  day  were  ^lent 
or  were  turned  in  a  different  direction. 

The  Victory  Won. 

The  advancing  line  of  musketry-fire  from  Orchard 
Knoll  disappeared  to  us  behind  a  spur  of  the  hill,  and 
could  no  longer  be  seen  ;  and  it  was  not  until  night 
closed  in  that  I  knew  that  the  troops  in  Chattanooga 
had  swept  across  Missionary  Ridge  and  broken  the 
enemy's  centre.  Of  course  the  victory  was  won,  and 
pursuit  was  the  next  step. 

I  ordered  General  Morcran  L.  Smith  to  feel  to  the 


tunnel,  and  it  was  found  vacant,  save  by  the  dead  and 
wounded  of  our  own  and  the  enemy  commingled. 
The  reserve  of  General  Jeff  C.  Davis  was  ordered  to 
march  at  once  by  the  pontoon-bridge  across  Chicka- 
mauga  Creek  at  its  mouth  and  push  forward  for  the 

General  Howard  had  reported  to  me  in  the  early 
part  of  the  day  with  the  remainder  of  his  army  corps 
(the  Eleventh),  and  had  been  posted  to  connect  my 
left  with  Chickamauo^a  Creek.  He  was  ordered  to 
repair  an  old  broken  bridge  about  two  miles  up  the 
Chickamauga,  and  to  follow  General  Davis  at  4  a.  m., 


and  the  Fifteenth  army  corps  was  ordered  to  follow 
at  daylight.  But  General  Howard  found  that  to  repair 
the  bridge  was  more  of  a  task  than  was  at  first  sup- 
posed, and  we  were  all  compelled  to  cross  the  Chicka- 
mauga  on  the  new  pontoon-bridge  at  its  mouth. 

By  about  1 1  a.  m.  General  Jeff.  C.  Davis's  division 
reached  the  depot  just  in  time  to  see  it  in  flames.  He 
found  the  enemy  occupying  two  hills,  partially  in- 
trenched, just  beyond  the  depot.  These  he  soon 
drove  away.  The  depot  presented  a  scene  of  deso- 
lation that  war  alone  exhibits — corn-meal  and  corn  in 
huge  burning  piles,  broken  wagons,  abandoned  cais- 
sons, two  thirty-pounder  rifled  guns  with  carriages 
burned,  pieces  of  pontoons,  balks  and  chesses,  etc., 
destined  doubtless  for  the  famous  invasion  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  all  manner  of  things  burning  and  broken. 
Still,  the  enemy  kindly  left  us  a  good  supply  of  forage 
for  our  horses,  and  meal,  beans,  etc.  for  our  men. 

Hot  Pursuit. 

Pausing  but  a  short  while,  we  passed  on,  the  road 
filled  with  broken  wagons  and  abandoned  caissons, 
till  night.  Just  as  the  head  of  the  column  emerged 
from  a  dark,  miry  swamp  we  encountered  the  rear- 
guard of  the  retreating  enemy.  The  fight  was  sharp, 
but  the  night  closed  in  so  dark  that  we  could  not 
move.  General  Grant  came  up  to  us  there-  At  day- 
light we  resumed  the  march,  and  at  GraysviUe,  where 
a  good  bridge  spanned  the  Chickamauga,  we  found 
the  corps  of  General  Palmer  on  the  south  bank,  who 
informed  us  that  General  Hooker  was  on  a  road  still 


farther  south,  and  we  could  hear  his  guns  near  Ring- 

As  the  roads  were  iVlled  with  all  the  troops  they 
could  possibly  accommodate,  1  turned  to  the  east,  to 
fulfil  another  part  of  the  general  plan — viz.  to  break 
up  all  communication  between  Bragg  and  Longstreet 

We  had  all  sorts  of  rumors  as  to  the  latter,  but  it 
was  manifest  that  we  should  interpose  a  proper  force 
between  these  two  armies.  I  therefore  directed  Gen- 
eral Howard  to  move  to  Parker's  Gap,  and  thence 
send  rapidly  a  competent  force  to  Red  Clay,  or  the 
Council-Ground,  there  to  destroy  a  large  section  of 
the  railroad  which  connects  Dalton  and  Cleveland. 
This  work  was  most  successfully  and  fully  accomplished 
that  day.  The  division  of  General  Jeff.  C.  Davis  was 
moved  close  up  to  Ringgold  to  assist  General  Hooker 
if  needed,  and  the  Fifteenth  corps  was  held  at  Grays- 
ville  for  anything  that  might  turn  up. 
Tennessee  Redeemed. 

About  noon  I  had  a  message  from  General  Hooker, 
saying  he  had  had  a  pretty  hard  fight  at  the  mountain- 
pass  just  beyond  Ringgold,  and  he  wanted  me  to 
come  forward  to  turn  the  position.  He  was  not 
aware  at  the  time  that  Howard  by  moving  through 
Parker's  Gap  toward  Red  Clay,  Lad  already  turned 
it.  So  I  rode  forward  to  Ringgold  in  person,  and 
found  the  enemy  had  already  fallen  back  to  Tunnel 
Hill.  He  was  already  out  of  the  valley  of  the  Chicka- 
mauga,  and  on  ground  whence  the  waters  flow  to  the 
Coosa.     He  was  out  of  Tennessee. 


I  found  General  Grant  at  Ringgold,  and,  after  some 
explanations  as  to  breaKing  up  the  railroad  from 
Rino-aold  back  to  the  State  line  as  soon  as  some 
carj  loaded  with  wounded  men  could  be  pushed 
back  to  Chickamauga  depot,  I  was  ordered  to  move 
slowly  and  leisurely  back  to  Chattanooga. 

On  the  following  day  the  Fifteenth  corps  destroyed 
absolutely  and  effectually  the  railroad  from  a  point 
halfway  between  Ringgold  and  Graysville  back  to  the 
State  line ;  and  General  Grant,  coming  to  Graysville, 
consented  that,  instead  of  returning  direct  to  Chatta- 
nooga, I  might  send  back  all  my  artillery-wagons  and 
impediments  and  make  a  circuit  by  the  north  as  far 
as  the  Hiawassee  River. 

On  the  March  to  Knoxville. 

Accordingly,  on  the  morning  of  November  29th, 
General  Howard  moved  from  Parker's  Gap  to  Cleve- 
land, General  Davis  by  way  of  McDaniel's  Gap,  and 
General  Blair,  with  two  divisions  of  the  Fifteenth 
corps,  by  way  of  Julien's  Gap,  all  meeting  at  Cleve- 
land that  night.  Here  another  good  break  was  made 
in  the  Dalton  and  Cleveland  road.  On  the  30th  the 
army  moved  to  Charleston,  General  Howard  approach- 
ing so  rapidly  that  the  enemy  evacuated  with  haste. 
leaving  the  bridge  but  partially  damaged,  and  five 
car-loads  of  flour  and  provisions  on  the  north  bank 
of  the  Hiawassee. 

This  was  to  have  been  the  limit  of  our  operations. 
Officers  and  men  had  brought  no  baggage  or  pro- 
visions and  the  weather  was  bitter  cold.     I  had  al- 


ready  reached  the  town  of  Charleston,  when  General 
Wilson  arrived  with  a  letter  from  General  Grant  at 
Chattanooga  informing-  me  that  the  latest  authentic 
accounts  from  Knoxville  were  to  the  27th,  at  which 
time  General  Burnside  was  completely  invested,  and 
had  provisions  only  to  include  the  3d  of  December; 
that  General  Granger  had  left  Chattanooga  for  Knox- 
ville by  the  river-road,  with  a  steamboat  following 
him  in  the  river ;  but  he  feared  that  General  Granger 
could  not  reach  Knoxville  in  time,  and  ordered  me  to 
take  command  of  all  troops  moving  for  the  relief  of 
Knoxville  and  hasten  to  General  Burnside.  Seven 
days  before  we  had  left  our  camps  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Tennessee  with  two  days'  rations,  without  a 
change  of  clothing — stripped  for  the  fight,  with  but  a 
single  blanket  or  coat  per  man,  from  myself  to  the 
private  included. 

Of  course,  we  then  had  no  provisions  save  what 
we  gathered  by  the  road,  and  were  ill  supplied  for 
such  a  march.  But  we  learned  that  twelve  thousand 
of  our  fellow-soldiers  were  beleaguered  in  the  moun- 
tain-town of  Knoxville,  eighty-four  miles  distant — that 
they  needed  relief,  and  must  have  it  in  three  days. 
This  was  enough,  and  it  had  to  be  done.  General 
Howard  that  night  repaired  and  planked  the  railroad- 
bridge,  and  at  daylight  the  army  passed  over  the 
Hiawassee  and  marched  to  Athens,  fifteen  miles. 
I  had  supposed  rightly  that  General  Granger  was 
about  the  mouth  of  the  Hiawassee,  and  had  sent  him 
notice  of  my  orders — that  General  Grant  had  sent  me 


a  copy  of  his  written  instructions,  which  were  full  and 
complete,  and  that  he  must  push  for  Kingstor,,  near 
which  we  would  make  a  junction. 

Swift  Cavalry  Movements. 

But  by  the  time  I  reached  Athens  I  had  better 
studied  the  geography,  and  sent  him  orders,  which 
found  him  at  Decatur,  that  Kingston  was  out  of  our 
way,  that  he  should  send  his  boat  to  Kingston,  but 
with  his  command  strike  across  to  Philadelphia,  and 
report  to  me  there.  I  had  but  a  small  force  of 
cavalry,  which  was,  at  the  time  of  my  receipt  of 
General  Grant's  orders,  scouting  over  about  Benton 
and  Columbus.  I  left  my  aide,  Major  McCoy,  at 
Charleston,  to  communicate  with  this  cavalry  and 
hurry  it  forward.  It  overtook  me  in  the  night  at 

On   the  2d  of  December  the  army  moved  rapidly 

'  north  toward  Loudon,  twenty-six  miles  distant.    About 

II  A.  M.  the  cavalry  passed  to  the  head  of  the  column, 

was  ordered  to  push  to  Loudon,  and,  if  possible,  to 

save   a   pontoon-bridge    across    the   Tennessee    held 

by  a  brigade  of  the  enemy  commanded  by  General 

Vaughn.    The  cavalry  moved  with  such  rapidity  as  to 

capture  every  picket ;  but  the  brigade  of  Vaughn  had 

'i\    artillery  in  position,  covered  by  earthworks,  and  dis 

played  a   force   too   respectable   to   be  carried   by  a 

cavalry  dash,  so  that  darkness  closed  in  before  Gen- 

;    eral    Howard's   infantry  got   up.     The    enemy  aban- 

I   doned  the  place  in  the  night,  destroying  the  pontoons, 

>|  'running  three  locomotives  and  forty-eight  cars  into 


the  Tennessee  River,  and  abandoned  much  provision, 
four  guns,  and  other  material,  which  General  Howard 
took  at  daylight.  But  the  bridge  was  gone,  and  we 
were  forced  to  turn  east  and  trust  to  General  Burn- 
side's  bridge  at  Knoxville.  It  was  all-important  that 
General  Burnside  should  have  notice  of  our  coming, 
and  but  one  day  of  the  time  remained, 

Surmounting  Obstacles. 

Accordingly,  at  Philadelphia,  during  the  night  of 
the  2d  of  December,  I  sent  my  aide  (Major  Auden- 
ried)  forward  to  Colonel  Long,  commanding  the 
brigade  of  cavalry  at  Loudon,  to  explain  to  him  how 
all-important  it  was  that  notice  of  our  approach  should 
reach  General  Burnside  within  twenty-four  hours, 
ordering  him  to  select  the  best  materials  of  his  com- 
mand, to  start  at  once,  ford  the  Litde  Tennessee,  anc' 
push  into  Knoxville  at  whatever  cost  of  life  ani 
horse-fiesh.  Major  Audenried  was  ordered  to  gd 
along.  The  distance  to  be  tiavelled  was  about  forty 
miles  and  the  roads  villainous.  Before  day  they  were 
off,  and  at  daylight  the  Fifteenth  corps  was  turned 
from  Philadelphia  for  the  Little  Tennessee  at  Morgan- 
town,  where  my  maps  represented  the  river  as  being 
very  shallow  ;  but  it  was  found  too -deep  for  fording, 
and  the  water  was  freezing  cold — width  two  hundred 
and  forty  yards,  depth  from  two  to  five  feet ;  horses 
could  ford,  but  artillery  and  men  could  not.  A  bridge 
was  indispensable.  General  Wilson  (who  accom- 
panied me)  undertook  to  superintend  the  bridge,  and 
I  am  under  many  obligations  to  him,  as  I  was  withr*>* 


an  engineer,  having  sent  Captain  Jenney  back  from 
Graysville  to  survey  our  field  of  battle.  We  had  our 
pioneers,  but  only  such  tools  as  axes,  picks,  and 

Needless  Haste. 

General  Wilson,  v^orking  partly  with  cut  wood  and 
partly  with  square  trestles  (made  of  the  houses  of  the 
late  town  of  Morgantown),  progressed  apace,  and  by 
dark  of  December  4th  troops  and  animals  passed 
over  the  bridge,  and  by  daybreak  of  the  5th  the  Fif- 
teenth corps  (General  Blair's)  was  over,  and  Gen- 
erals Granger  s  and  Davis's  divisions  were  ready  to 
j  pass  ;  but  the  diagonal  bracing  was  imperfect  for  want 
of  spikes,  and  the  bridge  broke,  causing  delay.  I 
had  ordered  General  Blair  to  move  out  on  the  Marys- 
ville  road  five  miles,  there  to  await  notice  that  Gen- 
era' Granger  was  on  a  parallel  road  abreast  of  him, 
and  in  person  I  was  at  a  house  where  the  roads 
parted,  when  a  messenger  rode  up,  bringing  me  a 
few  words  from  General  Burnside  to  the  effect  that 
Colonel  Long  had  arrived  at  Knoxville  with  his  cav- 
alry, and  that  all  was  well  with  him  there  ;  Longstreet 
still  lay  before  the  place,  but  there  were  symptoms 
of  his  speedy  departure. 

I  felt  that  I  had  accomplished  the  first  great  step  in 
the  problem  for  the  relief  of  General  Burnside's 
army,  but  still  urged  on  the  work.  As  soon  as  the 
bridge  was  mended  all  the  troops  moved  forward. 
General  Howard  had  marched  from  Loudon,  had 
found  a  pretty  good  ford  for  his  horses  and  wagers 


at  Davis's,  seven  miles  below  Morgantown,  and  had 
made  an  ingenious  bridge  of  the  wagons  left  by  Gen- 
eral Vaughn  at  Loudon  on  which  to  pass  his  men. 
He  marched  by  Unitia  and  Louisville. 

"  The  Deadly  Bullet." 

On  the  night  of  the  5th  all  the  heads  of  columns 
communicated  at  Marysville,  where  I  met  Major  Van 
Buren  (of  General  Burnside's  staff),  who  announced 
that  Longstreet  had  the  night  before  retreated  on 
the  Rutledge,  Rogersville,  and  Bristol  road,  leading 
to  Virginia;  that  General  Burnside's  cavalry  was  on 
his  heels ;  and  that  the  general  desired  to  see  me  in 
person  as  soon  as  I  could  come  to  Knoxville.  I  or- 
dered all  the  troops  to  halt  and  rest,  except  the  two 
divisions  of  General  Granger,  which  were  ordered  to 
move  forward  to  Litde  River,  and  General  Granger 
to  report  in  person  to  General  Burnside  for  orders. 
His  was  the  force  originally  designed  to  reinforce 
General  Burnside,  and  it  was  eminently  proper  that 
it  should  join  in  the  stern-chase  after  Longstreet. 

On  the  morning  of  December  6, 1  rode  from  Marys- 
ville into  Knoxville,  and  met  General  Burnside.  Gen- 
eral Granger  arrived  later  in  the  day.  We  examined 
his  lines  of  fortifications,  which  were  a  wonderful 
production  for  the  short  time  allowed  in  their  selec- 
tion of  ground  and  construction  of  work.  It  seemed 
to  me  that  they  were  nearly  impregnable.  We  exam- 
ined the  redoubt  named  "  Sanders,"  where  on  the 
Sunday  previous  three  brigades  of  the  enemy  had 
assaulted  and  met  a  bloody  repulse.     Now,  all  was 


peaceful  and  quiet ;  but  a  few  hours  before  the 
deadly  bullet  sought  its  victim  all  around  about  that 
hilly  barrier. 

Burnside's  Statement. 
The  general  explained  to  me  fully  and  frankly 
what  he  had  done  and  what  he  proposed  to  do.  He 
asked  of  me  nothing  but  General  Granger's  command, 
and  suggested,  in  view  of  the  large  force  I  had 
brought  from  Chattanooga,  that  I  should  return  with 
due  expedition  to  the  line  of  the  Hiawassee,  lest 
Bragg,  reinforced,  might  take  advantage  of  our  ab- 
I  sence  to  resume  the  offensive.  I  asked  him  to  reduce 
this  to  writing,  which  he  did,  and  I  here  introduce  V 
as  part  of  my  report : 

Headquarters  Army  of  the  Ohio,  > 
Knoxville,  December  7,  1863.        J 

Major-  General  W.  T.  Sherman,  commanding,  etc.  : 

General:  I  desire    to    express   to  you   and  your 

command  my  most  hearty  thanks  and  gratitude  fo| 

[I    your  promptness  in  coming  to  our  relief  during  the 

siege  of  Knoxville,  and  I  am  satisfied  your  approach 

served  to  raise  the  siege.     The    emergency    having 

I    passed,  I  do  not  deem,  for  the  present,  any  other  por- 

tj    tion    of  your    command    but   the   corps    of  General 

Granger   necessary   for  operations    in    this    section  \ 

and,  inasmuch  as  General  Grant  has   weakened  the 

forces  immediately  with  him   in  order  to   relieve  us 

(thereby  rendering  the  position  of  General  Thomas 

less  secure).  I  deem  it  advisable  that  all  the  troops 



now  here,  save  those  commanded  by  General 
Granger,  should  return  at  once  to  within  supporting 
distance  of  the  forces  in  front  of  Bragg's  army.  In 
behalf  of  my  command  I  desire  again  to  thank  you 
and  your  command  for  the  kindness  you  have 
done  us. 

I  am,  general,  very  respectfully. 

Your  obedient  servant, 


Major-  General  commanding. 

Accordingly,  having  seen  General  Burnside's  forces 
move  out  of  Knoxville  in  pursuit  of  Longtreet  and 
General  Granger's  move  in,  I  put  in  motion  my  own 
command  to  return.  General  Howard  was  ordered 
to  move,  via  Davis's  Ford  and  Sweetwater,  to  Athens, 
with  a  guard  forward  at  Charleston  to  hold  and 
repair  the  bridge,  which  the  enemy  had  retaken  after 
our  passage  up.  General  Jeff  C.  Davis  moved  to 
Columbus,  on  the  Hiawassee,  via  Madisonville,  and 
the  two  divisions  of  the  Fifteenth  corps  moved  to 
Tellico  Plains,  to  cover  a  movement  of  cavalry  across 
the  mountains  into  Georgia  to  overtake  a  wagon- 
train  which  had  dodged  us  on  our  way  up,  and  had 
escaped  by  way  of  Murphy. 

Return  to  Chattanoog-a. 

Subsequently,  on  a  report  from  General  Howard 
that  the  enemy  held  Charleston,  I  diverted  General 
Ewing's  division  to  Athens,  and  went  in  person  to 
Tellico  with  General  Morjjan  L.  Smithes  division.    By 


the  9th  all  our  troops  were  in  position^  and  we  held 
the  rich  country  between  the  Little  Tenivtissee  and  the 
Hiawassee.  The  cavalry,  under  Colonel  Long,  passed 
the  mountain  at  Tellico,  and  preceded  about  seven- 
teen miles  beyond  Murphy,  when  Colonel  Long", 
deeming  his  further  pursuit  of  the  wagon-train  use- 
less, returned  on  the  12th  to  Tellico.  I  then  ordered 
him  and  the  division  of  General  Morgan  L.  Smith  to 
move  to  Charleston,  to  which  point  I  had  previously 
ordered  the  corps  of  General  Howard. 

Conferring-  with  Grant. 

On  the  14th  of  December  ail  of  my  command  in 
the  field  lay  along  the  Hiawassee.  Having  communi- 
cated to  General  Grant  the  actual  state  of  affairs,  I 
received  orders  to  leave  on  the  line  of  the  Hiawassee 
all  the  cavalry,  and  come  to  Chattanooga  with  the  rest 
of  my  command.  I  left  the  brigade  of  cavalry  com- 
manded by  Colonel  Long,  reinforced  by  the  Fifth  Ohio 
Cavalry  (Lieutenant-Colonel  Heath) — the  only  cavalry 
properly  belonging  to  the  Fifteenth  army  corps — at 
Charleston,  and  with  the  remainder  moved  by  easy 
marches,  by  Cleveland  and  Tyner's  Depot,  into  Chat- 
tanooga, where  I  received  in  person  from  General 
Grant  orders  to  transfer  back  to  their  appropriate 
commands  the  corps  of  General  Howard  and  the 
division  commanded  by  General  JefT.  C.  Davis,  and  to 
conduct  the  Fifteenth  army  corps  to  its  new  field  oi 

It  will  thus  appear  that  we  have  been  constantly  in 
motion  since  our  departure   from   the   Big  Black  in 


Mississippi  until  the  present  moment.  I  have  been 
unable  to  receive  from  subordinate  commanders  the 
usual  full,  detailed  reports  of  events,  and  have,  there- 
fore, been  compelled  to  make  up  this  report  from  my 
own  personal  memory ;  but  as  soon  as  possible  sub- 
ordinate reports  will  be  received  and  duly  forwarded. 
In  reviewing  the  facts  I  must  do  justice  to  the  men 
of  my  command  for  the  patience,  cheerfulness,  and 
courage  which  officers  and  men  have  displayed 
throughout  in  battle,  on  the  march,  and  in  camp 
For  long  periods  without  regular  rations  or  supplies 
of  any  kind,  they  have  marched  through  mud  and 
>ver  rocks,  sometimes  barefooted,  without  a  murmur. 

Courag-e  even  to  Rashness. 

Without  a  moment's  rest  after  a  march  of  over  four 
hundred  miles,  without  sleep  for  three  successive 
nights,  we  crossed  the  Tennessee,  fought  our  part  of 
the  battle  of  Chattanooga,  pursued  the  enemy  out  of 
Tennessee,  and  then  turned  more  than  a  hundred  and 
twenty  miles  north  and  compelled  Longstreet  to  raise 
the  siege  of  Knoxville,  which  gave  so  much  anxiety 
to  the  whole  country.  It  is  hard  to  realize  the  im- 
portance of  these  events  without  recalling  the  memory 
of  the  general  feeling  which  pervaded  all  minds  at 
Chattanooga  pnor  to  our  arrival.  I  cannot  speak  of 
the  Fifteenth  r.rmy  corps  without  a  seeming  vanity; 
but,  ?..s  I  am  no  longer  its  commander,  I  assert  that 
there  is  no  p'Jtter  body  of  soldiers  in  America  than 
that.     I  v;iF>  all  to  feel  a  just  pride  in  its  real  honors. 

To  <^enr'ial  Howard  and  his  command,  to  General 



JefF.  C.  Davis  and  his,  I  am  more  than  usually  Indebted 
for  the  intelligence  of  commanders  and  fidelity  of 
commands.  The  brigade  of  Colonel  Bushbeck,  be- 
lono-Ing  to  the  Eleventh  corps,  which  was  the  first  to 
come  out  of  Chattanooga  to  my  flank,  fought  at  the 
Tunnel  Hill,  in  connection  with  General  Ewing's  divis- 
ion, and  displayed  a  courage  almost  amounting  to 
rashness.  Following  the  enemy  almost  to  the  tunnel- 
gorge,  it  lost  many  valuable  lives,  prominent  among 
them  Lieutenant-Colonel  Taft,  spoken  of  as  a  most 
gallant  soldier. 

In  General  Howard  throughout  I  found  a  polished 
and  Christian  gentleman,  exhibiting  the  highest  and 
most  chivalric  traits  of  the  soldier.  General  Davis 
handled  his  division  with  artistic  skill,  more  especially' 
at  the  moment  we  encountered  the  enemy's  rear-guard 
near  Graysville  at  nightfall.  I  must  award  to  this 
division  the  credit  of  the  best  order  during  our  move- 
ment through  East  Tennessee,  when  long  marches  and 
the  necessity  of  foraging  to  the  right  and  left  gave 
some  reason  for  disordered  ranks. 

The  Test  of  Fire. 

Inasmuch  as  exception  may  be  taken  to  my  expla- 
nation of  the  temporary  confusion  during  the  battle 
of  Chattanooga  of  the  two  brigades  of  General  Ma- 
thias  and  Colonel  Raum,  I  will  here  state  that  I  saw 
the  whole  and  attach  no  blame  to  any  one.  Accidents 
will  happen  in  battle,  as  elsewhere ;  and  at  the  point 
where  they  so  manfully  went  to  relieve  the  pressure 
on  other  parts  of  our  assaulting  line,  they  exposed 


themselves  unconsciously  to  an  enemy  vastly  superior 
in  force  and  favored  by  the  shape  of  the  ground. 
Had  that  enemy  come  out  on  equal  terms,  those 
brigades  would  have  shown  their  mettle,  which  had 
been  tried  more  than  once  before  and  stood  the  test 
of  fire.  They  re-formed  their  ranks  and  were  ready 
to  support  General  Ewing's  division  in  a  very  few 
minutes ;  and  the  circumstance  would  have  hardly 
called  for  notice  on  my  part  had  not  others  reported 
what  was  seen  from  Chattanooga,  a  distance  of  nearly 
five  miles,  from  where  could  only  be  seen  the  troops 
in  the  open  field  in  which  this  affair  occurred. 

I  now  subjoin  the  best  report  of  casualties  I  am 
able  to  compile  from  the  records  thus  far  received, 
which  makes  our  total  loss  1949. 

Among  the  killed  were  some  of  our  most  valuable 
officers :  Colonels  Putnam,  Ninety-third  Illinois  ; 
O'Meara,  Ninetieth  Illinois;  and  Torrence,  Thirtieth 
Iowa  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Taft  of  the  Eleventh  corps, 
and  Major  Bushnell,  Thirteenth  Illinois. 

Amone  the  wounded  are  Brioradier-Generals  Giles 
A.  Corse  and  Mathias ;  Colonel  Raum ;  Colonel 
Waugelin,  Twelfth  Missouri;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Par- 
tridge, Thirteenth  Illinois ;  Major  P.  I.  Welsh,  Fifty- 
sixth  Illinois  ;  and  Major  Nathan  McAlla,  Tenth  Iowa. 

Amone  the  missinor  is  Lieutenant-Colonel  Archer, 
Seventeenth  Iowa. 

My  report  is  already  so  long  that  I  must  forbear 
mentioning  acts  of  individual  merit.  These  will  be 
recorded  in  the  reports  of  division  commanders,  which 


I  will  cheerfully  indorse  ;  but  I  must  say  that  it  is  but 
justice  that  colonels  of  regiments,  who  have  so  long 
and  so  well  commanded  brigades,  as  in  the  following 
cases,  should  be  commissioned  to  the  grade  which 
they  have  filled  with  so  much  usefulness  and  credit  to 
the  public  service  :  Colonel  J.  R.  Cockerell,  Seven- 
tieth Ohio ;  Colonel  J.  M.  Loomis,  Twenty-sixth 
Illinois ;  Colonel  C.  C.  Walcutt,  Forty-sixth  Ohio ; 
Colonel  J.  A.  Williamson,  Fourth  Iowa;  Colonel  G. 
B.  Raum,  Fifty-sixth  Illinois  ;  Colonel  J.  I.  Alexander, 
Fifty-ninth  Indiana. 

My  personal  staff,  as  usual,  have  served  their 
country  with  fidelity  and  credit  to  themselves  through- 
out these  events,  and  have  received  my  personal 

Inclosed  you  will  please  find  a  map  of  that  part  of 
the  battle-field  of  Chattanooga  fought  over  by  the 
troops  under  my  command,  surveyed  and  drawn  by 
Captain  Jenney,  engineer  on  my  staff  I  have  the 
honor  to  be,  your  obedient  servant, 

W.  T.  Sherman,  Major- General  commanding, 

[General  Order  No.  68.] 

War  Department,  Adjutant-General's  Office, 
Washington,  February  21,  1864. 

Public  Resolution — No.   i: 

Joint  Resolutio7i  tendering  the  thaiiks  of  Congress  to 
Major -General   IV.    T.  Sherman  and  others. 

Be  it  resolved  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representa- 
tives of  the  United  States  of  America  i7i  Congress  as- 


sembled,  That  the  thanks  of  Congress  and  of  the 
people  of  the  United  States  are  due,  and  that  the  same 
are  hereby  tendered,  to  Major-General  W.  T.  Sher- 
man, commander  of  the  Department  and  Army  of  the 
Tennessee,  and  the  officers  and  soldiers  who  served 
under  him,  for  their  gallant  and  arduous  services  in 
marching  to  the  relief  of  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland, 
and  for  their  gallantry  and  heroism  in  the  battle  of 
Chattanooga,  which  contributed  in  a  great  degree  ta 
the  success  of  our  armies  in  that  glorious  victory. 
Approved  February  19,  1864. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 
E.  D.  TowNSEND,  Assistant  Adjutant-  General, 


The  Great  Atlanta  Campaign.  -^Grand  Forward 

General  Grant  in  an  open  letter  to  General 
Sherman,  March  2,  1864,  acknowledged  his  gratitude 
for  the  co-operation  and  skill  which  had  so  largely 
contributed  to  his  own  success.  Congress  also  ten- 
dered its  thanks  for  his  services  in  the  Chattanooga 
campaign.  When  Grant  was  made  lieutenant-general 
he  assigned  Sherman  to  the  command  of  the  military 
Division  of  the  Mississippi,  including  the  Departments 
of  the  Ohio,  the  Tennessee,  the  Cumberland,  and  the 
Arkansas,  with  temporary  headquarters  at  Nashville. 
Sherman  assumed  command  March  25. 

Two  weeks  later  he  received  instructions  for  his 
movements  against  Atlanta.  Then  began  the  great 
campaign — the  march  to  the  sea — which  stands  in 
many  respects  unrivalled  in  military  history.  The 
story  still  lives,  and  will  ever  live  in  the  memory  of 
all  men. 

The  great  campaign  in  Georgia  was  undertaken 
without  specific  orders.  There  was  opposed  to  Sher- 
man, Joe  Johnston's  army,  numbering  sixty-two  thou- 
sand men.  Grant's  instructions  to  Sherman,  given 
April  4,  1864,  embraced  only  these  few  words: 

"  You  I  propose  to  move  against  Johnston's  army, 



to  break  it  up,  and  to  get  Into  the  interior  of  the 
enemy's  country  as  far  as  you  can,  Inflicting  all  the 
damage  you  can  against  their  war-resources.  I  do 
not  propose  to  lay  down  for  you  a  plan  of  campaign, 
but  simply  to  lay  down  the  work  it  is  desirable  to 
have  done,  and  leave  you  free  to  execute  it  in  your 
own  way.  Submit  to  me,  however,  as  early  as  you 
can,  your  plan  of  operations." 

The  task  assigned  Sherman  was  a  part  of  Grant's 
great  plan  of  campaign  for  1864.  Banks,  then  at 
New  Orleans,  was  to  move  on  Mobile,  Sherman  was 
to  strike  the  enemy  near  the  heart  of  the  Confed- 
eracy, while  Grant  was  to  engage  Lee  in  Virginia. 
Each  of  the  three  commanders  aimed  to  act  so  vigor- 
ously on  the  offensive  that  It  would  be  impossible 
for  the  enemy  to  concentrate  his  forces  against  either. 

Pusliing-  Johnston, 

Neither  Atlanta  nor  Augusta  nor  Savannah  was 
the  objective  of  Sherman's  army,  but  the  army  of 
Joe  Johnston,  go  where  it  might.  Some  words  from 
Sherman's  loyal  response  to  his  superior  are  worth 

*'That  we  are  now  all  to  act  upon  a  common  plan, 
converging  on  a  common  centre,  looks  like  enlight- 
ened war.  Like  yourself,  you  take  the  biggest  load, 
and  from  me  you  shall  have  thorough  and  hearty 
co-operation.  1  will  not  let  side  issues  draw  me  off 
from  your  main  plans,  in  which  I  am  to  knock  Joseph 
Johnston  and  to  do  as  much  damage  to  the  resources 
)f  the  enemy  as  possible If  Banks  can  at  the 


same  time  carry  Mobile  and  open  up  the  Alabama 
River,  he  will  in  a  measure  solve  the  most  difficult 
part  of  my  problem — viz.  '  provisions.'  But  in  that 
I  must  venture.  Georgia  has  a  million  of  inhabitants. 
If  they  can  live,  we  should  not  starve.  If  the  enemy 
interrupt  our  communications,  I  will  be  absolved  from 
all  oblio^ations  to  subsist  on  our  own  resources,  and 
will  feel  perfectly  justified  in  taking  whatever  and 
wherever  we  can  find.  I  will  inspire  my  command,  if 
successful,  with  the  feeling  that  beef  and  salt  are  all 
that  is  absolutely  necessary  to  life,  and  that  parched 
corn  once  fed  General  Jackson's  ^rmy  on  that  very 

Atlanta  Threatened. 

Never  did  an  army  start  upon  a  great  Invasion  with 
less  impedimenta.  Tents  there  were  none,  even  for 
the  officers,  and  absolutely  nothing  was  carried  except 
food,  clothing,  arms,  and  ammunition.  The  advance 
began  on  May  5th,  and  the  enemy  was  first  encoun> 
tered  at  Dalton,  strongly  intrenched.  McPherson's 
troops  flanked  them  by  a  sudden  surprise  and  threat- 
ened their  communications.  Johnston  abandoned 
Dalton  and  fell  steadily  back,  fighting  several  quite 
serious  engagements  as  he  withdrew.  Sherman's 
superior  force  of  ninety-nine  thousand  men  and  two 
hundred  and  fifty-four  guns  could  not  be  safely  en- 
gaged in  a  general  battle  except  under  strong  advan- 
tages of  position  and  defences. 

Sherman,  in  thus  compelling  Johnston  to  evacuate 
a  position  of  such  extraordinary  strength  as  that  of 


Dalton,  demonstrated  his  ability  to  make  his  way  to 
Atlanta,  between  which  and  Dalton  no  position  was 
likely  to  be  held  by  the  Confederates  which  might  not 
be  as  easily  turned. 

On  the  morningr  of  the  14th  the  Confederates 
were  in  complete  readiness  to  receive  an  attack,  hav- 
ing spent  the  previous  night  in  strengthening  their 
already  formidable  earthworks.  General  Hardee 
held  their  right,  General  Hood  their  centre,  and 
General  Polk  their  left.  At  an  early  hour  skirmish- 
ing commenced.  A  body  of  infantry  with  cavalry 
was  sent  across  the  Oostanaula  to  threaten  Calhoun 
in  the  rear,  farther  south  on  the  railroad,  by  which 
movement  General  Sherman  hoped  to  turn  Johnston's 
left,  and  thus  cut  off  his  retreat,  but  this  the  nature  of 
the  ground  rendered  impossible. 

Deadly  Fire. 

At  noon  there  was  heavy  firing  along  the  whole 
line.  About  one  o'clock  an  attempt  was  made  by 
Palmer's  corps  from  the  left  centre  to  break  the 
enemy's  line  and  force  him  from  an  elevated  position 
in  the  immediate  front.  To  reach  the  point  aimed  at 
it  was  necessary  to  descend  the  slope  of  a  hill  com- 
manded by  the  enemy's  artillery,  to  ford  a  stream 
bordered  with  a  thick  growth  of  bushes  and  vines, 
and  then  to  cross  a  space  intersected  by  ditches  and 
otherwise  obstructed. 

Under  a  murderous  fire  of  musketry  and  artillery 
the  hill  was  descended  and  the  stream  crossed ;  but 
the  troops,  becoming  confused  among  the  ditches  and 





obstructions,  and  finding  no  shelter  from  which  the 
plunging  fire  of  the  enemy  might  be  returned,  were 
forced  to  retire,  after  losing  one  thousand  of  their 
number.  Farther  to  the  left,  about  the  same  time, 
General  Judah's  division  of  the  Twenty-third  corps 
and  Newton's  division  of  the  Fourth  drove  the  enemy 
from  an  important  position  on  their  outer  line.  By 
this  means,  although  the  position  taken  was  not  held, 
the  National  line  was  advanced.  Artillery  was  also 
got  into  a  position  which  prevented  the  enemy  from 
occupying  the  works.  At  both  extremities  of  the  line 
heavy  skirmishing  took  place,  the  density  of  the 
woods  and  undergrowth  preventing  the  use  o( 

The  Gallant  Fifteenth. 

About  three  in  the  afternoon  General  Johnston 
massed  a  heavy  force  on  the  road  to  Tilton,  with  the 
view  of  turning  the  National  left  flank,  held  by  Stan- 
ley's division  of  the  Fourth  corps.  The  attack  was 
made  with  overwhelming  numbers,  who  rushed  on 
with  loud  yells,  and  with  such  impetuosity  that  Stan- 
ley's troops  were  forced  in  confusion  from  the  hill  on 
which  they  were  posted.  The  movement  ordered  by 
Johnston  had  been  detected  early  enough  to  permit 
of  Hooker's  corps  being  moved  from  the  centre  to 
reinforce  the  National  left.  The  enemy's  advance 
was  soon  checked,  and,  Stanley's  troops  having  been 
rallied,  the  Confederates  were  about  dusk  driven 
back  to  their  lines  with  severe  loss. 

Whilf'  this  movement  was  going  on,  General  Mc- 


Pherson  sent  the  Fifteenth  corps,  with  a  portion  of  thq 
Sixteenth,  across  Camp  Creek,  to  carry  a  hill  and  rifle- 
pits  on  the  enemy's  left  In  front  '^f  Resaca.  This  was 
effected,  and  with  loss.  As  this  position  commanded 
the  works,  the  railroad,  and  the  tresde-brldges  across 
fhe  Oostanaula,  desperate  efforts  were  made  by  the 
f^nemy  after  dark  to  retake  it,  but  In  vain.  Heavy 
columns  with  fixed  bayonets  moved  up  to  the  very 
crest  of  the  hill,  but  were  compelled  to  retire  In  con- 
fusion  before  the  steady  fire  of  the  National  troops. 
At  ten  o'clock  fighting  was  over  for  the  day. 

"The  Troops  Rushed  in." 

Both  armies  strengthened  their  positions  during 
the  night;  and  on  the  morning  of  the  15th,  under 
cover  of  severe  skirmishing,  preparations  were  made 
by  General  Sherman  for  an  assault  upon  two  fortified 
hills  on  the  enemy's  extreme  right,  the  key  of  the 
whole  position.  General  Hooker's  corps  was  moved 
to  the  extreme  left,  Howard's,  Schofield's,  and  Palm- 
er s  to  the  I'Ight.  Soon  after  one  o'clock  Hooker  sent 
Butterfield's  division  forward  as  the  assaulting  column, 
supported  by  the  divisions  of  Geary  and  Williams. 
After  several  attacks  the  Confederates  were  driven 
from  a  portion  of  their  lines,  and  a  lodgment  was  se. 
cured  under  the  projecting  works  of  a  lunette  mount- 
ing four  guns. 

Further  advance,  however,  was  found  impossible, 
owing  to  a  severe  fire  from  neighboring  rifle-pits,  and 
the  troops,  seeking  such  shelter  as  was  available,  con- 
tented themselves  with   holding  the  position  gained 


Toward  the  close  of  the  afternoon  General  Hood's 
corps  made  an  unavailing  effort  to  dislodge  them. 
Later,  under  cover  of  night  and  in  spite  of  a  sharp  fire 
from  the  Confederates,  the  ends  were  dug  out  of  the 
works  and  the  guns  hauled  out  with  ropes.  As  soon 
as  a  breach  was  made  the  troops  rushed  in,  and  after 
a  fierce  struggle  made  themselves  masters  of  the 

Too  Late. 

General  Johnston  abandoned  his  position  during 
the  night,  leaving  behind  another  four-gun  battery  and 
a  quantity  of  stores,  and  retreated  toward  Kingston, 
thirty-two  miles  south  of  Resaca,  on  the  railroad. 
Resaca  was  immediately  occupied  by  the  troops  of 
General  Thomas,  who  succeeded  in  saving  the  wagon- 
road  bridge.  The  railroad-bridge,  however,  had  been 
burned.  Johnston's  army  owed  its  escape  from  Sher- 
man at  Resaca  to  the  impracticable  nature  of  the 
valley  between  the  town  and  Snake  Creek  Gap,  which 
gready  retarded  the  passage  of  troops,  and  afforded 
the  Confederate  army  time  to  march  from  Dalton  by 
comparatively  good  roads,  which  Johnston  with  wise 
foresight  had  kept  in  order.  Had  the  National  army 
arrived  first  at  Resaca,  nothing  could  have  saved  the 
army  of  the  Confederates. 

Once  in  their  strong  posidon  at  Resaca,  it  cost 
much  severe  fighdng  to  make  them  abandon  it.  The 
total  National  loss  in  the  two  days'  fighting  was  not 
less  than  four  thousand  killed  and  wounded,  while 
that  of  the  Confederates  probably  did  not  exceed  two 


thousand  five  hundred,  as  diey  fought  for  the  most 
part  behind  eardiworks.  The  Confederate  loss  in- 
cluded about  one  thousand  prisoners. 

The  whole  army  started  in  pursuit  of  Johnston, 
General  Thomas  directly  on  his  rear,  crossing  the 
Oostanaula  at  Resaca,  General  McPherson  at  Lay's 
Ferry,  a  few  miles  to  the  south-west,  while  General 
Schofield,  makinor  a  wide  detour  to  the  left  of  Thomas, 
marched  by  obscure  roads  across  the  Conasauga  and 
Coosawattee  rivers,  which  unite  near  Resaca  to  form 
the  Oostanaula.  On  the  1 7th  the  march  was  continued 
southward  by  as  many  roads  as  could  be  found,  in  a 
direction  parallel  with  the  railroad,  but  no  enemy  was 
seen  till  within  the  vicinity  of  Adairsville,  thirteen 
miles  south-west  of  Resaca,  between  the  railroad  and 
the  Oostanaula.  There,  about  sunset,  the  advance 
division  under  General  Newton  had  a  sharp  skirmish 
with  the  enemy's  rear-guard.  Next  morning  the 
Confederates  had  disappeared,  but  were  found  again 
in  force  four  miles  beyond  Kingston,  on  ground  com- 
paratively open  and  well  adapted  for  a  grand  battle. 
They  held  strong  works  at  Cassville,  five  miles  east 
of  Kingston,  and  on  the  19th  dispositions  were  made 
for  a  general  engagement. 

Supplies  at  Hand. 

While,  however,  Sherman  was  converging  on  the 
Confederate  position,  Johnston  retreated  in  the  night 
across  the  Etowah,  burning  the  bridges  at  Carters- 
ville,  thus  leaving  the  country  north  of  the  Etowah  in 
the  possession   of  General   Sherman.     It  had,  how- 



ever,  been  completely  stripped  of  supplies.  Sherman 
now  gave  his  troops  a  few  days'  rest,  the  army  of 
Thomas  lying  near  Cassville,  McPherson's  about 
Kingston,  and  Schofield's  at  Cassville  depot  and 
toward  the  Etowah  Bridge.  In  the  mean  time,  the 
railroad,  which  had  received  but  little  injury,  was  re- 
stored to  running  order.  Trains  laden  with  suppHes 
arrived  at  Kingston  on  the  20th,  and  the  wounded 
were  sent  back  to  Chattanooga,  with  which  place 
telegraphic  communication  also  was  kept  up  as  the 
army  had  advanced. 

General  Jefferson  C.  Davis  had  on  the  17th  marched 
toward  Rome,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Oostanaula 
and  Etowah,  fifteen  miles  west  of  Kingston.  After  a 
sharp  fight  on  the  19th  he  got  possession  of  the  town, 
several  forts,  eight  or  ten  large  guns,  and  large  quan- 
tities of  stores,  as  well  as  valuable  mills  and  foundries 

Slierinan  Hurrying-  Forward. 

General  Johnston  retired  upon  Allatoona  Pass,  an 
almost  impregnable  position  on  the  railroad,  about 
five  miles  south  of  the  Etowah  River.  General  Sher- 
man determined  not  even  to  attempt  the  pass  in 
front,  but  to  turn  it.  Accordingly,  on  the  23d,  leaving 
garrisons  at  Rome  and  Kingston,  and  carrying  with 
him  in  wagons  supplies  for  twenty  days,  he  put  the 
army  in  motion  for  Dallas,  a  town  about  fifteen  miles 
south-south-west  of  Allatoona  Pass  and  eighteen 
miles  direcdy  west  of  Marietta,  hoping  by  thus  threat- 
ening Marietta  to  compel  Johnston  to  evacuate  the 
oass.     The  roads   throuo^h  the  rucrored  and  densely 





wooded  region  to  be  traversed  were  few  and  bad,  and 
he  march  was  necessarily  slow. 

The  movement  and  Its  objects  were  soon  detected 
by  Johnston,  who  also  set  his  troops  in  motion  toward 
Dallas  to  protect  the  approaches  to  Marietta.  In  the 
march  upon  Dallas,  McPherson,  holding-  the  National 
right,  made  a  detour  south-westward  by  Van  Wert, 
about  fourteen  miles  west  of  Dallas,  while  Thomas 
moved  nearly  due  south,  with  Schofield  on  his  left. 
On  the  25th,  Hooker's  corps,  the  advance  of  General 
Thomas,  moving  on  the  main  road  to  Dallas,  when 
near  Pumpkin  Vine  Creek  met  portions  of  Hood's 
and  Hardee's  corps,  and  a  severe  contest  took  place 
for  a  position  at  New  Hope  Church,  where  three 
roads  meet  from  Ackworth,  Marietta,  and  Dallas. 

The  Eiieiny  Intrenched. 

The  enemy,  however,  having  hastily  thrown  up 
earthworks,  and  night  coming  on  accompanied  by 
heavy  rain,  he  retained  possession  of  the  roads. 
Hooker  lost  six  hundred  men  in  this  affair.  Next 
morning  the  Confederates  were  found  well  intrenched, 
substantially  in  front  of  the  road  leading  from  Dallas 
to  Marietta.  It  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  make 
dispositions  on  a  larger  scale.  McPherson  was 
moved  up  to  Dallas,  Thomas  was  deployed  against 
New  I  lope  Church,  and  Schofield  moved  toward  the 
left,  so  as  to  strike  and  turn  the  enemy's  right. 

Ov/Ing  to  the  difficult  nature  of  the  country,  these 
novoments  occupied  two  days  and  were  attended 
^ith  heavy  skirmishing ;  but  as  the  vicinity  was  foi' 


the  most  part  densely  wooded,  artillery  could  not  be 
used,  and  the  casualties  were  comparatively  few. 
On  the  28th,  just  as  McPherson  was  closing-  up  to 
Thomas  in  front  of  New  Hope  Church,  he  was  re- 
peatedly and  desperately  attacked  by  a  large  Con- 
federate force,  and  the  contemplated  movement 
was  temporarily  checked,  but  the  enemy  was  finally 
driven  back  with  a  loss  of  two  thousand  killed  and 

The  Pass  Captured. 

After  the  delay  of  a  few  days  the  movement  toward 
the  left  was  resumed,  McPherson  taking  up  the  posi- 
tion in  front  of  New  Hope  Church  which  Thomas  had 
previously  occupied,  Thomas  and  Schofield  taking 
positions  still  farther  to  the  left.  This  movement  was 
effected  on  the  ist  of  June.  All  the  roads  leading 
back  to  Allatoona  and  Ackworth  were  occupied. 
General  Stoneman's  cavalry  pushed  into  the  east  end 
of  Allatoona  Pass,  and  General  Garrard's  marched 
around  by  the  rear  to  its  west  entrance.  These  move 
ments  being  effected  without  opposition,  the  pass  fel 
into  Sherman's  possession. 

Still  working  toward  the  left,  General  Sherman  de- 
termined  on  the  4th  to  leave  Johnston  in  his  intrenched 
position  at  New  Hope  Church,  and  moved  toward  the 
railroad  above  Ackworth,  which  was  reached  on  the 
6th  of  June. 

Between  Big  Shanty  and  Marietta  intervenes  a 
mountainous  district  full  of  defensible  positions,  cover-  perfectly  the  town  of  Marietta  and  the  railroad  aa 


far  as  the  Chattahoochee.  Three  conical  peaks  in 
this  region,  Hnks  in  a  continuous  forest-covered  chain, 
form  prominent  features  in  the  landscape.  These  are 
Kenesaw  Mountain,  Pine  Mountain,  and  Lost  Moun- 

The  National  lines  were  gradually  advanced  toward 
the  Confederate  positions.  By  the  nth  the  lines  were 
close  up,  and  dispositions  were  then  made  to  break 
the  enemy's  line  of  defence  between  Kenesaw  a::d 
Pine  mountains. 

Hooker  Attacked. 

On  the  2 2d  the  enemy  made  a  sudden  attack  on 
portions  of  Hooker's  and  Schofield's  corps  on  the 
National  right  near  the  Kulp  House.  The  blow  fell 
mostly  on  the  divisions  of  Generals  Williams  and 
Hascall.  The  ground  was  comparatively  open  ;  but 
though  the  skirmish-lines  and  an  advanced  regiment 
of  General  Schofield's — sent  out  to  hold  the  enemy  in 
check  until  preparations  for  his  reception  could  be 
completed — were  driven  in,  yet  when  the  enemy 
reached  the  National  line  of  battle  he  received  a  terri- 
ble repulse.  Many  prisoners  were  taken,  and  the 
Confederates  were  compelled  to  abandon  their  dead 
and  wounded.  The  National  centre  was  now  estab- 
lished in  front  of  Kenesaw  Mountain. 

General  Sherman  determined  to  assault.  His  reason 
for  a  departure  from  the  course  which  had  hitherto 
been  so  successful  was,  that  an  army  to  be  efficient 
must  not  settle  down  to  one  single  mode  of  offence, 
but  must  be  prepared  to  execute  any  plan  likely  to 


result  in  success.  The  part  of  the  enemy's  lines 
selected  to  be  assaulted  was  the  left  centre.  A  strong 
column,  if  thrust  through  at  that  point  and  pushed  on 
boldly  two  and  a  half  miles,  would  reach  the  railroad 
below  Marietta  and  cut  off  the  enemy's  right  and 
centre  from  the  line  of  retreat,  which  could  then  be 
overwhelmed  and  destroyed. 

Sherman's  Assault. 

On  the  24th  of  June,  therefore,  General  Sherman 
ordered  that  an  assault  should  be  made  at  two  points 
south  of  Kenesaw  Mountain  on  the  27th,  thus  afford- 
ing three  days  for  preparation  and  reconnoissance. 
One  of  these  assaults  was  to  be  made  near  Little 
Kenesaw  by  General  McPherson's  troops,  the  other 
about  a  mile  farther  south  by  those  of  General 

On  the  morning  of  the  27th,  at  the  hour  and  in  tha 
manner  prescribed,  the  assaults  were  made,  but  both 
failed,  and  many  valuable  lives  were  lost,  including 
that  of  General  Harker.  At  six  in  the  morning 
Blair's  corps,  holding  the  extreme  left  of  McPherson's 
line,  moved  on  the  east  side  of  the  mountain,  while 
the  corps  of  Dodge  and  Logan  assaulted  the  adjoin- 
ing northern  slope.  The  brunt  of  the  attack  was 
borne  by  three  brigades  of  Logan's  corps,  v/hich, 
pushing  impetuously  up  the  hill,  scattered  the  Confed- 
erate skirmishers  and  captured  some  of  their  rifle- 
pits,  taking  also  some  prisoners.  These  troops  pressed 
forward  till  they  arrived  at  the  foot  of  a  precipitous 
cliff  thirty  feet  high,  from  which  the  enemy  poured  a 


plunging  fire  and  rolled  down  huge  stones.  Here  the 
line  retired  and  fortified  on  the  extreme  rieht.  For 
the  second  and  more  important  attack  portions  of 
the  divisions  of  Newton  and  Davis  were  selected. 
When  the  signal  was  given  the  troops  charged  up  the 
slope  of  the  mountain  in  face  of  a  murderous  fire 
from  a  battery  on  the  summit,  penetrated  two  lines 
of  abattis,  carried  a  line  of  rifle-pits  beyond,  and 
reached  the  works  ;  but  a  destructive  fire  of  musketry 
and  artillery  from  the  enemy  soon  made  it  necessary 
to  recall  the  men.  General  Newton's  troops  returned 
to  their  original  line,  while  the  brigade  of  Davis  threw 
up  breastworks  between  those  they  had  carried  and 
the  main  line  of  the  enemy.  The  entire  contest 
lasted  little  more  than  an  hour,  but  it  cost  General 
Sherman  three  thousand  men  in  killed  and  wounded, 
while  the  enemy,  fighting  behind  breastworks,  suffered 

General  Sherman  could  not  rest  long  under  the 
imputation  of  defeat  or  failure.  He  almost  immedi- 
ately commenced  preparations  to  turn  the  enemy's 
left.  The  effect  was  instantaneous.  The  object  of 
the  movement  was  at  once  detected  by  General  John- 
ston, who  without  further  delay  prepared  to  evacuate 
Kenesaw  Mountain  and  fall  back  to  the  Chattahoochee. 
Simultaneously  with  McPherson's  movement,  John- 
ston's rear-guard  abandoned  the  works  which  for  three 
weeks  had  been  so  resolutely  defended,  and  before 
dawn  on  the  morning  of  the  3d  the  National  pickets 
occupied  the  crest  of  Kenesaw. 



General  Johnston  was  obliged  to  leave  his  new 
position  by  another  flank  movement,  and  on  the  night 
of  the  4th  he  fell  back  to  the  Chattahoochee,  which  he 
crossed  with  the  main  body  of  his  army,  leaving 
Hardee's  corps  on  the  right  bank. 

The  sudden  abandonment  of  his  fonriidable  line  of 
defences  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  by  General 
Johnston  occasioned  the  utmost  dissatisfaction  with 
his  conduct  of  the  campaign,  especially  in  Atlar.ta, 
where  it  was  expected  he  would 
make  z  stand  on  the  Chattahoo- 
chee, which  it  was  argued  he 
could  easily  do,  being  in  the  im- 
mediate neighborhood  of  his 
supplies.  His  retreat  from  the 
Chattahoochee  was  the  crowninor 
offence  with  the  enemies  of  this 
able  general,  whose  inferiority 
of  force  had  made  it  impossible 
to  avoid  Sherman's  outflanking 

movements,  but  who  had  nevertheless  kept  his  army 
in  a  compact  body  with  insignificant  losses  of  guns  or 
material  of  war.  His  removal  was  loudly  demanded, 
and  on  the  17th,  in  accordance  with  orders  from  the 
Confederate  War  Department,  he  turned  over  his 
command  to  General  Hood,  retaining  command  of 
one  division. 

The  whole  of  General  Sherman's  army  crossed  the 
Chattahoochee  on  the  T7th,  with  the  exception  of 
Davis's  division  of  the  Fourteenth  corps,  left  to  watch 



the  railroad-bridge  and  protect  the  rear,  and  prepara- 
tions were  made  to  move  upon  Atlanta. 

Fighting  continued  at  various  points,  and  in  one  of 
the  bloody  combats  the  gallant  McPherson  received 
his  death-wound,  devolving  the  command  of  the  Army 
of  the  Tennessee  upon  General  Logan.  This  was 
July  22d.  Sherman's  army  sustained  an  irreparable 
loss  in  the  death  of  General  McPherson.  "  He  was," 
said  Sherman,  "a  noble  youth,  of  striking  personal 
appearance,  of  the  highest  professional  capacity,  and 
with  a  heart  abounding  in  kindness  that  drew  to  him 
the  affections  of  all  men."  His  body  was  recovered 
and  carried  in  the  heat  of  battle  to  General  Sherman, 
who  sent  it,  in  charge  of  his  personal  staff,  back  to 
Marietta,  on  its  way  to  his  Northern  home. 

Hood  was  not  long  in  finding  out  that  the  army  of 
Sherman  was  swinmno  round  toward  the  Macon  rail- 
road,  and  massed  troops  in  the  same  direction  to 
oppose  the  movement.  At  noon  on  the  28th  the 
Confederates  moved  out  of  Atlanta  by  the  Bell's 
Ferry  road,  formed  in  the  open  fields  behind  a  rising 
ground,  and  advanced  in  parallel  lines  directly  against 
the  Fifteenth  corps,  expecting  to  find  it  detached  and 
unsupported.  Fortunately,  Logan's  troops  had  thrown 
up  breastworks,  and,  though  the  advance  of  the  Con- 
federate columns  was  "  magnificent,"  as  Sherman,  who 
witnessed  it,  said,  it  was  only  to  be  followed  by  a  recoil 
before  steady  volleys  of  musketry  and  incessant  dis- 
charges of  grape  and  canister.  In  spite  of  the  efforts 
of  their  officers  the  men  broke  and  fled,  and  though 



rallieJ  *'ip;ain  and  again,  at  some  parts  of  the  line  as 
often  as  six.  times,  they  were,  about  four  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon,  compelled  to  retire,  with  a  loss  of  not  less 
than  five  thousand.  Logan's  loss  was  reported  at  less 
than  six  hundred.     Had  Davis's  division  come  up  at 


any  time  before  four  o'clock,  this  complete  repulse  of 
the  enemy  might  have  been  made  a  disastrous  rout. 
Sherman  then  began  the  destruction  of  the  Macon 
railroad,  thus  cutting  off  Hood's  supplies. 

On  the  31st  the  Confederates   moved  out  of  their 
works    at  Joncsboro   and    attacked    the    position   of 


Howard,  but  were  steadily  and  repeatedly  repulsed. 
After  a  contest  of  two  hours'  duration  they  withdrew, 
losing  in  killed,  wounded,  and  captured  three  thou- 
sand men,  besides  general  officers,  including  Major- 
General  Anderson,  mortally  wounded.  Howard's  loss 
was  sliorht,  as  his  men  fouorht  behind  breastworks. 
It  was  observed  on  this  occasion  that  the  Confederate 
troops  had  begun  to  lose  the  enthusiasm  and  dash 
which  had  hitherto  characterized  their  attacks. 

Hearing  the  sounds  of  battle  about  noon,  Sherman 
renewed  his  orders  to  push  the  other  movements  on 
the  left  and  centre.  Orders  were  given  for  the  whole 
army  to  move  on  Jonesboro.  The  troops  advanced 
to  the  attack  across  open  fields  under  a  withering 
artillery  and  musketry  fire.  After  a  desperate  fight, 
which  lasted  two  hours,  they  drove  the  Confederates 
from  their  works,  capturing  two  four-gun  batteries — 
one  of  them  Loomis's,  lost  at  Chickamauga — some 
battle-flags,  and  a  large  number  of  prisoners,  includ- 
ing the  greater  part  of  Govan's  brigade,  with  its 
commander,  which  had  formed  part  of  the  celebrated 
"  fiorhtinor  division  "  of  Cleburne. 

Repeated  orders  were  sent,  urging  the  rapid  ad- 
vance  of  Stanley  and  Schofield,  but  the  want  of  roada 
and  the  difficult  nature  of  the  country  prevented  their 
coming  up  and  getting  into  position  for  attack  before 
further  operations  were  rendered  impracticable  by 
the  approach  of  night.  Had  they  been  able  to  close 
in  upon  Hardee  a  few  hours  earlier  his  entire  force 
would  in  all  probability  have  been  captured.     As  it 



was,  Hardee  had  to  evacuate  the  place  during  the 
night  and  fall  back  seven  miles  to  Lovejoy's,  where 
he  intrenched  in  a  naturally  strong  position.  About 
two  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  \t'atchers  in  Sherman's 
camp  heard  in  the  direction  of  Atlanta,  about  twenty 
miles  distant,  the  sounds  of  heavy  explosions,  followed 
by  a  succession  of  minor  reports  resembling  the  rapid 
firing  of  cannon  and  musketry.  About  four  o'clock 
similar  sounds  were  heard,  indicating  a  night-attack 
on  the  city  by  Slocum,  or  that  Hood  was  blowing  up 
his  magazines  and  preparing  to  evacuate  Evidently 
important  events  were  at  hand. 

In  Atlanta  the  utmost  consternation  and  excitement 
had  arisen  when  it  became  known  that  the  main  army 
of  Sherman  had  got  between  Hardee's  force  and  the 
city.  Hood  immediately  gave  orders  for  the  evacua- 
tion of  his  works  and  the  removal  of  as  much  of  the 
ammunition  and  stores  as  was  possible  with  his  limited 
means  of  transportation,  and  for  the  destruction  of  the 
rest.  Large  quantities  of  provisions  in  the  public 
store-houses  were  distributed  to  the  inhabitants  and 
to  the  troops.  The  rolling  stock  of  the  railroads, 
consisting  of  about  one  hundred  cars  and  six  loco- 
motives, was  gathered  together  near  the  rolling-mill 
in  the  evening,  by  which  time  all  the  troops  (except 
the  rear-guard  had  got  away.  The  cars  were  then 
laden  with  the  surplus  ammunition,  and,  together  with 
the  depots,  store-houses,  and  all  that  could  be  of  use 
to  the  National  army,  set  on  fire  about  midnight.  This 
occasioned  the  series  of  explosions  that  had  been  heard 


in  Sherman's  camp.  Slocum,  at  the  Chattahoochee 
bridge,  also  hearing  these  sounds,  sent  out  early  in  the 
morning  of  the  2d  of  September  a  strong  reconnoitring 
column,  which,  pushing  forward  without  meeting  any 
opposition,  arrived  at  Adanta  about  nine  o'clock, 
when  the  mayor  made  a  formal  surrender  of  the  city^ 
only  requesting  the  security  of  private  property  and 
protection  for  non-combantants,  which  were  readily 
guaranteed.  Sherman's  great  victory  electrified  the 
country.  It  was  a  grand  military  achievement  and 
proved  his  genius  and  patriotism. 

This  success,  gained  on  the  ist  of  September,  1864, 
was  received  throughout  the  country  with  great  en- 
thusiasm. President  Lincoln  sent  this  message  of 
thanks  and  congratulation : 

The  national  thanks  are  rendered  by  the  President 
to  Major-General  W.  T.  Sherman  and  the  gallant 
officers  and  soldiers  of  his  command  before  Atlanta 
for  the  distinguished  ability  and  perseverance  dis- 
played in  the  campaign  in  Georgia,  which,  under 
divine  favor,  has  resulted  in  the  capture  of  Atlanta. 
The  marches,  battles,  sieges,  and  other  military  opera- 
tions that  have  signalized  the  campaign  must  render 
it  famous  in  the  annals  of  war,  and  have  entitled 
those  who  have  participated  therein  to  the  applause 
and  thanks  of  the  nation. 

Abraham  Lincoln, 
President  of  the  United  States, 

General  Grant  was  prompt  also  in  his  tribute  to 


the  great  exploit,  and  telegraphed  as  follows  from 
City  Point: 

Major-General  Sherman  : 

I  have  just  received  your  despatch  announcing  the 
capture  of  Adanta.  In  honor  of  your  great  victory  I 
have  ordered  a  salute  to  be  fired  with  shotted  guns 
from  every  battery  bearing  upon  the  enemy.  The 
salute  will  be  fired  within  an  hour  amid  great 
rejoicing,  U.  S.  Grant, 

Lieutenant-  General, 


From  Atlanta  to   the  Sea. — The  Famous 

It  has  been  a  matter  of  great  interest  to  the  Amer- 
ican people  to  obtain  the  opinion  of  European  gen- 
erals, men  who  are  considered  authority  on  all  mili- 
tary affairs,  concerning  the  relative  merits  of  our 
commanders  who  made  themselves  famous  during  our 
sanguinary  struggle.  By  universal  consent  General 
Sherman's  wonderful  march  to  the  sea  stands  as  one 
of  the  crowning  achievements  in  the  history  of  modern 

It  was  unparalleled.  No  other  march  can  be  com- 
pared with  it,  and  there  are  good  authorities  who 
maintain  that  it  was  the  boldest,  best  planned,  most 
important  undertaking  in  our  civil  war,  and  one  which, 
being  carried  to  an  issue  completely  successful, 
stamped  the  hero  of  it  as  the  greatest  of  all  our 
commanders,  and  one  unsurpassed  in  the  annals  of 

In  this  chapter  we  favor  the  reader  with  General 
Sherman's  own  graphic  narrative  of  his  famous  maro^ 
to  the  sea. 

The  thrilling  narrative  is  as  follows: 

27  417 



Headquarters  of  the  Military  Division  of  the  Mississippi, 
IN  THE  Field,  Savannah,  Georgia,  January  ist,  1865. 

Major-General    H.    W.    Halleck,    Chief  of  Staffs 

Washington  City,  D.  C  : 

General  :  I  have  the  honor  to  offer  my  report  of 
the  operations  of  the  armies  under  my  command,  since 
the  occupation  of  Atlanta  in  the  early  part  of  Sep- 
tember last  up  to  the  present  date. 

As  heretofore  reported,  in  the  month  of  September 
the  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  Major-General  Thomas 
commanding,  held  the  city  of  Atlanta ;  the  Army  of 
the  Tennessee,  Major-General  Howard  commanding, 
was  grouped  about  East  Point ;  and  the  Army  of  the 
Ohio,  Major-General  Schofield  commanding,  held 
Decatur.  Many  changes  occurred  in  the  composition 
of  these  armies  in  consequence  of  the  expiration  of 
the  time  of  service  of  many  of  the  regiments.  The 
opportunity  was  given  us  to  consolidate  the  frag- 
ments, reclothe  and  equip  the  men,  and  make  prepa- 
rations for  the  future  campaign.  I  also  availed  myself 
of  the  occasion  to  strengthen  the  garrisons  to  our 
rear,  to  make  our  communications  more  secure,  and 
sent  Wagner's  division  of  the  Fourth  corps  and  Mor= 
gan's  division  of  the  Fourteenth  corps  back  to  Chatta- 
nooga, and  Corse's  division  of  the  Fifteenth  corps  to 
Rome.  Also  a  thorough  reconnoissance  was  made 
of  Atlanta,  and  a  new  line  of  works  begun,  which 
required  a  smaller  garrison  to  hold. 

During  this  month  the  enemy,  whom  we  had  left  at 
Lovejoy's  Station,  moved  westward  toward  the  Chat- 
tahoochee, taking  position  facing  us,  and  covering  the 


West  Point  railroad  about  Palmetto  Station.  He  also 
threw  a  pontoon-bridge  across  the  Chattahoochee,  and 
sent  cavalry  detachments  to  the  woods  in  the  direction 
of  Carrollton  and  Powder  Springs.  About  the  same 
time  President  Davis  visited  Macon  and  his  army  at 
Palmetto,  and  made  harangues  referring  to  an  active 
campaign  against  us.  Hood  still  remained  in  com- 
mand of  the  Confederate  forces,  with  Cheatham,  S. 
D.  Lee,  and  Stewart  commanding  his  three  corps,  and 
Wheeler  in  command  of  his  cavalry,  which  had  been 
largely  reinforced. 

Making  Preparations. 

My  cavalry  consisted  of  two  divisions:  one  was 
stationed  at  Decatur,  under  the  command  of  Brigadier- 
General  Garrard  ;  the  other,  commanded  by  Brigadier- 
General  Kilpatrick,  was  posted  near  Sandtown,  with 
a  pontoon-bridge  over  the  Chattahoochee,  from  which 
he  could  watch  any  movement  of  the  enemy  toward 
the  west. 

As  soon  as  I  became  convinced  that  the  enemy  in- 
tended to  assume  the  offensive — namely,  September 
28 — I  sent  Major-General  Thomas,  second  in  com- 
mand, to  Nashville,  to  organize  the  new  troops  ex- 
pected to  arrive  and  to  make  preliminary  preparations 
to  meet  such  an  event. 

About  the  ist  of  October  some  of  the  enemy's 
cavalry  made  their  appearance  on  the  west  of  the 
Chattahoochee,  and  one  of  his  infantry  corps  was 
reported  near  Powder  Springs,  and  I  received  authen- 
tic intelligence  that  the  rest  of  his  infantry  was  cross- 
ing  to  the  west  of  the  Chattahoochee.     I  at  once  made 


my  orders  that  Atlanta  and  the  Chattahoochee  railroad- 
bridge  should  be  held  by  the  Twentieth  corps,  Major- 
General  Slocum,  and  on  the  4th  of  October  put  in 
motion  the  Fifteenth  and  Seventeenth  corps,  and 
the  Fourth,  Fourteenth,  and  Twenty-third  corps,  to 
Smyrna  camp-ground,  and  on  the  5th  moved  to  the 
strong  position  about  Kenesaw.  The  enemy's  cavalry 
had,  by  a  rapid  movement,  got  upon  our  railroad  at 
Big  Shanty  and  broken  the  line  of  telegraph  and  rail- 
road, and  with  a  division  of  infantry  (French's)  had 
moved  against  Allatoona,  where  were  stored  about 
a  million  of  rations.  Its  redoubts  were  garrisoned 
by  three  small  regiments  under  Colonel  Tourtellotte, 
Fourth  Minnesota. 

The  Smoke  of  Battle. 

I  had  anticipated  this  movement,  and  had,  by  signal 
and  telegraph,  ordered  General  Corse  to  reinforce  that 
post  from  Rome. 

General  Corse  had  reached  Allatoona  with  a  brigade 
during  the  night  of  the  4th,  just  in  time  to  meet  the 
attack  by  French's  division  on  the  morning  of  the  5th. 
In  person  I  reached  Kenesaw  Mountain  about  10  a.  m. 
of  the  5th,  and  could  see  the  smoke  of  batde  and 
hear  the  faint  sounds  of  artillery.  The  distance,  eigh- 
teen miles,  was  too  great  for  me  to  make  in  time  to 
share  in  the  batde,  but  I  directed  the  Twenty-third 
corps,  Brigadier-General  Cox  commanding,  to  move 
rapidly  from  the  base  of  Kenesaw  due  west,  aiming 
to  reach  the  road  from  Allatoona  to  Dallas,  threatening 
the  rear  of  the  forces  attacking  Allatoona.     I  succeeded 


in  getting  a  signal  message  to  General  Corse  during  his 
fight,  notifying  him  of  my  presence.  The  defence  of 
Allatoona  by  General  Corse  was  admirably  conducted, 
and  the  enemy  repulsed  with  heavy  slaughter.  His 
description  of  the  defence  is  so  graphic  that  it  leaves 
nothing  for  me  to  add,  and  the  movement  of  General 
Cox  had  the  desired  effect  of  causing  the  withdrawal 
of  French's  division  rapidly  in  the  direction  of  Dallas. 

Strategic  Movements. 

On  the  6th  and  7th  I  pushed  my  cavalry  well  toward 
Burnt  Hickory  and  Dallas,  and  discovered  that  the 
enemy  had  moved  westward,  and  inferred  that  he 
would  attempt  to  break  our  railroad  again  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Kingston.  Accordingly,  on  the 
morning  of  the  8th  I  put  the  army  in  motion  through 
Allatoona  Pass  to  Kingston,  reaching  that  point  on  the 
loth.  There  I  learned  that  the  enemy  had  feigned  on 
Rome,  and  was  passing  the  Coosa  River  on  a  pontoon- 
bridge  about  eleven  miles  below  Rome.  I  therefore 
on  the  nth  moved  to  Rome,  and  pushed  Garrard's 
cavalry  and  the  Twenty-third  corps,  under  General 
Cox,  across  the  Oostanaula,  to  threaten  the  flanks  of 
the  enemy  passing  north.  Garrard's  cavalry  drove 
a  cavalry  brigade  of  the  enemy  to  and  beyond  the 
Narrows,  leading  into  the  valley  of  the  Chattooga, 
capturing  two  field-pieces  and  taking  some  prisoners. 

The  enemy  had  moved  with  great  rapidity,  and 
made  his  appearance  at  Resaca,  and  Hood  had  in 
person  demanded  its  surrender  I  had  from.  Kingston 
reinforced  Resaca  by  two  regiments  of  the  Army  of 


the  Tennessee.  I  at  first  intended  to  move  the  army 
into  the  Chattooga  Valley,  to  interpose  between  the 
enemy  and  his  line  of  retreat  down  the  Coosa,  but 
feared  that  General  Hood  would  in  that  event  turn 
eastward  by  Spring  Place  and  down  the  Federal  road, 
and  therefore  moved  against  him  at  Resaca.  Colonel 
Weaver  at  Resaca,  afterward  reinforced  by  Gen- 
eral Raum's  brigade,  had  repulsed  the  enemy  from 
Resaca,  but  he  had  succeeded  in  breaking  the  rail- 
road from  Tilton  to  Dalton,  and  as  far  north  as  the 

Arriving  at  Resaca  on  the  evening  of  the  14th,  I 
determined  to  strike  Hood  in  flank  or  force  him  to 
battle,  and  directed  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  Gen- 
eral Howard,  to  move  to  Snake  Tree  Gap,  which  was 
held  by  the  enemy,  while  General  Stanley,  with  the 
Fourth  and  Fourteenth  corps,  moved  by  Tilton  across 
the  mountains  to  the  rear  of  Snake  Creek  Gap,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Villanow. 

The  Army  of  the  Tennessee  found  the  enemy  occu- 
pying our  old  lines  in  the  Snake  Creek  Gap,  and  on 
the  15th  skirmished  for  the  purpose  of  holding  him 
there  until  Stanley  could  get  to  his  rear.  But  the 
enemy  gave  way  about  noon,  and  was  followed  through 
the  gap,  escaping  before  General  Stanley  had  reached 
the  farther  end  of  the  pass.  The  next  day,  the  i6th, 
the  armies  moved  directly  toward  La  Fayette  with  a 
view  to  cut  off  Hood's  retreat.  We  found  him  in- 
trenched in  Ship's  Gap,  but  the  leading  division 
(Wood's)   of  the  Fifteenth  corps  rapidly  carried  the 


advanced  posts  held  h>y  two  companies  of  a  South 
Carolina  regiment,  making  them  prisoners.  The  re- 
maining eight  companies  escaped  to  the  main  body 
near  La  Fayette. 

Hood's  Rapid  March. 

The  next  morning  we  passed  over  into  the  valley 
of  the  Chattooga,  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee  moving 
in  pursuit  by  La  Fayette  and  Alpine  toward  Blue 
Pond ;  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  by  Summerville 
and  Melville  post-office  to  Gaylesville ;  and  the  Army 
of  the  Ohio  and  Garrard's  cavalry  from  Villanow, 
Dirttown  Valley,  and  Gooer's  Gap  to  Gaylesville. 
Hood,  however,  was  little  encumbered  with  trains  and 
marched  with  great  rapidity,  and  had  succeeded  in 
getting  into  the  narrow  gorge  formed  by  the  Lookout 
Range  abutting  against  the  Coosa  River  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Gadsden.  He  evidently  wanted  to  avoid 
a  fio^ht. 

On  the  19th  all  the  armies  were  grouped  about 
Gaylesville,  in  the  rich  valley  of  the  Chattooga, 
abounding  in  corn  and  meat,  and  I  determined  to 
pause  in  my  pursuit  of  the  enemy,  to  watch  his  move- 
ments, and  live  on  the  country.  I  hoped  that  Hood 
would  turn  toward  Guntersville  and  Bridgeport.  The 
Army  of  the  Tennessee  was  posted  near  Little  River, 
with  instructions  to  feel  forward  in  support  of  the 
cavalry,  which  was  ordered  to  watch  Hood  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Will's  Valley,  and  to  give  me  the 
earliest  notice  possible  of  his  turning  northward.  The 
Army  of  the   Ohio   was  posted  at  Cedar  Bluff,  with 


orders  to  lay  a  pontoon  across  the  Coosa,  and  to  feel 
forward  to  Centre  and  down  in  the  direction  of  Blue 
Mountain.  The  Army  of  the  Cumberland  was  held 
in  reserve  at  Gaylesville,  and  all  the  troops  were  in- 
structed to  draw  heavily  for  supplies  from  the  surround- 
ing country.  In  the  mean  time,  communications  were 
opened  to  Rome,  and  a  heavy  force  set  to  work  in  re- 
pairing the  damages  done  to  our  railroads.  Atlanta 
was  abundantly  snpplied  with  provisions,  but  forage 
was  scarce,  and  General  Slocum  was  instructed  to 
send  strong  foraging-parties  out  in  the  direction  of 
South  River  and  collect  all  the  corn  and  fodder  possi- 
ble, and  to  put  his  own  trains  in  good  condition  for 
further  service. 

A  Wary  Foe. 

Hood's  movements  and  strategy  had  demonstrated 
that  he  had  an  army  capable  of  endangering  at  all 
times  my  communications,  but  unable  to  meet  me  in 
open  fight.  To  follow  him  would  simply  amount  to 
being  decoyed  away  from  Georgia,  with  little  prospect 
of  overtaking  and  overwhelming  him.  To  remain  on 
the  defensive  would  have  been  bad  policy  for  an  army 
of  so  great  value  as  the  one  I  then  commanded,  and  I 
was  forced  to  adopt  a  course  more  fruitful  in  results 
than  the  naked  one  of  following  him  to  the  South-west. 
I  had  previously  submitted  to  the  commander-in-chief 
a  general  plan,  which  amounted  substantially  to  the 
destruction  of  Atlanta  and  the  railroad  back  to  Chat- 
tanooga, and,  sallying  forth  from  Atlanta  through  the 
heart  of  Georgia,  to  capture  one  or  more  of  the  great 


Atlantic  seaports.  This  I  renewed  from  Gaylesville, 
modified  somewhat  by  the  change  of  events. 

On  the  26th  of  October,  satisfied  that  Hood  had 
moved  westward  from  Gadsden  across  Sand  Moun- 
tain, I  detached  the  Fourth  corps,  Major-General 
Stanley,  and  ordered  him  to  proceed  to  Chattanooga 
and  report  to  Major-General  Thomas  at  Nashville. 

Subsequently,  on  the  30th  of  October,  I  also  de- 
tached the  Twenty-third  corps,  Major-General  Scho- 
field,  with  the  same  destination,  and  delegated  to 
Major-General  Thomas  full  power  over  all  the  troops 
subject  to  my  command,  except  the  four  corps  with 
which  I  designed  to  move  into  Georgia.  This  gave 
him  the  two  divisions  under  A.  J.  Smith,  then  in  Mis- 
souri, but  eti  route  for  Tennessee,  the  two  corps  named, 
and  all  the  garrisons  in  Tennessee,  as  also  all  the 
cavalry  of  my  military  division,  except  one  division 
under  Brigadier-General  Kilpatrick,  which  was  ordered 
to  rendezvous  at  Marietta. 

Defence  of  the  Railroad. 

Brevet  Major-General  Wilson  had  arrived  from  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac  to  assume  command  of  the 
cavalry  of  my  army,  and  I  despatched  him  back  to 
Nashville  with  all  dismounted  detachments,  and  orders 
as  rapidly  as  possible  to  collect  the  cavalry  serving  in 
Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  to  mount,  organize,  and 
equip  them,  and  to  report  to  Major-General  Thomas 
for  duty.  These  forces  I  judged  would  enable  Gen- 
eral Thomas  to  defend  the  railroad  from  Chattanooga 
back,  including  Nashville  and  Decatur,  and  give  him 


an  army  with  which  he  could  successfully  cope  with 
Hood  should  the  latter  cross  the  Tennessee  north- 

By  the  ist  of  November,  Hood's  army  had  moved 
from  Gadsden,  and  made  its  appearance  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Decatur,  where  a  feint  was  made ;  he  then 
passed  on  to  Tuscumbia  and  laid  a  pontoon-bridge 
opposite  Florence.  I  then  began  my  preparations  for 
the  march  through  Georgia,  having  received  the  sanc- 
tion of  the  commander-in-chief  for  carrying  into  effect 
my  plan,  the  details  of  which  were  explained  to  all 
my  corps  commanders  and  heads  of  staff  departments, 
with  strict  injunctions  of  secrecy.  I  had  also  com- 
municated full  details  to  General  Thomas,  and  had 
informed  him  I  would  not  leave  the  neighborhood  of 
Kingston  until  he  felt  perfectly  confident  that  he  was 
entirely  prepared  to  cope  with  Hood  should  he  carry 
into  effect  his  threatened  invasion  of  Tennessee  and 
Kentucky.  I  estimated  Hood's  force  at  thirty-five 
thousand  infantry  and  ten  thousand  cavalry. 

Crippling  the  Enemy. 

I  moved  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee  by  slow  and 
easy  marches  on  the  south  of  the  Coosa  back  to  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Smyrna  camp-ground,  and  the 
Fourteenth  corps,  General  Jeff.  C.  Davis,  to  Kingston, 
whither  I  repaired  in  persoi.  n  the  2d  of  November. 
From  that  point  I  directea  J.1I  surplus  artillery,  all 
baggage  not  needed  for  my  contemplated  march,  all 
the  sick  and  wounded,  refugees,  etc.,  to  be  sent  back 
to  Chattanooga ;    and  the    Fourteenth   corps  above- 


mentioned,  with  Kilpatrick's  cavalry,  was  put  in  the 
most  efficient  condition  possible  for  a  long  and 
difficult  march.  This  operation  consumed  the  time 
until  the  nth  of  November,  when,  everything  being 
ready,  I  ordered  General  Corse,  who  still  remained  at 
Rome,  to  destroy  the  bridges  there,  all  foundries, 
mills,  shops,  warehouses,  or  other  property  that 
could  be  useful  to  an  enemy,  and  to  move  to 

At  the  same  time  the  railroad  in  and  about  Atlanta 
and  between  the  Etowah  and  the  Chattahoochee  was 
ordered  to  be  utterly  destroyed.  The  garrisons  from 
Kingston  northward  were  also  ordered  to  draw  back 
to  Chattanooga,  taking  with  them  all  public  property 
and  all  railroad  stock,  and  to  take  up  the  rails  from 
Resaca  back,  saving  them,  ready  to  be  replaced 
whenever  future  interests  should  demand. 

The  railroad  between  the  Etowah  and  the  Oosta- 
naula  was  left  untouched,  because  I  thought  it  more 
than  probable  that  we  would  find  it  necessary  to 
reoccupy  the  country  as  far  forward  as  the  line  of  the 

Atlanta  itself  Is  only  of  strategic  value  as  long  as  it 
is  a  railroad-centre ;  and  as  all  the  railroads  leading 
to  it  are  destroyed,  as  well  as  all  its  foundries,, 
machine-shops,  warehouses,  depots,  etc.,  etc.,  It  is  of 
no  more  value  than  any  other  point  In  Northern 
Georgia ;  whereas  the  line  of  the  Etowah,  by  reason 
of  its  rivers  and  natural  features,  possesses  an  im- 
portance which   will   always   continue.     From   it  all 


parts  of  Georgia  and  Alabama  can  be  reached  by 
armies  marching  with  trains  down  the  Coosa  or  the 
Chattahoochee  Valley. 

All  Coniniunication  Cut  Off, 

On  the  1 2th  of  November  my  army  stood  detached 
and  cut  off  from  all  communication  with  the  rear.  It 
was  composed  of  four  corps  :  the  Fifteenth  and  Seven- 
teenth, constituting  the  right  wing,  under  Major-Gen- 
eral O.  O,  Howard  ;  the  Fourteenth  and  Twentieth 
corps,  constituting  the  left  wing,  under  Major-General 
H.  W.  Slocum — of  an  aggregate  strength  of  sixty 
thousand  infantry ;  one  cavalry  division,  in  aggregate 
strength  five  thousand  five  hundred,  under  Brigadier- 
General  Judson  Kilpatrick;  and  the  artillery  reduced 
to  the  minimum,  one  gun  per  one  thousand  men. 

The  whole  force  was  moved  rapidly,  and  grouped 
about  Atlanta  on  the  14th  of  November. 

In  the  mean  time,  Captain  O.  M.  Poe  had  thoroughly 
destroyed  Atlanta,  save  its  mere  dwelling-houses  and 
churches,  and  the  right  wing,  with  General  Kilpat- 
rick's  cavalry,  was  put  in  motion  in  the  direction  of 
Jonesboro  and  McDonough,  with  orders  to  make  a 
strong  feint  on  Macon,  to  cross  the  Ocmulgee  about 
Planters'  Mills,  and  rendezvous  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Gordon  in  seven  days,  exclusive  of  the  day  of 
march.  On  the  same  day  General  Slocum  moved 
with  the  Twentieth  corps  by  Decatur  and  Stone 
Mountain,  with  orders  to  tear  up  the  railroad  from 
Social  Circle  to  Madison,  to  burn  the  large  and  im- 
portant  railroad-bridge   across    the  Oconee,  east  of 


Madison,  and  turn  south  and  reach  Milledgeville  on 
the  seventh  day,  exclusive  of  the  day  of  march.  In 
person  I  left  Atlanta  on  the  i6th,  in  company  with 
the  Fourteenth  corps,  Brevet  Major-General  Jeff.  C. 
Davis,  by  Lithonia,  Covington,  and  Shady  Dale, 
directly  on  Milledgeville.  All  the  troops  were  pro- 
vided with  good  wagon-trains  loaded  with  ammunition 
and  supplies,  approximating  twenty  days'  bread,  forty 
days'  sugar  and  coffee,  a  double  allowance  of  salt  for 
forty  days,  and  beef  cattle  equal  to  forty  days'  sup- 
plies. The  wagons  were  also  supplied  with  about 
three  days'  forage  in  grain.  All  were  instructed  by 
a  judicious  system  of  foraging  to  maintain  this  order 
of  things  as  long  as  possible,  living  chiefly  if  not 
solely  upon  the  country,  which  I  knew  to  abound  in 
corn,  sweet  potatoes,  and  meats. 

Atlanta  Doomed. 

My  first  object  was  of  course  to  place  my  army  in 
the  very  heart  of  Georgia,  interposing  between  Macon 
and  Augusta,  and  obliging  the  enemy  to  divide  his 
forces  to  defend  not  only  those  points,  but  Millen, 
Savannah,  and  Charleston.  All  my  calculations  were 
fully  realized.  During  the  2 2d,  General  Kilpatrick 
made  a  good  feint  on  Macon,  driving  the  enemy 
within  his  intrenchments,  and  then  drew  back  to 
Griswoldville,  where  Walcutt's  brigade  of  infantry 
joined  him  to  cover  that  flank,  while  Howard's  trains 
were  closing  up  and  his  men  scattered  breaking  up 
railroads.  The  enemy  came  out  of  Macon  and  at- 
tacked  Walcutt    in    position,    but    was    so    roughly 


handled  that  he  never  repeated  the  experiment.  On 
the  eighth  day  after  leaving  Atlanta — namely,  on  the 
23d — General  Slocum  occupied  Milledgeville  and  the 
important  bridge  across  the  Oconee  there,  and  Gen- 
erals Howard  and  Kilpatrick  were  in  and  about 

RescuiH§r  Prisoners. 

General  Howard  was  then  ordered  to  move  east- 
ward, destroying  the  railroad  thoroughly  in  his 
progress,  as  far  as  Tennille  Station,  opposite  Sanders- 
Wile,  and  General  Slocum  to  move  to  Sandersville  by 
two  roads.  General  Kilpatrick  was  ordered  to  Mil- 
ledgeville and  thence  move  rapidly  eastward  to 
break  the  railroad  which  leads  from  Millen  to 
Augusta,  then  to  turn  upon  Millen  and  rescue  our 
prisoners  of  war  supposed  to  be  confined  at  that 

I  accompanied  the  Twentieth  corps  from  Milledge- 
ville to  Sandersville,  approaching  which  place  on  the 
25th  we  found  the  bridges  across  Buffalo  Creek 
burned,  which  delayed  us  three  hours.  The  next  day 
we  entered  Sandersville,  skirmishing  with  Wheeler's 
cavalry,  which  offered  little  opposition  to  the  advance 
of  the  Twentieth  and  Fourteenth  corps,  entering  the 
place  almost  at  the  same  moment. 

General  Slocum  was  then  ordered  to  tear  up  and 
destroy  the  Georgia  Central  railroad  from  Station  13 
(Tennille)  to  Station  lo,  near  the  crossing  of  the 
Ogeechee,  one  of  his  corps  substantially  following  the 
railroad,  the  other  by  way  of  Louisville,  in  support  of 


Kilpatrick*s  cavalry.  In  person  I  shifted  to  the  right 
wing,  and  accompanied  the  Seventeenth  corps,  Gen- 
eral Blair,  on  the  south  of  the  railroad  till  abreast  of 
Station  9^  (Barton) — General  Howard  in  person, 
with  the  Fifteenth  corps,  keeping  farther  to  the  right 
and  about  one  day's  march  ahead,  ready  to  turn 
against  the  flank  of  any  enemy  who  should  oppose 
our  progress. 

Gallant  Kilpatrick, 
At  Barton  I  learned  that  Kilpatrick's  cavalry  had 
reached  the  Augusta  railroad  about  Waynesboro, 
where  he  ascertained  that  our  prisoners  had  been 
removed  from  Millen,  and  therefore  the  purpose  of 
rescuing  them,  upon  which  we  had  set  our  hearts,  was 
an  impossibility.  But  as  Wheeler's  cavalry  had  hung 
around  him,  and  as  he  had  retired  to  Louisville  to 
meet  our  infantry,  in  pursuance  of  my  instructions  not 
to  risk  battle  unless  at  great  advantage,  I  ordered 
him  to  leave  his  wagons  and  all  encumbrances  with 
the  left  wing,  and,  moving  in  the  direction  of  Augusta 
if  Wheeler  gave  him  an  opportunity,  to  indulge  him 
with  all  the  fighting  he  wanted.  General  Kilpatrick, 
supported  by  Baird's  division  of  infantry  of  the  Four- 
teenth  corps,  again  moved  in  the  direction  of  Waynes 
boro,  and,  encountering  Wheeler  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Thomas's  Station,  attacked  him  in  position,  driving 
him  from  three  successive  lines  of  barricades  hand- 
somely through  Waynesboro  and  across  Brier  Creek, 
the  bridges  over  which  he  burned,  and  then,  with 
Baird's  division,  rejoined  the  left  wing,  which  in  the 


mean  time  had  been  marching  by  easy  stages  of  ten 
miles  a  day  in  the  direction  of  Lumpkin's  Station  and 

The  Seventeenth  corps  took  up  the  destruction  of 
the  railroad  at  the  Ogeechee  near  Station  lo,  and 
continued  it  to  Millen,  the  enemy  offering  little  or  no 
opposition,  although  preparations  had  seemingly  been 
made  at  Millen. 

On  the  3d  of  December  the  Seventeenth  corps, 
which  I  accompanied,  was  at  Millen ;  the  Fifteenth 
corps,  General  Howard,  was  south  of  the  Ogeechee, 
opposite  Station  7  (Scarboro)  ;  the  Twentieth  corps, 
General  Slocum,  on  the  Augusta  railroad,  about  four 
miles  north  of  Millen,  near  Buckhead  Church  ;  and 
the  Fourteenth  corps,  General  Jeff.  C.  Davis,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Lumpkin's  Station,  on  the  Augusta 

Aiming  for  Savannah. 

All  were  ordered  to  march  in  the  direction  of 
Savannah,  the  Fifteenth  corps  to  continue  south  of 
the  Ogeechee,  the  Seventeenth  to  destroy  the  railroad 
as  far  as  Ogeechee  Church ;  and  four  days  were 
allowed  to  reach  the  line  from  Ogeechee  Church  to 
the  neighborhood  of  Halley's  Ferry  on  the  Savannah 
River.  All  the  columns  reached  their  destination  on 
time,  and  continued  to  march  on  their  several  roads — 
General  Davis  following  the  Savannah  River  road. 
General  Slocum  the  middle  road  by  way  of  Spring- 
field, General  Blair  the  railroad,  and  General  Howard 
still  south  and  west  of  the  Ogeechee,  with  orders  to 


cross  to  the  east  bank  opposite  "  Eden  Station,"  or 
Station  No.  2. 

As  we  approached  Savannah  the  country  became 
more  marshy  and  difficult,  and  more  obstructions 
were  met  in  the  way  of  felled  trees  where  the  roads 
crossed  the  creek-swamps  on  narrow  causeways. 
But  our  pioneer  companies  were  well  organized,  and 
removed  these  obstructions  in  an  incredibly  short 
time.  No  opposition  from  the  enemy  worth  speak- 
ing of  was  encountered  until  the  heads  of  the  columns 
were  within  fifteen  miles  of  Savannah,  where  all  the 
roads  leading  to  the  city  were  obstructed  more  or  less 
by  felled  timber,  with  earthworks  and  artillery.  But 
these  were  easily  turned  and  the  enemy  driven  away, 
so  that  by  the  loth  of  December  the  enemy  was 
driven  within  his  lines  at  Savannah.  These  followed 
substantially  a  swampy  creek  which  empties  into  the 
Savannah  River  about  three  miles  above  the  city 
across  to  the  head  of  a  corresponding  stream  which 
empties  into  the  Little  Ogeechee. 

The  City  Invested. 

These  streams  were  singularly  favorable  to  the 
enemy  as  a  cover,  being  very  marshy  and  bordered 
by  rice-fields,  which  were  flooded  either  by  the  tide- 
water or  by  inland  ponds,  the  gates  to  which  were 
controlled  and  covered  by  his  heavy  artillery.  The 
only  approaches  to  the  city  were  by  five  narrow  cause- 
ways— namely,  the  two  railroads,  and  the  Augusta, 
the  Louisville,  and  the  Ogeechee  dirt  roads — all  of 
which   were    commanded    by    heavy   ordnance,    too 


Strong  for  us  to  fight  with  our  Hght  field-guns.  To 
assault  an  enemy  of  unknown  strength  at  such  a  dis- 
advantage appeared  to  me  unwise,  especially  as  I  had 
so  successfully  brought  my  army,  almost  unscathed, 
so  great  a  distance,  and  could  surely  attain  the  same 
result  by  the  operation  of  time. 

I  therefore  instructed  my  army  commanders  to 
closely  invest  the  city  from  the  north  and  west,  and 
to  reconnoitre  well  the  ground  in  their  fronts  respect- 
ively, while  I  gave  my  personal  attention  to  open- 
ing communication  with  our  fleet,  which  I  knew  was 
waiting  for  us  in  Tybee,  Wassaw,  and  Ossabaw 

In  approaching  Savannah,  General  Slocum  struck 
the  Charleston  railroad  near  the  bridge,  and  occupied 
the  river-bank  as  his  left  flank,  where  he  had  captured 
two  of  the  enemy's  river-boats,  and  had  prevented 
two  others  (gunboats)  from  coming  down  the  river  to 
communicate  with  the  city  ;  while  General  Howard, 
by  his  right  flank,  had  broken  the  Gulf  railroad  at 
Fleming's  and  Way  Station,  and  occupied  the  railroad 
itself  down  to  the  Little  Ogeechee  near  Station  i,  so 
that  no  supplies  could  reach  Savannah  by  any  of  its 
accustomed  channels. 

Ample  Supplies. 

We,  on  the  contrary,  possessed  large  herds  of 
cattle,  which  we  had  brought  alono-  or  orathered  in 
the  country,  and  our  wagons  still  contained  a  reason- 
able amount  of  breadstuffs  and  other  necessaries,  and 
the  fine  rice-crops  of  the  Savannah    and    Ogeechee 


fivers  furnished  to  our  men  and  animals  a  large 
amount  of  rice  and  rice-straw. 

We  also  held  the  country  to  the  south  and  west  of 
the  Ogeechee  as  fo raging-ground. 

Still,  communication  with  the  fleet  was  of  vital  im-^ 
portance,  and  I  directed  General  Kilpatrick  to  cross 
the  Ogeechee  by  a  pontoon-bridge,  to  reconnoitre 
Fort  McAllister,  and  to  proceed  to  St.  Catharine's 
Sound  in  the  direction  of  Sunbury  or  Kilkenny  Bluff, 
and  open  communication  with  the  fleet.  General 
Howard  had  previously,  by  my  direction,  sent  one 
of  his  best  scouts  down  the  Ogeechee  in  a  canoe  for 
a  like  purpose.  But  more  than  this  was  necessary. 
We  wanted  the  vessels  and  their  contents,  and  the 
Ogeechee  River,  a  navigable  stream  close  to  the  rear 
of  our  camps,  was  the  proper  avenue  of  supply. 

Quick  Work. 

The  enemy  had  burned  the  road-bridge  across  the 
Ogeechee,  just  below  the  mouth  of  the  Camochee, 
known  as  "  Kino^'s  Bridore."  This  was  reconstructed 
in  an  incredibly  short  time  in  the  most  substantial 
manner  by  the  First  Missouri  Reserves,  Fifteenth 
corps,  under  the  direction  of  Captain  Reese  of  the 
Engineer  Corps,  and  on  the  morning  of  the  13th 
December  the  second  division  of  the  Fifteenth  corps, 
under  command  of  Brig-adler-General  Hazen,  crossed 
the  bridge  to  the  west  bank  of  the  Ogeechee,  and 
marched  down  with  orders  to  carry  by  assault  Fort 
McAllister,  a  strong  inclosed  redoubt  manned  by  two 
companies   of  artillery  and  three    of   infantry,  in  all 


about  two  hundred  men,  and  mounting  twenty-three 
guns  en  bai^bette  and  one  mortar. 

General  Hazen  reached  the  vincinity  of  Fort  Mc- 
Allister about  one  p.  m.,  deployed  his  division  about 
the  place,  with  both  flanks  resting  upon  the  river, 
posted  his  skirmishers  judiciously  behind  the  trunks 
of  trees  whose  branches  had  been  used  for  abattis, 
and  about  five  p.  m.  assaulted  the  place  with  nine 
regiments  at  three  points,  all  of  them  successfully. 
I  witnessed  the  assault  from  a  rice-mill  on  the  oppo- 
site bank  of  the  river,  and  can  bear  testimony  to  the 
handsome  manner  in  which  it  was  accomplished. 

Up  to  this  time  we  had  not  communicated  with  our 
fleet.  From  the  signal-station  at  the  rice-mill  our 
officers  had  looked  for  two  days  over  the  rice-fields 
and  salt  marsh  in  the  direction  of  Ossabaw  Sound, 
but  could  see  nothing  of  it.  But  while  watching  the 
preparations  for  the  assault  on  Fort  McAllister  we 
discovered  in  the  distance  what  seemed  to  be  the 
smoke-stack  of  a  steamer,  which  became  more  and 
more  distinct,  until  at  about  the  very  moment  of  the 
assault  she  was  plainly  visible  below  the  fort,  and  our 
signal  was  answered. 

At  the  Fort. 

As  soon  as  I  saw  our  colors  fairly  planted  upon 
the  walls  of  McAllister,  in  company  with  General 
Howard,  1  went  in  a  small  boat  down  to  the  fort,  and 
met  General  Hazen,  who  had  not  yet  communicated 
with  the  gunboat  below,  as  it  was  shut  out  to  him  by 
a  point  of  timber.     Determmed  to  communicate  that 


night,  I  got  another  small  boat  and  a  crew,  and  pulled 
down  the  river  till  I  found  the  tug  Dandelion,  Captain 
Williamson,  U.  S.  N.,  who  informed  me  that  Captain 
Duncan,  who  had  been  sent  by  General  Howard,  had 
succeeded  in  reaching  Admiral  Dahlgren  and  General 
Foster,  and  that  he  was  expecting  them  hourly  in 
Ossabaw  Sound.  After  making  communications  to 
those  officers  and  a  short  communication  to  the  War 
Department,  I  returned  to  Fort  McAllister  that  night, 
and  before  daylight  was  overtaken  by  Major  Strong 
of  General  Foster's  staff,  advising  me  that  General 
Foster  had  arrived  in  the  Ogeechee  near  Fort  Mc- 
Allister, and  was  very  anxious  to  meet  me  on  board 
his  boat.  I  accordingly  returned  with  him,  and  met 
General  Foster  on  board  the  steamer  Nemaha,  and, 
after  consultation,  determined  to  proceed  with  him 
down  the  sound,  in  hopes  to  meet  Admiral  Dahlgren. 
But  we  did  not  meet  him  until  we  reached  Wassaw 
Sound,  about  noon.  I  there  went  on  board  the 
admiral's  flag-ship,  the  Harvest  Moon,  after  having 
arranged  with  General  Foster  to  send  us  from  Hilton 
Head  some  siege  ordnance  and  some  boats  suitable 
for  navigating  the  Ogeechee  River. 

Admiral  Dahlgren  very  kindly  furnished  me  with 
all  the  data  concerning  his  fleet  and  the  numerous 
forts  that  guarded  the  inland  channels  between  the 
sea  and  Savannah.  I  explained  to  him  how  com- 
pletely Savannah  was  invested  at  all  points  save  only 
the  plank-road  on  the  South  Carolina  shore,  known 
as  the  "  Union  Causeway,"  which  I  thought  I  could 


reach  froR.  my  left  flank  across  the  Savannah  River 
I  explained  to  him  that  if  he  would  simply  engage  the 
attention  of  the  forts  along  Wilmington  Channel  at 
Beaulieu  and  Rosedew,  I  thought  I  could  carry  the 
defences  of  Savannah  by  assault  as  soon  as  the  heavy 
ordnance  arrived  from  Hilton  Head. 

On  the  15th  the  admiral  carried  me  back  to  Fort 
McAllister,  whence  I  returned  to  our  lines  in  the  rear 
of  Savannah. 

Surrender  Refused. 

Having  received  and  carefully  considered  all  the 
reports  of  division  commanders,  I  determined  to 
assault  the  lines  of  the  enemy  as  soon  as  my  heavy 
ordnance  came  from  Port  Royal,  first  making  a  formal 
demand  for  surrender.  On  the  17th  a  number  of 
thirty-pounder  Parrott  guns  having  reached  King's 
Bridge,  I  proceeded  in  person  to  the  headquarters 
of  Major-General  Slocum  on  the  Augusta  road,  and 
despatched  thence  into  Savannah,  by  flag  of  truce, 
a  formal  demand  for  the  surrender  of  the  place,  and 
on  the  following  day  received  an  answer  from  Gen- 
eral Hardee,  refusing  to  surrender. 

In  the  mean  time,  further  reconnoissances  from  our 
left  flank  had  demonstrated  that  it  was  impracticable 
or  unwise  to  push  any  considerable  force  across  the 
Savannah  River,  for  the  enemy  held  the  river  oppo- 
site the  city  with  iron-clad  gunboats,  and  could  destroy 
any  pontoons  laid  down  by  us  between  Hutchinson's 
Island  and  the  South  Carolina  shore,  which  would 
isolate  any  force  sent  over  from  that  flank. 


I  therefore  ordered  General  Slocum  to  get  into 
position  the  siege-guns  and  make  all  the  preparations 
necessary  to  assault,  and  to  report  to  me  the  earliest 
moment  when  he  could  be  ready,  while  I  should  pro- 
ceed rapidly  round  by  the  right  and  make  arrange- 
ments to  occupy  the  Union  causeway  from  the  direc- 
tion of  Port  Royal.  General  Foster  had  already 
established  a  division  of  troops  on  the  peninsula  or 
neck  between  the  Coosahatchie  and  Tullifinney  rivers, 
at  the  head  of  Broad  River,  from  which  position  he 
could  reach  the  railroad  with  his  artillery. 

Preparing  for  an  Assault. 

I  went  to  Port  Royal  in  person  and  made  arrange- 
ments to  reinforce  that  command  by  one  or  more 
divisions  under  a  proper  officer,  to  assault  and  carry 
the  railroad,  and  thence  turn  toward  Savannah  until 
it  occupied  the  causeway  in  question.  I  went  on 
board  the  admiral's  flag-ship,  the  Harvest  Moon, 
which  put  to  sea  the  night  of  the  20th.  But  the  wind 
was  high  and  Increased  during  the  night,  so  that  the 
pilot  judged  Ossabaw  Bar  impassable,  and  ran  into 
Tybee,  whence  we  proceeded  through  the  inland 
channels  into  Wassaw  Sound,  and  thence  through 
Romney  Marsh.  But  the  ebb-tide  caught  the  Harvest 
Moon,  and  she  was  unable  to  make  the  passage. 
Admiral  Dahlgren  took  me  In  his  barge,  and,  pulling 
in  the  direction  of  Vernon  River,  we  met  the  army- 
tug  Red  Legs,  bearing  a  message  from  my  adjutant, 
Captain  Dayton,  of  that  morning,  the  21st,  to  the 
effect   that   our   troops   were    In   possession   of    the 


enemy's  lines,  and  were  advancing  without  opposi- 
tion into  Savannah,  the  c  ntmy  having  evacuated  the 
place  during  the  previous  niglu. 

Admiral  Dahlgren  proceeded  up  the  Vernon  River 
in  his  barge,  while  I  transferred  to  the  tug,  in  which  I 
proceeded  to  Fort  McAhister,  and  thence  to  the  rice- 
mill,  and  on  the  morning  of  the  2  2d  rode  into  the  city 
of  Savannah,  already  occupied  by  our  troops. 

Hardee  Escapes. 

I  was  very  much  disappointed  that  Hardee  had 
escaped  with  his  garrison,  and  had  to  content  myself 
with  the  material  fruits  of  victory  without  the  cost  of 
hfe  which  would  have  attended  a  general  assault.  The 
substantial  results  will  be  more  clearly  set  forth  in  the 
tabular  statements  of  heavy  ordnance  and  other 
pubHc  property  acquired,  and  it  will  suffice  here  to 
state  that  the  important  city  of  Savannah,  with  its 
valuable  harbor  and  river,  was  the  chief  object  of  the 

With  it  we  acquired  all  the  forts  and  heavy  ordnance 
,n  its  vicinity,  with  large  stores  of  ammunition,  shot 
^nd  shells,  cotton,  rice,  and  other  valuable  products 
of  the  country.  We  also  gain  locomotives  and  cars, 
which,  though  of  little  use  to  us  in  the  present  condi- 
tion of  the  railroads,  are  a  serious  loss  to  the  enemy, 
as  well  as  four  steamboats  gained,  and  the  loss  to  the 
enemy  of  the  iron-clad  Savannah,  one  ram,  and  three 
transports  blown  up  or  burned  by  them  the  night 

Formal  demand  havlnor  been  made  for  the  surren- 



der,  and  having  been  refused,  I  contend  that  every- 
thing within  the  line  of  intrenchments  belongs  to  the 
Unired  States,  and  I  shall  not  hesitate  to  use  it,  if 
necessary,  for  public  purposes.     But,  inasmuch  as  the 


inhabitants  generally  have  manifested  a  friendly  dis- 
position, I  shall  disturb  them  as  little  as  possible  con- 
sistently with  the  military  rights  of  present  and  future 
military  commanders,  without  remitting  in  the  least 
our  just  rights  as  captors. 


Our  Army  in  Savannah. 

After  having  made  the  necessary  orders  for  the 
disposition  of  the  troops  in  and  about  Savannah,  I 
ordered  Captain  O.  M.  Poe,  chief  engineer,  to  make 
a  thorough  examination  of  the  enemy's  works  in  and 
about  Savannah,  with  a  view  to  makinor  it  conform  to 
our  future  uses.  New  Hnes  of  defences  will  be  built, 
embracing  the  city  proper,  Forts  Jackson,  Thunder- 
bolt, and  Pulaski  retained,  with  slight  modifications  in 
;heir  armament  and  rear  defences.  All  the  rest  of 
the  enemy's  forts  will  be  dismantled  and  destroyed, 
and  their  heavy  ordnance  transferred  to  Hilton  Head, 
where  it  can  be  more  easily  guarded. 

Our  base  of  supplies  will  be  established  in  Savannah 
as  soon  as  the  very  difficult  obstructions  placed  in  the 
river  can  be  partially  removed.  These  obstructions 
at  present  offer  a  very  serious  impediment  to  the 
commerce  of  Savannah,  consisting  of  cribwork  of  logs 
and  timber  heavily  bolted  together  and  filled  with  the 
cobble-stones  which  formerly  paved  the  streets  of 
Savannah.  All  the  channels  below  the  city  were  found 
more  or  less  filled  with  torpedos,  which  have  been  re- 
moved by  order  of  Admiral  Dahlgren,  so  that  Savan- 
nah already  fulfils  the  important  part  it  was  designed 
in  our  plans  for  the  future. 

In  thus  sketching  the  course  of  events  connected 
with  this  campaign,  I  have  purposely  passed  lightly 
over  the  march  from  Atlanta  to  the  seashore,  because 
it  was  made  in  four  or  more  columns,  sometimes  at 
a  distance  of  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  from  each  other, 


and  it  was  impossible  for  me  to  attend  but  one.  I 
would  merely  sum  up  the  advantages  which  I  conceive 
have  accrued  to  us  by  this  march. 

Fruits  of  the  Grand  March. 

Our  former  labors  in  North  Georgia  had  demon- 
strated the  truth  that  no  large  army,  carrying  with  it 
the  necessary  stores  and  baggage,  can  overtake  and 
capture  an  inferior  force  of  the  enemy  in  his  own 
country;  therefore  no  alternative  was  left  me  but  the 
one  I  adopted — namely,  to  divide  my  forces,  and  with 
the  one  part  act  offensively  against  the  enemy's  re- 
sources, while  with  the  other  I  should  act  defensively 
and  invite  the  enemy  to  attack,  risking  the  chances  of 

In  this  conclusion  I  have  been  singularly  sustained 
by  the  results.  General  Hood,  who,  as  I  have  here- 
tofore described,  had  moved  to  the  westward,  near 
Tuscumbia,  with  a  view  to  decoy  me  away  from 
Georgia,  finding  himself  mistaken,  was  forced  to 
choose  either  to  pursue  me  or  to  act  offensively 
against  the  other  part,  left  in  Tennessee.  He  accepted 
the  latter  course,  and  General  Thomas  has  wisely  and 
well  fulfilled  his  part  of  the  grand  scheme  in  drawing 
Hood  well  up  into  Tennessee  until  he  could  concen- 
trate all  his  own  troops,  and  then  turn  upon  Hood,  as 
he  has  done,  and  destroy  or  fatally  cripple  his  army. 
That  part  of  my  army  is  so  far  removed  from  me  that 
I  leave,  with  perfect  confidence,  it  management  and 
history  to  General  Thomas. 

1  was  thereby  left  with  a  well-appointed  army   to 


sever  the  enemy's  only  remaining  railroad  communi- 
cations eastward  and  westward  for  over  one  hundred 
miles — -namely,  the  Georgia  State  railroad,  which  is 
broken  up  from  Falrburn  Station  to  Madison  and  the 
Oconee,  and  the  Central  railroad  from  Gordon  clear 
to  Savannah,  with  numerous  breaks  on  the  latter  road 
from  Gordon  to  Eatonton  and  from  Millen  to  Augusta, 
and  the  Savannah  and  Gulf  railroad.  We  have  also 
consumed  the  corn  and  fodder  In  the  region  of  country 
thirty  miles  on  either  side  of  a  line  from  Atlanta  to 
Savannah,  as  also  the  sweet  potatoes,  cattle,  hogs, 
sheep,  and  poultry,  and  have  carried  away  more  than 
ten  thousand  horses  and  mules,  as  well  as  a  countless 
number  of  their  slaves.  I  estimate  the  damage  done 
to  the  State  of  Georgia  and  its  military  resources  at 
one  hundred  millions  of  dollars,  at  least  twenty  mil- 
lions of  which  has  Inured  to  our  advantage,  and  the 
remainder  is  simple  waste  and  destruction.  This  may 
seem  a  harsh  species  of  warfare,  but  it  brings  the  sad 
realities  of  war  home  to  those  who  have  been  directly 
or  indirectly  instrumental  in  involving  us  in  its  attend- 
ant calamities. 

The  campaign  iias  also  placed  this  branch  of  my 
army  in  a  position  from  which  other  great  military  re- 
sults may  be  attempted,  besides  leaving  in  Tennessee 
and  North  Alabama  a  force  which  is  amply  sufficient 
to  meet  all  the  chances  of  war  in  that  region  of  our 

Since  the  capture  of  Atlanta  my  staff  is  unchanged, 
save   that  General  Barry,  chief  of  artillery,  has  been 


absent,  sick,  since  our  leaving  Kingston.  Surgeon 
Moore,  United  States  army,  is  chief  medical  director, 
in  place  of  Surgeon  Kittoe,  relieved  to  resume  his 
proper  duties  as  a  medical  inspector. 

Major  Hitchcock,  A.  A.  G.,  has  also  been  added  to 
my  staff,  and  has  been  of  great  assistance  in  the  field 
and  office. 

Captain  Dayton  still  remains  as  my  adjutant-gen- 
eral. All  have,  as  formerly,  fulfilled  their  parts  to  my 
entire  satisfaction. 

A  Splendid  Army. 

In  the  body  of  my  army  I  feel  a  just  pride.  Gen- 
erals Howard  and  Slocum  are  gentlemen  of  singular 
capacity  and  intelligence,  thorough  soldiers  and 
patriots,  working  day  and  night,  not  for  themselves, 
but  for  their  country  and  their  men. 

General  Kilpatrick,  who  commanded  the  cavalry  of 
this  army,  has  handled  it  with  spirit  and  dash  to  my 
entire  satisfaction,  and  kept  a  superior  force  of  the 
enemy's  cavalry  from  even  approaching  our  infantry 
columns  or  wagon-trains.  His  report  is  full  and 
graphic.  All  the  division  and  brigade  commanders 
merit  my  personal  and  official  thanks,  and  I  shall  spare 
no  efforts  to  secure  them  commissions  equal  to  the 
rank  they  have  exercised  so  well.  As  to  the  rank 
and  file,  they  seem  so  full  of  confidence  in  themselves 
that  I  doubt  if  they  want  a  compliment  from  me  ;  but 
I  must  do  them  the  justice  to  say  that,  whether  called 
on  to  fight,  to  march,  to  wade  streams,  to  make  roads, 
clear  out  obstructions,  build  bridges,  make  "  corduroy," 


or  tear  up  railroads,  they  have  done  it  with  alacrity  and 
a  degree  of  cheerfulness  unsurpassed.  A  litde  loose 
in  foraging,  they  "  did  some  things  they  ought  not  to 
have  done,"  yet,  on  the  whole,  they  have  supplied  the 
wants  of  the  army  with  as  little  violence  as  could  be  ex- 
pected and  as  litde  loss  as  I  calculated.  Some  of  these 
foraging-parties  had  encounters  with  the  enemy  which 
would  in  ordinary  times  rank  as  respectable  battles. 

The  behavior  of  our  troops  in  Savannah  has  been 
so  manly,  so  quiet,  so  perfect,  that  I  take  it  as  the  best 
evidence  of  discipline  and  true  courage.  Never  was 
a  hostile  city,  filled  with  women  and  children,  occupied 
by  a  large  army  with  less  disorder,  or  more  system, 
order,  and  good  government.  The  same  general  and 
generous  spirit  of  confidence  and  good  feeling  pervades 
the  army  which  it  has  ever  afforded  me  especial  pleas- 
ure to  report  on  former  occasions. 

I  avail  myself  of  this  occasion  to  express  my  heart- 
felt thanks  to  Admiral  Dahlgren  and  the  officers  and 
men  of  his  fleet,  as  also  to  General  Foster  and  his 
command,  for  the  hearty  welcome  given  us  on  our 
arrival  at  the  coast,  and  for  their  ready  and  prompt 
co-operation  in  all  measures  tending  to  the  result 

Your  obedient  servant, 

W.  T.  Sherman,  ]\faj or- General, 

President  Lincoln's  Christmas  Present. 

When  Savannah  was  evacuated  General  Sherman 
sent  this  brief  message  to  President  Lincoln : 

"I  beg  to  present  to  you  as  a  Christmas  gift  the 


city  of  Savannah,  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  heavy 
guns,  plenty  of  anniiunition,  and  twenty-five  thousand 
bales  of  cotton." 

To  which  the  President  responded: 

"Many,  many  thanks  for  your  Christmas  gift — the 
capture  of  Savannah.  When  you  were  about  to  leave 
Atlanta  for  the  Atlantic  coast,  I  was  anxious,  if  not  fear- 
ful ;  but  feeling  that  you  were  the  better  judge,  and' 
remembering  that  '  nothing  risked,  nothing  gained,* 
I  did  not  interfere.  Now,  the  undertaking  being  a 
success,  the  honor  is  all  yours,  for  I  believe  none  of  us 
went  farther  then  to  acquiesce.  And,  taking  the  work 
of  General  Thomas  into  account,  as  it  should  be  taken, 
it  is  indeed  a  great  success.  Not  only  does  it  afford  the 
obvious  and  immediate  military  advantages,  but  in 
showing  to  the  world  that  your  army  could  be  divided, 
putting  the  stronger  part  to  an  important  new  service^ 
and  yet  leaving  enough  to  vanquish  the  old  opposing 
forces  of  the  whole — Hood's  army — it  brings  those 
who  sat  in  darkness  to  see  ereat  lio-ht.  Please  make 
my  grateful  acknowledgments  to  your  whole  army, 
officers  and  men." 

General  Sherman  is  most  famous  as  the  hero  of  the 
**  march  to  the  sea,"  but  in  military  importance  that 
movement  was  of  less  consequence  than  his  campaigns 
just  before  and  after.  To  use  his  own  words  :  "  Were 
I  to  express  my  measure  of  the  relative  importance  of 
the  march  to  the  sea  and  of  that  from  Savannah  north- 
ward, I  should  place  the  former  at  one  and  the  latter 
at  ten  or  the  maximum." 



Brilliant  Campaign  of  the  CarolinaSe 

Leaving  Savannah,  General  Sherman  moved  his 
army  northward,  and  put  the  finishing  strokes  upon 
his  magnificent  achievementr.  which  were  one  contin- 
uous series  of  successes  from  the  time  he  started  on 
his  great  march  toward  Atlanta.  Following  is  his 
interesting  account  of  his  campaign  through  the 
Carolinas : 

Headquarters  of  the  Military  Division  of  the  Mississippi,  ) 
GoLDSBORO,  N.  C,  April  4,  1865.  / 

General  :  I  must  now  endeavor  to  group  the  events 
of  the  past  three  months  connected  with  the  armies 
under  my  command,  in  order  that  you  may  have  as 
clear  an  understanding  of  the  late  campaign  as  the 
case  admits  of 

I  have  heretofore  explained  how,  in  the  progress 
of  our  arms,  I  was  enabled  to  leave  in  the  West  an 
army  under  Major-General  George  H.  Thomas  of 
sufificient  strength  to  meet  emergencies  in  that  quar- 
ter, while  in  person  I  conducted  another  army,  com- 
posed of  the  Fourteenth,  Fifteenth,  Seventeenth,  and 
Twentieth  corps  and  Kilpatrick's  division  of  cavalry, 
to  the  Atlantic  slope,  aiming  to  approach  the  grand 
theatre  of  war  in  Virginia  by  the  time   the  season 




would  admit  of  military  operations  In  that  latitude. 
The  first  lodgment  on  the  coast  was  made  at  Savan- 
nah, strongly  fortified  and  armed,  and  valuable  to  us 
as  a  good  seaport,  with  Its  navigable  stream  Inland. 
Refitting-  the  Army. 

Nearly  a  month  was  consumed  there  in  refitting 
the  army  and  in  making  the  proper  disposition  of 
captured  property  and  other  local  matters  ;  but  by  the 
15th  of  January  I  was  all  ready  to  resume  the  march. 
Preliminary  to  this,  General  Howard,  commanding  the 
right  wing,  was  ordered  to  em- 
bark his  command  at  Thunder- 
bolt, transport  It  to  Beaufort, 
South  Carolina,  and  thence  by 
the  15th  of  January  make  a 
lodgment  on  the  Charleston 
railroad  at  or  near  Pocotaligo. 
This  was  accomplished  punc- 
tually, at  little  cost,  by  the  Sev- 
enteenth corps,  Major-General 
Blair,  and  a  depot  for  supplies 
was  established  near  the  mouth  of  Pocotaligo  Creek, 
with  easy  water-communication  back  to  Hilton  Head. 

On  the  1 8th  of  January  I  transferred  the  forts  and 
city  of  Savannah  to  Major-General  Foster,  command- 
ing the  Department  of  the  South,  imparted  to  him  my 
plans  of  operation,  and  Instructed  him  how  to  follow 
my  movements  inland  by  occupying  in  succession  the 
city  of  Charleston  and  such  other  points  along  the  sea- 
coast  as  would  be  of  any  military  value  to  us.     The 



combined  naval  and  land  forces  under  Admiral  Porter 
and  General  Terry  had,  on  the  15th  of  January,  cap- 
tured Fort  Fisher  and  the  rebel  forts  at  the  mouth  of 
Cape  Fear  River,  giving  me  an  additional  point  of  se- 
curity on  the  seacoast.  But  I  had  already  resolved  in 
my  own  mind,  and  had  so  advised  General  Grant,  that 
I  would  undertake  at  one  stride  to  make  Goldsboro, 
and  open  communication  with  the  sea  by  the  New- 
bern  railroad,  and  had  ordered  Colonel  W.  W.  Wright, 
superintendent  of  military  railroads,  to  proceed  in 
advance  to  Newbern,  and  to  be  prepared  to  extend 
the  railroad  out  from  Newbern  to  Goldsboro  by  the 
15  th  of  March. 

**  Forward,  March !  " 

On  the  19th  of  January  all  preparations  \vere 
complete,  and  the  orders  of  march  w^ere  given. 
On  the  25th  a  demonstration  was  made  against  the 
Combahee  ferry  and  railroad-bridge  across  the  Sal- 
kahatchie,  merely  to  amuse  the  enemy,  who  had 
evidently  adopted  that  river  as  his  defensive  line 
against  our  supposed  objective,  the  city  of  Charleston. 
I  reconnoitred  the  line  in  person,  and  saw  that  the 
heavy  rains  had  swollen  the  river,  so  that  water  stood 
in  the  swamps  for  a  breadth  of  more  than  a  mile  at  a 
depth  of  from  one  to  twenty  feet 

Not  having  the  remotest  intention  of  approaching 
Charleston,  a  comparatively  small  force  was  able,  by 
seeming  preparations  to  cross  over,  to  keep  in  their 
front  a  considerable  force  of  the  enemy  disposed  tc 
contest  our  advance  on  Charleston.     On  the  27th  I 



rode  to  the  camp  of  General  Hatch's  division  of 
Foster's  command,  on  the  Tullifinney  and  Coosa- 
hatchie  rivers,  and  directed  those  places  to  be  evacu- 
ated, as  no  longer  of  any  use  to  us.  That  division 
was  then  moved  to  Pocotaligo  to  keep  up  the  feints 
already  begun,  until  we  should,  with  the  right  wing, 
move  higher  up  and  cross  the  Salkahatchie  about 
River's  or  Broxton's  Bridge. 

The  Seventeenth  and  Fifteenth  corps  drew  out  of 
camp  on  the  31st  of  January,  but  the  real  march 
began  on  the  ist  of  February.  All  the  roads  north- 
ward had  for  weeks  been  held  by  Wheeler's  cavalry, 
who  had,  by  details  of  negro  laborers,  felled  trees, 
burned  bridges,  and  made  obstructions  to  impede  our 
march.  But  so  well  organized  were  our  pioneer  bat- 
talions, and  so  strong  and  intelligent  our  men,  that 
obstructions  seemed  only  to  quicken  their  progress. 
Felled  trees  were  removed  and  bridges  rebuilt  by  the 
heads  of  columns  before  the  rear  could  close  up. 

Driving-  the  Enemy. 

On  the  1 2th  the  Seventeenth  corps  found  the  enemy 
intrenched  in  front  of  the  Orangeburg  bridge,  but 
swept  him  away  by  a  dash,  and  followed  him,  forcing 
him  across  the  bridge,  which  was  partially  burned. 
Behind  the  bridge  was  a  battery  in  position,  covered 
by  a  cotton  and  earth  rampart,  with  wings  as  far  as 
could  be  seen.  General  Blair  held  one  division  (Giles 
A.  Smith's)  close  up  to  the  Edisto,  and  moved  the 
other  two  to  a  point  about  two  miles  below,  where 
\ie  crossed  Force's  division  by  a  pontoon-bridge,  hold- 


ing  Mowc/*s  in  support.  As  soon  as  Force  emerged 
from  the  swamp  the  enemy  gave  ground,  and  Giles 
Smith's  division  gained  the  bridge,  crossed  over,  and 
occupied  the  enemy's  parapet.  He  soon  repaired 
the  bridge,  and  by  four  p.  m.  the  whole  corps  was  in 
Orangeburg,  and  had  begun  the  work  of  destruction 
on  the  railroad.  Blair  was  ordered  to  destroy  this 
railroad  effectually  up  to  Lewisville,  and  to  push  the 
enemy  across  the  Congaree  and  force  him  to  burn  the 
bridges,  which  he  did  on  the  14th;  and  without  wast- 
ing time  or  labor  on  Branchville  or  Charleston,  which 
I  knew  the  enemy  could  no  longer  hold,  I  turned  all 
the  columns  straight  on  Columbia 

Early  on  the  morning  of  February  i6th  the  head 
of  the  column  reached  the  bank  of  the  Congaree  op- 
posite Columbia,  but  too  late  to  save  the  fine  bridge 
which  spanned  the  river  at  that  point.  It  was  burned 
by  the  enemy.  While  waiting  for  the  pontoons  to 
come  to  the  front  we  could  see  people  running  about 
the  streets  of  Columbia,  and  occasionally  small  bodies 
of  cavalry,  but  no  masses.  A  single  gun  of  Captain 
De  Grass's  battery  was  firing  at  their  cavalry  squads, 
but  I  checked  his  firing,  limiting  him  to  a  few  shots  at 
the  unfinished  State-house  walls  and  a  few  shells  at 
the  railroad  depot,  to  scatter  the  people  who  were 
seen  carrying  away  sacks  of  corn  and  meal  that  we 
needed.  There  was  no  white  flag  or  manifestation 
of  surrender.  I  directed  General  Howard  not  to 
cross  directly  in  front  of  Columbia,  but  to  cross  the 
Saluda  at  the  factory,  three  miles  above,  and  after- 


ward  Broad  River,  so  as  to  approach  Columbia  from 
the  nordi.  Within  an  hour  of  the  arrival  of  Gen- 
eral Howard's  head  of  column  at  the  river  opposite 
Columbia  the  head  of  column  of  the  left  wing  also 

Capture  of  Columbia. 

In  anticipation  of  the  occupation  of  the  city,  I  had 
made  written  orders  to  General  Howard  touching  the 
conduct  of  the  troops.  These  were  to  destroy  abso- 
lutely all  arsenals  and  public  property  not  needed 
for  our  own  use,  as  well  as  all  railroads,  depots,  and 
machinery  useful  in  war  to  an  enemy,  but  to  spare  all 
dwellings,  colleges,  schools,  asylums,  and  harmless 
private  property.  I  was  the  first  to  cross  the  pontoon - 
bridge,  and  in  company  with  General  Howard  rode 
into  the  city.  The  day  was  clear,  but  a  perfect  tem- 
pest of  wind  was  raging.  The  brigade  of  Colonel 
Stone  was  already  in  the  city,  and  was  properly 
posted.  Citizens  and  soldiers  were  on  the  streets 
and  general  good  order  prevailed. 

General  Wade  Hampton,  who  commanded  the  Con- 
federate rear-guard  of  cavalry,  had,  in  anticipation  of 
our  capture  of  Columbia,  ordered  that  all  cotton, 
public  and  private,  should  be  moved  Into  the  streets 
(and  fired,  to  prevent  our  making  use  of  It.  Bales 
were  piled  everywhere,  the  rope  and  bagging  cut,  and 
tufts  of  coti:on  were  blown  about  In  the  wind,  lodged 
in  the  trers  and  against  houses,  so  as  to  resemble  a 
snow-storm.  Some  of  these  piles  of  cotton  were  burn- 
ing, especially  one  In  the  very  heart  of  the  city  near 




the  court-house,  but  the  was  partially  subdued  by 
the  labor  of  our  soldiers.  During  the  day,  the  Fit- 
teenth  corps  passed  through  Columbia  and  out  on  the 
Camden  road.  The  Seventeenth  did  not  enter  the 
town  at  all,  and  the  left  wing  and  cavalry  did  not 
come  within  ten  miles  of  the  town. 

Before  one  single  public  building  had  been  fired  by 
order,  the  smouldering  fires  set  by  Hampton's  order 
were  rekindled  by  the  wind  and  communicated  to  the 
Ouiidings  around.  About  dark  they  began  to  spread, 
-nd  got  beyond  the  control  of  the  brigade  on  duty 
within  the  city.  The  whole  of  Wood's  division  was 
brought  in,  but  it  was  found  impossible  to  check  the 
flames,  which  by  midnight  had  become  unmanageable, 
and  raged  until  about  four  a.  m.,  when,  the  wind  sub- 
siding, they  were  got  under  control. 

The  Town  Fired  by  Confederates. 

I  was  up  nearly  all  night,  and  saw  Generals  How- 
ard, Logan,  Wood,  and  others  laboring  to  save  houses 
and  to  protect  families  thus  suddenly  deprived  of 
"helter  and  of  bedding  and  wearing  apparel.  I  dis- 
claim on  the  part  of  my  army  any  agency  in  this  fire, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  claim  that  we  saved  what  of  Co- 
lumbia remains  unconsumed.  And,  without  hesitation, 
I  charge  General  Wade  Hampton  with  having  burned 
his  own  city  of  Columbia,  not  with  a  malicious  intent 
or  as  the  manifestation  of  a  silly  "  Roman  stoicism," 
out  from  folly  and  want  of  sense  In  filling  It  with  lint, 
cotton,  and  tinder.  Our  officers  and  men  on  duty 
worked  well  to  extinguish  the  flames;  but  others  not 




on  duty,  including  the  officers  who  had  long  been 
imprisoned  there,  rescued  by  us,  may  have  assisted 
in  spreading  the  fire  after  it  had  once  begun,  and  may 
have  indulged  in  unconcealed  joy  to  see  the  ruin  of 
the  capital  of  South  Carolina.  During  the  i8th  and 
igth  the  arsenal,  railroad  depots,  machine-shops, 
foundries,  and  other  buildings  were  properly  de- 
stroyed by  detailed  working-parties,  and  the  railroad 
track  torn  up  and  destroyed  to  Kingsville  and  the 
Wateree  bridge  and  up  in  the  direction  of  Winnsboro. 
Without  unnecessary  delay  the  columns  were  again 
put  in  motion,  directed  on  Fayetteville,  North  Carolina, 
the  right  wing  crossing  the  Pedee  at  Cheraw  and  the 
left  wing  and  cavalry  at  Sneedsboro.  General  Kil- 
patrick  was  ordered  to  keep  well  on  the  left  flank,  and 
the  Fourteenth  corps,  moving  by  Love's  Bridge,  was 
given  the  right  to  enter  and  occupy  Fayetteville  first 
The  weather  continued  unfavorable  and  the  roads  bad, 
but  the  Fourteenth  and  Seventeenth  corps  reached 
Fayetteville  on  the  1 1  th  of  March,  skirmishing  with 
Wade  Hampton's  cavalry,  that  covered  the  rear  of 
Hardee's  retreating  army,  which,  as  usual,  had  crossed 
Cape  Fear  River,  burning  the  bridge.  During  the 
march  from  the  Pedee,  General  Kilpatrick  had  kept 
Ais  cavalry  well  on  the  left  and  exposed  flank. 

Hampton's  Sudden  Attack. 

During  the  night  of  the  9th  March  his  three  brigades 
were  divided  to  picket  the  roads.  General  Hampton, 
detecting  this,  dashed  in  at  daylight  and  gained  pos- 
session of  the  camp  of  Colonel  Spencer's  brigade  and 


itx^  house  In  which  General  Kilpatrlck  and  Colonel 
Spe-ricer  had  their  quarters.  The  surprise  was  com- 
plete, but  General  Kilpatrlck  quickly  succeeded  in 
rallying  his  men  on  foot  in  a  swamp  near  by,  and, 
by  a  prompt  attack,  well  followed  up,  regained  his 
artillery,  horses,  camp,  and  everything,  save  some 
prisoners  whom  the  enemy  carried  off,  leaving  their 
dead  on  the  grround. 

The  lith,  13th,  and  14th  were  passed  at  Fayette- 
ville,  destroying  absolutely  the  United  States  arsenal 
and  the  vast  amount  of  machinery  which  had  formerly 
belonged  to  the  old  Harper's  Ferry  United  States 
arsenal.  Every  building  was  knocked  down  and 
burned,  and  every  piece  of  machinery  utterly  broken 
up  and  nained,  by  the  First  regiment  Michigan  En- 
gineers, under  the  immediate  supervision  of  Colonel 
O.  M.  Pof^  chief  engineer.  Much  valuable  property 
of  great  use  to  an  enemy  was  here  destroyed  or  cast 
into  the  river. 

Up  to  this  period  I  had  perfecdy  succeeded  In  Inter- 
posing my  superior  army  between  the  scattered  parts 
of  my  enemy.  But  I  was  then  aware  that  the  frag- 
ments that  had  left  Columbia  under  Beauregard  had 
been  reinforced  by  Cheatham's  corps  from  the  West 
and  the  garrison  of  Augusta,  and  that  ample  time  had' 
been  given  to  move  them  to  my  front  and  flank  about 
Raleigh.  Hardee  had  also  succeeded  in  getting  across 
Cape  Fear  River  ahead  of  me,  and  could  therefore 
complete  the  junction  with  the  other  armies  of  John- 
ston and  Hoke  in  North  Carolina. 


Johnston  in  Front. 

And  the  whole,  under  the  command  of  the  skilful 
and  experienced  Joe  Johnston,  made  up  an  army  su- 
perior to  me  in  cavalry,  and  formidable  enough  in 
artillery  and  infantry  to  justify  me  in  extreme  caution 
in  making  the  last  step  necessary  to  complete  the 
march  I  had  undertaken.  Previous  to  reaching  Fay- 
etteville,  I  had  despatched  to  Wilmington  from  Laurel 
Hill  Church  two  of  our  best  scouts  with  intelligence  of 
our  position  and  my  general  plans.  Both  of  these 
messengers  reached  Wilmington,  and  on  the  morning 
of  the  1 2th  of  March  the  army-tug  Davidson,  Captain 
Ainsworth,  reached  Fayetteville  from  Wilmington, 
bringing  me  full  intelligence  of  events  from  the  outer 

All  the  signs  induced  me  to  believe  that  the  ene 
my  would  make  no  further  opposition  to  our  prog- 
ress, and  would  not  attempt  to  strike  us  in  flank 
while  in  motion.  I  therefore  directed  Howard  to 
move  his  right  wing  by  the  new  Goldsboro  road,  which 
goes  by  way  of  Falling  Creek  Church.  I  also  left 
Slocum  and  joined  Howard's  column,  with  a  view  to 
open  communications  with  General  Schofield,  coming 
up  from  Newbern,  and  Terry  from  Wilmington.  By 
subsequent  reports  I  learned  that  General  Slocum's 
head  of  column  had  advanced  from  its  camp  of  March 
i8th,  and  first  encountered  Dibbrell's  cavalry,  but 
soon  found  its  progress  impeded  by  infantry  and  ar- 
tillery. The  enemy  attacked  his  head  of  column, 
gaining  a  temporary  advantage,  and  took  three  guns 


and  caissons  of  General  Carlin's  division,  driving  the 
two  leading  brigades  back  on  the  main  body.  As 
soon  as  General  Slocum  realized  that  he  had  in  his 
front  the  whole  Confederate  army,  he  promptly  de- 
ployed the  two  divisions  of  the  Fourteenth  corps, 
General  Davis,  and  rapidly  brought  up  on  their  lefr 
the  two  divisions  of  the  Twentieth  corps,  General 
Williams.  These  he  arranged  on  the  defensive,  and 
hastily  prepared  a  line  of  barricades.  General  Kil- 
patrick  also  came  up  at  the  sound  of  artillery  and 
massed  on  the  left.  In  this  position  the  left  wing  re- 
ceived six  distinct  assaults  by  the  combined  forces  of 
Hoke,  Hardee,  and  Cheatham,  under  the  immediate 
command  of  General  Johnston  himself,  without  giving 
an  inch  of  ground,  and  doing  good  execution  on  the 
enemy's  ranks,  especially  with  our  artillery,  the  enemy 
having  little  or  none. 

Johnston's  Rapid  Move. 

Johnston  had  moved  by  night  from  Smithfield  with 
great  rapidity  and  without  unnecessary  wheels.  Intend- 
ing to  overwhelm  my  left  flank  before  It  could  be 
relieved  by  its  co-operating  columns.  But  he  "  reck- 
oned without  his  host."  I  had  expected  just  such  a 
movement  all  the  way  from  Fayetteville,  and  was  pre- 
pared for  it.  By  four  p.  m.  of  the  20th  a  complete 
and  strong  line  of  battle  confronted  the  enemy  in  his 
intrenched  position,  and  General  Johnston,  instead  of 
catching  us  in  detail,  was  on  tlie  defensive,  with  Mill 
Creek  and  a  single  bridge  to  his  rear.  Nevertheless, 
we  had  no  object  to  accomplish  by  a  battle,  unless  at 



an  advantage,  and  therefore  my  general  Instructions 
were  to  press  steadily  with  skirmishers  alone,  to  use 
artllleiy  pretty  strongly  on  the  wooded  space  held  by 
the  er.erny,  and  to  feel  pretty  strongly  the  flanks  of 
his  position,  which  were,  as  usual,  covered  by  the  end- 
less swamps  of  this  region  of  country. 

Thus  matters  stood  about  Bentonville  on  the  21st 
of  March.  On  the  same  day  General  Schofield  en- 
tered Goldsboro  with  litde  or  no  opposidon,  and  Gen^ 

eral  Terry  had  got  possession 
of  the  Neuse  River  at  Cox's 
Bridge,  ten  miles  above,  with 
a  pontoon-bridge  laid  and  a 
brigade  across ;  so  that  the 
three  armies  were  in  actual 
connection,  and  the  great  ob- 
ject of  the  campaign  was 

On  the  2ist  a  steady  rain 
prevailed,  during  which  Gen- 
eral Mower's  division  of  the  Seventeenth  corps,  on 
the  extreme  right,  had  worked  well  to  the  right  around 
the  enemy's  flank,  and  had  nearly  reached  the  bridge 
across  Mill  Creek,  the  only  line  of  retreat  open  to  the 
enemy.  Of  course  there  was  extreme  danger  that 
the  enemy  would  turn  on  him  all  his  reserves,  and,  It 
might  be,  let  go  his  parapets  to  overwhelm  Mower. 
Accordingly,  I  ordered  at  once  a  general  attack  by 
our  skirmish-line  from  left  to  right. 

Quite  a  noisy  batde  ensued,  during  which  General 



Mower  was  enabled  to  regain  his  connection  with  his 

own  corps  by  moving  to  his  left  rear.     Still,  he  had 

developed  a  weakness  in  the  enemy's  position  of  which 

advantage    might    have    been 

taken ;    but     that    night     the 

enemy  retreated  on  Smithfield, 

leaving  his  pickets  to  fall  into 

our    hands,    with    many  dead 

unburied,  and  wounded  in  his 

field  hospitals.     At    daybreak 

of  rhe  2 2d  pursuit  was  made 

two  miles  beyond  Mill  Creek, 

,  1111  1  MAJOR-GENERAL  E.  O.  OR* 

but    checked    by    my    order. 

General  Johnston   had  utterly  failed  in   his  attempt. 

and  we  remained  in  full  possession  of  the  field  of 


General  Slocum  reports  the  losses  of  the  left  wing 
about  Bentonville  at  9  officers  and  145  men  killed,  51 
officers  and  816  men  wounded,  and  3  officers  and  223 
men  missing,  taken  prisoners  by  the  enemy;  total, 
1247.  He  buried  on  the  field  167  rebel  dead  and 
took  2f3^  prisoners. 

General  Howard  reports  the  losses  of  the  right 
wing  at  2  officers  and  35  men  killed,  12  officers  and 
289  men  wounded,  and  i  officer  and  60  men  missing; 
total,  399.  He  also  buried  100  rebel  dead  and  took 
1287  prisoners. 

The  cavalry  of  Kilpatrick  was  held  in  reserve,  ajid 
lost  but  few,  if  any,  of  which  I  have  no  report  as  yet 
Our  aggregate  loss  at  Bentonville  was  1646 



It  was  all-important  that  I  should  have  an  interview 
with  the  general-in-chief ;  and,  presuming  that  he  could 
not  at  this  time  leave  City  Point,  I  left  General  Scho- 
field  in  chief  command,  and  proceeded  with  all  expe- 
dition by  rail  to  Morehead  City,  and  thence  by  steamer 
to  City  Point,  reaching  General  Grant's  headquarters 
on  the  evening  of  the  27th  of  March.  I  had  the  good 
fortune  to  meet  General  Grant,  the  President,  Gen- 
erals Meade,  Ord,  and  others  of  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac,  and  soon  learned  the  general  state  of  the 
military  world,  from  which  I  had  been  in  a  great  meas- 
ure cut  off  since  January.  Having  completed  all 
necessary  business,  I  re-embarked  on  the  navy  steamer 
Bat,  Captain  Barnes,  which  Admiral  Porter  placed  at 
my  command,  and  returned  via  Hatteras  Inlet  and 
Newbern,  reaching  my  own  headquarters  in  Golds- 
boro  during  the  night  of  the  30th.  During  my  ab- 
sence full  supplies  of  clothing  and  food  had  been 
brought  to  camp,  and  all  things  were  working 

A  Crowuin^  Success. 

I  have  thus  rapidly  sketched  the  progress  of  out 
columns  from  Savannah  to  Goldsboro,  but  for  more 
minute  details  must  refer  to  the  reports  of  subordinate 
commanders  and  of  staff  officers,  which  are  not  yet 
ready,  but  will  in  due  season  be  forwarded  and  filed 
with  this  report.  I  cannot,  even  with  any  degree  of 
precision,  recapitulate  the  vast  amount  of  injury  done 
the  enemy  or  the  quantity  of  guns  and  materials  of 
war  captured  and  destroyed.     In  general  terms,  we 


have  traversed  the  country  from  Savannah  to  Golds- 
boro,  with  an  average  breadth  of  forty  miles,  consum- 
ing all  the  forage,  cattle,  hogs,  sheep,  poultry,  cured 
meats,  corn-meal,  etc.  The  public  enemy,  instead  of 
drawing  supplies  from  that  region  to  feed  his  armies, 
will  be  compelled  to  send  provisions  from  other  quar- 
ters to  feed  the  inhabitants. 

Of  course,  the  abandonment  to  us  by  the  enem^ 
of  the  whole  seacoast  from  Savannah  to  Newbern, 
North  Carolina,  with  its  forts,  dockyards,  gunboats, 
etc.,  was  a  necessary  incident  to  our  occupation  and 
destruction  of  the  inland  routes  of  travel  and  sup- 
ply ;  but  the  real  object  of  this  march  was  to  place 
this  army  in  a  position  easy  of  supply,  whence  It  could 
take  an  appropriate  part  in  the  spring  and  summer 
campaign  of  1865.  This  was  completely  accomplished 
on  the  2 1st  of  March  by  the  junction  of  the  three 
armies  and  occupation  of  Goldsboro. 

In  conclusion,  I  beg  to  express  in  the  most  em- 
phatic manner  my  entire  satisfaction  with  the  tone 
and  temper  of  the  whole  army.  Nothing  seems  to 
dampen  their  energy,  zeal,  cr  cheerfulness.  It  Is  Im- 
possible to  conceive  a  march  involving  more  labor 
and  exposure,  yet  I  cannot  recall  an  instance  of  bad 
temper  by  the  way  or  hearing  an  expression  of  doubt 
as  to  our  perfect  success  In  the  end.  I  believe  that 
this  cheerfulness  and  harmony  of  action  reflects  upon 
all  concerned  quite  as  much  real  honor  and  fame  as 
'*  battles  gained  "  or  "  cities  won,"  and  I  therefore  com- 
meAid  all — generals,  staff,  officers,  and  men — for  these 


high  qualities,  in  addition  to  the  more  soldierly  ones 
of  obedience  to  orders  and  the  alacrity  they  have 
always  manifested  when  danger  summoned  them 
"  to  the  front."  I  have  the  honor  to  be  your  obe- 
dient servant, 

W.  T.  Sherman,  Major- General  Commanding, 

Major -General  H.  W.  Halleck,  Chief  of  Staff,  Washington  City,  D.  C. 


Surr'^nder  of   Johnston  to   Sherman. — Capture 
of  Fifty  Thousand  Men. 

The  closing  act  in  General  Sherman^s  superb 
career  was  his  capture  of  the  entire  Confederate 
army  under  Johnston.  We  give  the  account  of  it  in 
his  own  words : 

On  the  15th  day  of  April,  1865,  I  was  at  Raleigh 
in  command  of  three  armies,  the  Army  of  the  Ohio, 
the  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  and  the  Army  of  the 
Tennessee ;  my  enemy  was  General  Joseph  E.  Johns- 
ton of  the  Confederate  Army,  who  commanded  fifty 
thousand  men,  retreating  along  the  railroad  from 
Raleigh  by  Hillsboro,  Greensboro,  Salisbury,  and 
Charlotte.  I  commenced  pursuit  by  crossing  the 
curve  of  that  road  in  the  direction  of  Ashboro  and 
Charlotte ;  after  the  head  of  my  column  had  crossed 
the  Cape  Fear  River  at  Aven's  Ferry,  I  received  a 
communication  from  General  Johnston,  and  answered 
it,  copies  of  which  I  most  prompdy  sent  to  the  War 
Department,  with  a  letter  addressed  to  the  Secretary 
of  War,  as  follows : 

*•  Headquarters  Military  Division  of  the  Mississippi,  1 
IN  THE  Field,  Raleigh,  N.  C,  April  15,  1865.         / 

"General  U.  S.  Grant  and  Secretary  of  War; 
I  send  copies  of  a  correspodence  to  you  with  General 


Johnston,  which  I  think  will  be  followed  by  terms  of 
capitulation.  I  will  grant  the  same  terms  General 
Grant  gave  Lee,  and  be  careful  not  to  complicate 
any  points  of  civil  policy.  If  any  cavalry  has  started 
toward  me,  caution  them  to  be  prepared  to  find  our 
work  done.  It  is  now  raining  in  torrents,  and  I  shall 
await  General  Johnston's  reply  here,  and  will  pre= 
pare  to  meet  him  in  person  at  Chapel  Hill. 

"  I  have  Invited  Governor  Vance  to  return  to  Ral- 
eigh with  the  civil  officers  of  his  State.  I  have  met 
ex-Governor  Graham,  Messrs.  Badger,  Moore,  Hold- 
en,  and  others,  all  of  whom  agree  that  the  war  is 
over,  and  that  the  States  of  the  South  must  resume 
their  allegiance,  subject  to  the  Constitution  and  laws 
of  Congress,  and  must  submit  to  the  national  arms. 
This  great  fact  once  admitted,  the  details  are  of  easy 

"W.  T.  Sherman,  Majo7'- General!' 

I  met  General  Johnston  In  person  at  a  house  five 
miles  from  Durham  Station,  under  a  flag  of  truce. 
After  a  few  preliminary  remarks  he  said  to  me,  since 
Lee  had  surrendered  his  army  at  Appomattox  Court- 
house, of  which  he  had  just  been  advised,  he  looked 
upon  further  opposition  by  him  as  the  greatest  possi- 
ble of  crimes  ;  that  he  wanted  to  know  whether  1 
could  make  him  any  general  concessions,  anything 
by  which  he  could  maintain  his  hold  and  control  of 
his  army  and  prevent  its  scattering,  anything  to  sat- 
isfy the  great   yearning   of  their   people ;    if  so,  h^ 


thought  he  could  arrange  terms  satisfactory  to  both 
parties.  He  wanted  to  embrace  the  condition  and 
fate  of  all  the  armies  of  the  Southern  Confederacy  to  the 
Rio  Grande — to  make  one  job  of  it,  as  he  termed  it. 

I  asked  him  what  his  powers  were — whether  he 
could  command  and  control  the  fate  of  all  the  armies 
to  the  Rio  Grande.  He  answered  that  he  thought  he 
could  obtain  the  power,  but  he  did  not  possess  it  at 
that  moment ;  he  did  not  know  where  Mr.  Davis  was, 
but  he  thought  if  I  could  give  him  the  time  he  could 
find  Mr.  Breckenridge,  whose  orders  would  be  obeyed 
everywhere,  and  he  could  pledge  to  me  his  personal 
faith  that  whatever  he  undertook  to  do  would  be 

Can  Jolmstou  Fill  the  Contract? 

I  had  had  frequent  correspondence  with  the  late 
President  of  the  United  States,  with  the  Secretary  of 
War,  with  General  Halleck,  and  with  General  Grant, 
and  the  general  impression  left  upon  my  mind  was 
that  if  a  settlement  could  be  made  consistent  with  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States,  the  laws  of  Con- 
gress, and  the  proclamation  of  the  President,  they 
would  not  only  be  willing,  but  pleased,  to  terminate 
the  war  by  one  single  stroke  of  the  pen. 

I  needed  time  to  finish  the  railroad  from  the  Neuse 
bridge  up  to  Raleigh,  and  thought  I  could  put  in  four 
or  five  days  of  good  time  in  making  repairs  to  my 
road,  even  if  I  had  to  send  propositions  to  Washing- 
ton ;  I  therefore  consented  to  delay  twenty-four  hours, 
CO  enable  General   Johnston  to  procure  what  would 


satisfy  me  as  to  his  authority  and  ability  as  a  military 
man  to  do  what  he  undertook  to  do ;  I  therefore  con- 
sented to  meet  him  the  next  day,  the  17th,  at  twelve, 
noon,  at  the  same  place. 

We  did  meet  again:  after  a  general  interchange  of 
courtesies  he  remarked  that  he  was  then  prepared  to 
satisfy  me  that  he  could  fulfil  the  terms  of  our  conver- 
sation of  the  day  before.  He  then  asked  me  what  1 
was  willing  to  do ;  I  told  him,  in  the  first  place,  1 
could  not  deal  with  anybody  except  men  recognized 
by  us  as  "  belligerents,"  because  no  military  man 
could  go  beyond  that  fact.  The  attorney-general  has 
since  so  decided,  and  any  man  of  common  sense  so 
understood  it  before ;  there  was  no  difference  upon 
that  point  as  to  the  men  and  officers  composing  the 
Confederate  armies.  I  told  him  that  the  President  of 
the  United  States  by  a  published  proclamation  had 
enabled  every  man  in  the  Southern  Confederate 
army,  of  the  rank  of  colonel  and  under,  to  procure 
and  obtain  amnesty  by  simply  taking  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  the  United  States  and  agreeing  to  go  to 
his  home  and  live  in  peace.  The  terms  of  General 
Grant  to  General  Lee  extended  the  same  principles 
to  the  officers  of  the  rank  of  brigadier-generai  and 
upward,  including  the  highest  officer  in  the  Confeder- 
ate army — viz.  General  Lee,  the  commander-in-chief 
I  was  therefore  willing  to  proceed  with  him  upon  the 
same  principles. 

No  Wliite  Slaves. 

Then  a  conversation  arose  as  to  what  form  of  gov 



ernment  they  were  to  have  in  the  South  ?  Were  the 
States  there  to  be  dissevered,  and  were  the  people  co 
be  denied  representation  in  Congress  ?  Were  the 
people  there  to  be,  in  the  common  language  of  the 
people   of  the    South,  slaves   to   the    people  of  the 


North?  Of  course  I  said,  "No;  we  desire  that  you 
shall  regain  your  position  as  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  free  and  equal  to  us  in  all  respects,  and  with 
representation  upon  the  condition  of  submission  to 
the  lawful  authority  of  the  United  States  as  defined 


by  the  Constitution,  the  United  States  courts,  and  the 
authorities  of  the  United  States  supported  by  those 
courts."  He  then  remarked  to  me  that  General 
Breckenridge,  a  major-general  in  the  Confederate 
army,  was  near  by,  and  if  I  had  no  objection  he 
would  like  to  have  him   present. 

I  called  his  attention  to  the  fact  that  I  had  on  the 
day  before  explained  to  him  that  any  negotiations 
between  us  must  be  confined  to  belligerents.  Pie 
replied  that  he  understood  that  perfectly.  ''  But," 
said  he,  "  Breckenridge,  whom  you  do  not  know,  save 
by  public  rumor,  as  Secretary  of  War,  is,  in  fact,  a 
major-general ;  I  give  you  my  word  for  that.  Have 
you  any  objection  to  his  being  present  as  a  major- 
general?"  I  replied,  "I  have  no  objection  to  any 
militaiy  officer  you  desire  being  present  as  a  part  of 
your  personal  staff."  I  myself  had  my  own  officers 
near  me  at  call,  and  was  willing  to  grant  what  I 
claimed  for  myself. 

Breckenrldee  came  a  strano-er  to  me,  whom  I  had 
never  spoken  to  in  my  life,  and  he  joined  in  the  con- 
versation ;  while  that  conversation  was  going  on  a 
courier  arrived  and  handed  to  General  Johnston  a 
package  of  papers;  he  and  Breckenridge  sat  down 
and  looked  over  them  for  some  time,  and  put  them 
away  in  their  pockets ;  what  they  were  I  know  not^ 
but  one  of  them  was  a  slip  of  paper,  written,  as  Gen- 
eral Johnston  told  me,  by  Mr.  Reagan,  Postmaster- 
General  of  the  Southern  Confederacy ;  they  seemed 
to  talk  about  it  sotto  voce,  and  finally  handed  it  to  me ; 

JoaNsfoN^s  ^URRENDjww.  475 

I  gladded  over  It ;  It  was  preceded  by  a  preamble  and 
closed  with  a  few  general  terms;  I  rejected  It  at  once. 

Important  Conference. 

We  then  discussed  matters — talked  about  slavery, 
talked  about  everything.  There  was  a  universal  assent 
that  slavery  was  as  dead  as  anything  could  be;  that  it 
v/as  one  of  the  Issues  of  the  war  long  since  deter- 
mined ;  and  even  General  Johnston  laughed  at  the 
folly  of  the  Confederate  Government  In  raising  negro 
soldiers  whereby  they  gave  us  all  the  points  of  the 
case.  I  told  them  that  slavery  had  been  treated  by 
us  as  a  dead  institution — first  by  one  class  of  men 
from  the  initiation  of  the  war,  and  then  from  the  date 
of  the  Emancipation  Proclamation  of  President  Lin- 
coln, and  finally  by  the  assent  of  all  parties. 

As  to  reconstruction,  I  told  them  I  did  not  know 
what  the  views  of  the  Administration  were.  Mr. 
Lincoln  up  to  that  time,  In  letters  and  by  telegrams  to 
me,  encouraged  me  by  all  the  words  which  could  be 
used  In  general  terms  to  believe  not  only  In  his  will- 
ingness, but  In  his  desires,  that  I  should  make  terms 
with  civil  authorities,  governors,  and  legislators,  even 
as  far  back  as  1863.  It  then  occurred  to  me  that  I 
might  write  off  some  general  propositions,  meaning 
little  or  meaning  much  according  to  the  construction 
of  parties — what  I  would  term  *'  glittering  generali- 
ties"— and  send  them  to  Washington,  which  I  could 
do  in  four  days.  That  would  enable  the  new  Presi- 
dent to  give  me  a  clue  to  his  policy  In  the  Important 
juncture  which  was  then  upon  us,  for  the  war  wai 


over;  the  highest  miHtary  authorities  of  the  Southern 
Confederacy  so  confessed  to  me  openly,  unconceal- 
edly,  and  repeatedly.  I  therefore  drew  up  the  memo- 
randum (which  has  been  published  to  the  world)  for 
the  purpose  of  referring  it  to  the  proper  executive 
authority  of  the  United  States,  and  enabling  him  to 
define  to  me  what  I  might  promise,  simply  to  cover 
the  pride  of  the  Southern  men,  who  thereby  became 
subordinate  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  civil  and 

Grim  Terms  of  War. 
I  made  no  concessions  to  General  Johnston's  army 
or  the  troops  under  his  direction  and  immediate  con- 
trol ;  and  if  any  concessions  were  made  in  those  gen- 
eral terms,  they  were  made  because  I  then  believed, 
and  now  believe,  they  would  have  delivered  into  the 
hands  of  the  United  States  the  absolute  control  of 
every  Confederate  officer  and  soldier,  all  their  muster- 
rolls,  and  all  their  arms.  It  would  save  us  all  the  in- 
cidental expense  resulting  from  the  military  occupation 
of  that  country  by  provost-marshals,  provost-guards, 
military  governors,  and  all  the  machinery  by  which 
nlone  military  power  can  reach  the  people  of  a  civilized 
country.  It  would  have  surrendered  to  us  the  armies 
of  Dick  Taylor  and  Kirby  Smith,  both  of  them  capable 
of  doing  infinite  mischief  to  us  by  exhrmsting  the  re- 
sources of  the  whole  country  upon  which  we  were  to 
depend  for  the  future  extinguishment  of  our  debt, 
forced  upon  us  by  their  wrongful  and  rebellious  con- 


I  never  designed  to  shelter  a  human  being  from  any 
liability  incurred  in  consequence  of  past  acts  to  the  civil 
tribunals  of  our  country,  and  I  do  not  believe  a  fair 
and  manly  interpretation  of  my  terms  can  so  construe 
them,  for  the  words  "  United  States  courts,"  "  United 
States  authorities,"  "  limitations  of  executive  power," 
occur  in  every  paragraph.  And  if  they  seemingly 
yield  terms  better  than  the  public  would  desire  to  be 
given  to  the  Southern  people,  if  studied  closely  and  well 
it  will  be  found  that  there  is  an  absolute  submission  on 
their  part  to  the  Government  of  the  United  States, 
either  through  its  executive,  legislative,  or  judicial 
authorities.  Every  step  in  the  programme  of  these 
negotiations  was  reported  punctually,  clearly,  and  fully 
by  the  most  rapid  means  of  communication  that  I  had. 

All  the  Fruits  of  Victory. 

And  yet  I  neglected  not  one  single  precaution 
necessary  to  reap  the  full  benefits  of  my  position  in 
case  the  Government  amended,  altered,  or  absolutely 
annulled  those  terms.  As  those  matters  were  neces- 
sarily mingled  with  the  military  history  of  the  period. 
I  would  like  at  this  point  to  submit  to  the  committee 
my  official  report,  which  has  been  in  the  hands  of  the 
proper  officer,  Brigadier-General  Rawlings,  chief  of 
.tafif  of  the  army  of  the  United  States,  since  about  the 
12th  instant.  It  was  made  by  me  at  Manchester,  Va., 
after  I  had  returned  from  Savannah,  whither  I  went  to 
open  up  the  Savannah  River  and  reap  the  fruits  of  my 
negotiations  with  General  Johnston,  and  to  give  Gen- 
eral Wilson's  force  in  the  interior  a  safe  and  sure  base 


from  which  he  could  draw  the  necessary  supply  of 
clodiing  and  food  for  his  command.  It  was  only  after 
I  had  fulfilled  all  this  thai  I  learned,  for  the  first  time, 
through  the  public  press,  that  my  conduct  had  been 
animadverted  upon,  not  only  by  the  Secretary  of  War, 
but  by  General  Halleck  and  the  press  of  the  country 
at  large. 

I  did  feel  hurt  and  annoyed  that  Mr.  Stanton  coupled 
with  the  terms  of  my  memorandum,  confided  to  him, 
a  copy  of  a  telegram  to  General  Grant  which  he  had 
never  sent  to  me.  He  knew,  on  the  contrary,  that 
when  he  was  at  Savannah  I  had  negotiations  with 
civil  parties  there,  for  he  was  present  in  my  room 
when  those  parties  were  conferring  with  me,  and  I 
wrote  him  a  letter  setting  forth  many  points  of  it,  in 
which  I  said  I  aimed  to  make  a  split  in  Jeff  Davis's 
dominions  by  segregating  Georgia.  Those  were  civil 
negotiadons,  and,  far  from  being  discouraged  from 
making  them,  I  was  encouraged  by  Secretary  Stanton 
himself  to  make  them. 

Rig^hteous  Indig-nation. 

By  coupling  the  note  to  General  Grant  with  my 
memorandum  he  gave  the  world  fairly  and  clearly  to 
infer  that  I  was  in  possession  of  it.  Now,  I  was  not 
in  possession  of  it,  and  I  have  reason  to  know  that 
Mr.  Stanton  knew  I  was  not  in  possession  of  it.  Next 
met  me  General  Halleck's  telegram,  indorsed  by  Mr. 
Stanton,  in  which  they  publicly  avowed  an  act  of  per- 
fidy— namely,  the  violation  of  my  truce,  which  I  had  a 
right  to  make,  and  which,  by  the  laws  of  war  and  by 


the  laws  of  Congress,  is  punishable  by  death  and  no 
other  punishment. 

Next,  they  ordered  an  army  to  pursue  my  enemy, 
who  was  known  to  be  surrendering  to  me,  in  the  pres- 
ence of  General  Grant  himself,  their  superior  officer ; 
and,  finally,  they  sent  orders  to  General  Wilson  and 
to  General  Thomas — my  subordinates,  acting  under 
me  on  a  plan  of  the  most  magnificent  scale,  admirably 
executed — to  defeat  my  orders  and  to  thwart  the  in> 
terests  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States.  I 
did  feel  indignant ;  I  do  feel  indignant.  As  to  my 
honor,  I  can  protect  it.  In  my  letter  of  the  15th  of 
April  I  used  this  language :  "  I  have  invited  Governor 
Vance  to  return  to  Raleigh,  with  the  civil  officers  of 
his  State."  I  did  so  because  President  Lincoln  had 
himself  encourao^ed  me  to  a  similar  course  with  the 
governor  of  Georgia  when  I  was  In  Atlanta.  And 
here  was  the  opportunity  which  the  Secretary  of  War 
should  have  taken  to  put  me  on  my  guard  against 
making  terms  with  civil  authorities,  if  such  were  th>^ 
settled  policy  of  our  Government.  Had  President 
Lincoln  lived,  1  know  he  would  have  sustained  me. 

After  the  War. 

The  foregoing  narrative  by  General  Sherman 
throws  a  clear  lieht  on  liIs  action — an  action  which 
was  disapproved  at  Washington.  He  was  anxious  to 
stop  the  flow  of  blood,  and  was  willing  to  be  magnani- 
mous toward  a  fallen  foe. 

Then  followed  the  grand  review  of  the  troops  In 
Washington,  and  on  May  30,  Sherman  took  leave  of 


his  army  In  general  orders.  In  the  reorganization  of 
the  army  Grant  became  general  and  Sherman  lieu- 
tenant-general. When  Grant  became  President, 
Sherman  was  elevated  to  the  highest  military  office, 
which  he  retained  until  his  retirement  in  February, 

Appropriately,  we  may  close  this  part  of  our  vol- 
ume with  Charles  De  Kay's  striking  poetical  tribute 
to  the  brilliant  commander,  whose  achievements  went 
far  toward  saving  the  Union  at  the  time  of  greatest 
peril : 

Rumble  and  grumble,  ye  drums, 
Shrill  be  your  throat,  O  pipes ! 
Writhe,  blood-red  flag,  in  your  mourning  Vand, 
Serpent  of  harlequin  stripes  ! 
But,  stars  in  the  banner's  blue ! 
Smile,  for  the  war-chief  true 
Up  from  the  myriad  hearts  of  the  land 
Comes — to  your  haven  comes. 

Guns  that  sullenly  boom, 

Mourn  for  the  master's  hand 
Dreadful,  uplifting  the  baton  of  war 
While  your  hurricane  shook  the  land ! 
Marching,  marching,  battle  and  raid. 
Gay  and  garrulous,  unafraid, 
Sherman  drove  with  his  brilliant  star 
A  dragon  of  eld  to  its  doom. 

Pass,  O  shade  without  stain  ! 

Sunsets  that  grimly  smile 
Shall  paint  how  your  signal  flags  deploy 
Battalions,  mile  on  mile — 
Horsemen  and  footmen,  rank  on  rank. 
Sweeping  against  the  foeman's  flank, 
Howling  full  of  the  strange  mad  joy 
Of  slaughter  and  fe»r  to  be  slain  \ 




Fatal  Illness.— The  Giant  Shorn  of  his  Strength. 
— Anxiety  throughout  the  Nation. 

General  Sherman's  last  illness  began  on  the  loth 
Df  February.  It  was  hoped  that  his  iron  constitution 
would  s^and  firmly  against  the  attack,  and  that  the 
hero  of  many  well-fought  battles  would  not  have  to 
surrender  yet  to  death.  The  strongest  man  is  finally 
weak ;  the  bravest  soul  must  some  time  be  van- 
quished ;  the  great  general's  foe  this  time  was  more 
formidable  than  ranks  bristlinor  with  steel.  The  vet- 
eran  of  hot  campaigns  had  met  an  enemy  too  strong 
to  be  defeated. 

At  1.15  A.M.  a  messenger  left  General  Sherman's 
house  in  New  York  on  the  run  to  the  nearest  drug- 
gist. He  carried  a  message  to  Senator  Sherman, 
saying,  "  Papa  is  much  worse."  It  was  signed 
"  Sherman." 

At  1.20  A.  M.  R.  T.  Sherman  sent  the  following 
despatch  to  Senator  John   Sherman,  brother  of  the 

31  481 


general :  "  Papa  Is  very  much  worse.     You  had  bet- 

ter  come. 

At  a  quarter-past  eleven  Dr.  Alexander,  through  the 
eeneral's  son,  handed  out  the  foUowino^  bulletin,  show- 
Ing  the  result  of  a  consultation  of  physicians: 

"  The  result  of  the  consultation  of  Drs.  Alexander 
and  Janeway  shows  that  there  has  been  no  Improve- 
ment In  General  Sherman's  condition. 

"  Dr.  Alexander." 

All  day  the  battle  between  death  and  General 
Sherman  was  waged  with  varying  fortune.  The  bed- 
side of  the  aged  sufferer  was  surrounded  by  the 
members  of  his  famil)'  and  loving  friends,  and  all  that 
medical  science  could  suggest  to  ward  off  the  en- 
croachments of  the  Insidious  disease  which  had 
attacked   his    face   was   done. 

The  chances  were  against  him.  It  was  his  second 
attack  of  erysipelas,  and  much  more  severe  than  the 
first  one.  His  many  years — he  celebrated  his  sev- 
enty-first birthday  on  the  previous  Sunday — had 
weakened  his  iron  constitution,  and  It  was  certain 
that  he  had  litde  reserve  force  with  which  to  batde 
against  It.  But  his  brother  and  his  children,  remem- 
bering how  he  had  come  forth  victorious  from  many 
a  forlorn  hope  before,  refused  to  lose  heart  or  to 
admit  that  his  case  was  hopeless,  and  at  noon,  as  if  in 
answer  to  their  faith,  he  began  to  rally  from  his  sink- 
ing spell. 

Each  succeeding  hour  brought  encouraging  news 


from  the  sick  chamber,  and  at  six  o'clock  Dr.  R.  H. 
Green,  who  had  been  at  his  bedside  all  the  afternoon, 
said  that  there  was  no  immediate  danorer  of  death. 
But  he  held  out  small  hopes  of  his  recovery.  Sena- 
tor Sherman  clung  to  the  beHef  that  he  would  gel 
well,  but  postponed  his  intended  return  to  Wash- 

Surrounded  by  Iiis  Children. 

All  of  General  Sherman's  family,  with  the  exception 
of  his  son,  the  Rev.  T.  E.  Sherman,  who  was  study- 
ing in  the  Jesuit  institution  in  the  island  of  Jersey, 
and  who  was  notified  by  cable  of  his  father's  condi- 
tion, watched  by  his  bedside.  His  friend.  Dr.  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  T.  Alexander  of  the  army, 
was  in  constant  attendance  upon  him.  Shortly  after 
midnight  it  was  noticed  that  his  condition  had  changed 
for  tlie  worse  and  that  he  was  steadily  growing  weaker 
His  face  and  neck  were  badly  inflamed,  and  any  mo- 
tion seemed  to  be  quite  painful.  But,  a$  a  general 
thing,  he  did  not  suffer  much.  He  lay  in  a  state  of 
semi-coma,  and  could  only  be  roused  at  long  intervals 
to  partake  of  medicine  or  nouriF.hrrient.  In  his  con- 
scious moments  he  seemed  to  be  aware  of  the  dan- 
ger of  his  situation,  but  he  bore  his  pains  and  faced 
the  menacing  death  with  the  same  simple  courage 
which  had  always  marked  his  strong  character.  He 
waited  without  trepidation  for  the  dread  visitor  that 
had  often  confronted  him  on  the  battle-field,  and 
whose  coming  now  had  no  terrors. 

He  lay  in  the  front  room  of  his  residence,  on  the 


second  floor.  The  shades  were  drawn  tighdy  down, 
and  no  noise  was  permitted  to  reach  him.  A  notice 
at  the  door  warned  callers  not  to  ring  the  bell,  and  a 
special  attendant  was  placed  there  to  answer  the  ques- 
tions of  inquirers,  who  came  in  great  numbers,  and. 
to  receive  the  shoals  of  telecrrams  which  came  from 
all  parts  of  the  country.  One  of  these,  from  Presi- 
dent Harrison,  making  anxious  inquiry,  was  answered 
by  Mr.  P.  T.  Sherman,  but  most  of  them  were  an- 
swered only  by  the  hourly  bulletins  which  were  sent 
out  by  the  doctors  or  by  young  Mr.  Sherman. 

Once  in  a  while  the  general  became  slightly  deliri- 
ous, and  it  seemed  as  if  the  disease  had  attacked  the 
brain,  which  was  the  complication  to  be  feared.  But 
He  \,ould  rally  from  these  attacks  and  hope  would  re- 
turn again. 

The  Worst  Feared. 

As  the  morning  wore  on  the  physicians  lost  cour- 
age, intimating  that  he  would  not  live  another  twenty- 
four  hours,  and  declared  that  there  was  no  possible 

"  General  Sherman  is  suffering  from  facial  erysipe- 
las," said  Dr.  Alexander,  "coupled  with  slow  fever. 
It  is  a  simple  disease,  but  difficult  to  treat,  which 
makes  it  a  dangerous  one.  It  is  bad  enough  for  a 
younger  man,  who  has  the  strength  and  vigor  to  with- 
stand its  insidious  attack,  but  the  general  has  not  the 
constitution  that  he  once  had.  I  do  not  anticipate 
any  crisis  in   this   case,  for  erysipelas  does  its  work 


by  slowly   undermining  the  strength   of  the  patient 
until  he  has  none  left  to  do  battle  with  it." 

Amonor  the  callers  at  the  house  who  were  admitted 


were  General  Thomas  Ewing,  General  O.  O.  Howard, 
and  Lieutenant  Treat  of  his  staff 

The  reports  were  discouraging  during  the  morning 
hours,  but  about  noon  their  tenor  changed  and  the 
doctors  began  to  report  an  improvement.  The  fol- 
lowing bulletins  will  tell  the  story  of  the  day: 

"  11.50 — No  change  for  the  better.  General  Sher- 
man continues  to  grow  weaker." 

"  2  P.  M. — General  Sherman  was  worse  this  moi  .x- 
ing,  and  his  condition  was  considered  critical.  During 
the  day  his  condition  has  improved  considerably." 

"6.15  P.M. — General  Sherman's  condition  has  not 
changed  in  the  least  since  last  bulletin.  Still  improv- 
ing, very  slowly." 

"  9  p.  M. — General  Sherman  is  resting  easily.     His 

family  are  confident  that    he  will    live    through  the 


He  Knew  his  Friend. 

General  Ewing,  who  left  the  house  at  eventide,  said 
that  the  physicians  were  feeling  much  more  hopeful, 
though  there  had  been  no  decided  improvement  in 
his  condition.  "  General  Sherman  is  fully  as  strong 
now  as  he  was  at  six  o'clock  this  morning,"  he  said, 
"  and  when  he  is  aroused  from  his  lethargy  seems  to 
be  entirely  intelligent  and  free  from  hallucination.  He 
has  been  in  a  state  of  semi-coma  for  a  long  time. 


"  I  have  been  sitting  by  his  bedside  for  a  full  hour. 
His  face  and  neck  are  much  swollen  and  somewhat 
inflamed,  so  that  he  moves  his  head  with  difficulty  and 
pain.  I  asked  the  general  if  he  recognized  me.  He 
replied,  '  Hello,  Ewing !  is  that  you  ?'  He  appeared 
to  have  considerable  difficulty  in  speaking  on  account 
of  the  mucus  in  his  throat  and  the  stiffness  of  his 
muscles.     I  do  not  apprehend  his  death  to-night." 

Thousands  of  his  old  friends  all  over  the  country 
were  praying  for  his  recovery,  but  there  appeared  to 
be  very  little  hope  that  the  hero  who  saved  Shiloh, 
and  the  genius  which  performed  the  impossible  and 
marched  two  thousand  miles  to  the  sea  against  the 
prognostications  of  military  men  the  world  over,  would 
do  more  than  linger  for  a  few  hours  or  days,  at  the 
most,  before  he  laid  down  his  colors  to  the  one  enemy 
who  is  unconquerable. 

President  Harrison  having  telegraphed  to  New 
York  for  information  concerning  the  condition  of  Gen- 
eral Sherman,  received  a  telegram  from  Mr.  P.  T. 
Sherman,  saying  that  his  father's  condition  was  cnt- 
ical,  but  that  there  was  a  slight  improvement.  Gen- 
eral  Schofield  also  received  a  telegram  from  Mr. 
Sherman  saying,  "  My  father's  condition  is  still  critical, 
but  the  doctors  are  hopeful." 

Sympathy  from  the  Grand  Army. 

The  State  Department,  Grand  Army  of  the  Repub- 
lic, in  annual  session  in  Boston,  sent  the  following 
despatch  to  the  daughter  o(  General  Sherman  :  "  The 
Massachusetts  Department  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the 


Republic,  In  convention  assembled,  watches  with  so- 
licitude  the  condition  of  the  last  of  the  three  crreat 
leaders  of  the  Union  army,  and  that  he  may  speedily 
be  restored  to  health  is  the  earnest  desire  of  his  com^ 

The  illness  of  General  Sherman  was  the  sole  topic 
in  New  York  and  throughout  the  country.  The 
earlier  reports  from  his  bedside  suggested  the  possi- 
bility of  his  recovery  from  the  attack,  but  later  on 
February  12th  bulletins  were  put  up  here  and  there 
which  indicated  that  his  family  had  really  given  up 

A  Touching-  Scene. 

In  front  of  all  the  bulletin-boards  in  the  city  throngs 
y^ere  assembled  during  the  entire  day,  but  perhap? 
the  most  suggestive  and  touching  exhibition  of  thf- 
interest  in  the  great  general  was  shown  in  front  of  the 
bulletin  which  one  of  the  newspapers  put  up  early  in 
the  afternoon.  That  was  a  bulletin  from  the  son  of 
Sherman,  in  which  it  was  stated  that  the  family  had 
given  up  all  hope  of  the  general's  recovery. 

Not  many  moments  after  it  was  put  up  there  came 
in  the  throng  two  persons  who  stopped  and  read  the 
bulletin.  One  of  them  was  a  man  who  leaned  heavily 
upon  his  cane,  whose  white  hair  was  shown  beneath 
his  tall  beaver  hat,  and  whose  complexion,  swarthy 
and  yet  clear  and  indicating  abundant  health,  was 
that  seemingly  of  a  native  of  the  tropics.  This  was 
Hannibal  Hamlin,  and  he  was  leaning  upon  the  arm 
of  his  son,  General  Hamlin.     He  was  unrecoo["nized 


by  the  crowd.  He  stood  for  a  moment,  read  the  bul- 
letin, and  then  said :  "  I  am  afraid  my  old  friend.  Gen- 
eral Sherman,  has  reached  the  number  of  his  days." 

Ex- Vice  President  Hamlin  seemed  to  be  deeply 
affected.  His  relations  with  General  Sherman  had 
been  most  cordial,  and  in  the  early  part  of  the  war 
the  great  general  had  no  stronger  friend  in  the  Ad- 
ministration than  Mr.  Hamlin  showed  himself  to  be. 
Although  he  was  ten  years  older  than  Sherman,  yet 
he  displayed  a  vigor  which  the  general  had  not  shown 
in  the  last  year  or  two. 

The  lights  and  the  flitting  shadows  in  the  death- 
chamber  of  the  old  warrior,  who  was  slowly  passing 
away,  were  carefully  watched  during  the  entire  night 
by  a  score  of  newspaper-men,  and  every  bulletin 
issued  by  Drs.  Alexander  and  Janeway  was  quickly 
wired  all  over  the  continent. 

Death  Expected. 

Two  policemen  were  on  duty  outside,  and  every- 
thing was  kept  as  quiet  as  possible  in  the  neighborhood. 
The  electric  bell  was  removed  from  the  door,  so  that 
its  jingling  would  not  disturb  the  rest  of  the  sick  man, 
and  instructions  were  given  not  to  admit  any  one 
except  relatives  and  personal  friends. 

The  next  bulletin  said  that  death  was  only  a  ques- 
tion of  a  few  hours.  Simultaneously  with  this  came  a 
despatch  from  P.  Tecumseh  Sherman,  the  general's 
son,  and  it  was  addressed  to  President  Harrison,  in- 
forming him  that  death  was  momentarily  expected. 
From   then  on   the   house  remained  in  comparative 


darkness.  The  solitary  policeman  silently  paced  in 
front  of  the  residence,  occasionally  answering  the 
queries  of  passers-by  with  the  stereotyped  answer, 
"  Sinking  rapidly."  When  the  early  morning  wagons 
came  rattling  down  the  street  a  wave  of  the  hand  from 
the  officer  on  duty  caused  them  to  slacken  their  pace, 
and  they  crept  by  in  silence,  avoiding  that  noise  of 
wheels  on  the  pavements  so  disagreeable  to  sick 

The  scenes  about  General  Sherman's  residence 
this  morning  strongly  suggested  those  of  six  years 
before,  when  the  death  of  General  Grant  was  momen- 
tarily expected.  The  newspapers  of  New  York  and 
Brooklyn  were  represented,  some  having  two  or  three 
reporters  present.  On  the  street  corners  were  groups 
of  men  waiting  apparently  to  get  the  latest  informa- 
tion from  the  sick-room.  Conversation  was  carried 
on  in  whispers,  as  if  fearful  of  disturbing  the  dying 
warrior,  though  half  a  block  removed  from  his  bedside. 
Inside  the  storm-doors  of  the  front  entrance  a  young 
man  scrutinized  each  card  handed  in,  and  none  but 
the  most  intimate  family  friends  were  admitted.  All 
others  merely  left  their  cards  and  withdrew. 


Battling  with   the    Foe.— A   Gallant   Fight  for 


All  through  the  day,  Thursday,  February  12th, 
General  Sherman  was  wresthno-  with  an  invincible 
foe.  What  a  battle  it  was  which  was  wao-ed  in  the 
home  of  the  grim  old  soldier !  Death  never  tackled 
a  tougher  adversary.  It  caught  him  by  the  throat 
and  tried  to  stranMe  him  ;  it  burned  in  his  veins  with 
consuming  fire  ;  it  stole  stealthily  into  the  seat  of  his 
intellect.  But  he  met  it  at  every  point  and  wrestled 
Vi^ith  it  mightily.  He  was  like  a  tough  and  sturdy 
oak,  swayed  but  unbroken  by  the  storm. 

It  was  not  that  the  general  feared  death.  It  had 
no  terrors  to  him,  with  his  beloved  wife  awaiting  him 
on  the  other  side.  But  he  wanted  to  see  Tom  before 
he  went.  He  was  determined  to  shake  hands  with 
his  first-born,  his  beloved,  who  had  grown  apart  from 
him  in  his  religion,  but  for  whom  his  heart  still  beat 

He  would  not  die  till  Tom  came,  he  had  said 
before  his  case  got  desperate,  and  he  set  all  the 
powers  of  his  indomitable  will  to  the  task  of  living 
until  the  Rev.  Father  Sherman  came  across  the  sea 
and  clasped  him  in  his  arms  once  more.  And  this 
resolution    never    left    him,    conscious    or    delirious. 



It  was  that  which  made  him  last  beyond  the  ex- 
pectation  of  his  physicians  and  turned  his  case  into 
a  marvel. 

And  "Tom"  left  Queenstown  the  day  before  in  a 
desperate  race  with  death.  Could  he  possibly  win  ? 
At  times  it  seemed  as  if  he  might.  It  was  Sherman 
that  saved  the  lost  battle  of  Shiloh.  It  was  Sherman 
that  performed  the  "impossible"  march  to  the  sea. 
A  man  of  miracles,  would  his  unconquerable  will 
hold  death  itself  back  when  hope  itself  seemed 
madness  ? 

It  was  like  Shiloh. 

The  story  of  the  day — what  pen  will  ever  tell  it? 
What  a  drama  it  was  in  the  home  of  the  dying  soldier ! 
Hope  and  despair,  hope  and  despair,  chased  each  other 
in  rapid  succession  across  the  stage,  and  each  hour 
had  its  special  expectation.  Like  fast-fluctuating  tides 
the  flickering  life  changed  all  the  way  from  a  seeming 
certainty  of  death  within  the  hour  to  the  semblance 
of  sure  recovery.  The  doctors  had  disagreed  a  score 
of  times,  and  the  partial  hopes  of  friends  often  built 
high  the  ramparts  of  expectation,  but  the  outcome 
of  it  all  was  the  edict  of  the  men  of  science  that  death 
was  a  certainty  and  only  a  matter  of  time. 

The  fright  of  the  early  morning,  when  all  nature 
Was  at  ebb  tide  and  General  Sherman's  life-force  with 
it,  was  succeeded  after  daybreak  by  a  period  of  hope. 
The  danger  of  immediate  death  grew  less  patent,  and 
the  doctor  said  that  at  the  worst  he  would  live  for 
several  hours.     The  fever  was   not  so  hio^h  nor  the 


coma  so  complete.  The  brain  was  still  unattacked  by 
inflammation.  Could  it  be  possible  to  avert  the  catas- 
trophe, after  all  ? 

New  Danger. 

After  a  time  the  doctors  were  able  to  alter  the  diet 
to  beef  tea,  considerable  of  which  was  administered 
with  success,  and  the  stimulating  and  strengthening 
effects  of  which  were  noticeably  felt. 

But  now  a  new  danger  was  made  manifest.  Mucus 
collected  upon  the  lungs,  which  General  Sherman  did 
not  have  the  power  to  relieve  himself  of,  and  there 
was  danger  of  his  chokino-  to  death.  At  times  he 
started  up  and  tried  to  rise,  but  his  limbs  refused  their 
office.  The  physicians  sought  in  every  way  to  relieve 
him,  but  it  seemed  in  vain,  and  matters  were  at  a 
desperate  stage. 

Without  the  house  a  guard  was  constantly  in 
attendance  telling  each  inquirer  that  hope  had  almost 
fled.  Sturdy  workingmen  with  their  tin  buckets 
paused  to  ask  after  the  general,  and  ladies  and  gen- 
tlemen in  fine  carriages  rolled  up  to  the  curb  and  sent 
in  their  cards  or  went  in  themselves  to  ask  personally 
how  went  the  tide  of  battle. 

Eleven  o'clock,  and  the  tide  at  its  lowest  ebb. 
General  Sherman  was  dying,  the  doctors  said.  All 
hope  was  gone.  He  had  been  unconscious  some 
time.  His  lungs  were  full.  His  face  was  purple. 
His  breath  came  in  short,  quick  g^^sps.  Mucus 
rattled  in  his  throat.  The  dew  of  death  gath  \red 
on    his    wrinkled    forehead    as    fast   as    it    coulc^    be 


wiped  away.  Finis  seemed  written  on  the  seamed 
face.  Only  the  will  remained  unconquered.  Tom 
had  not  come ! 

Pathetic  Scene. 

The  weeping  family  were  gathered  about  the  bed- 
side.  The  gentle  Rachel  had  her  arms  about  her 
father.  The  Senator  stood  leaning  on  the  head- 
board looking  into  the  face  of  his  elder  brother. 
The  private  secretary,  who  had  been  hastily  sum- 
moned from  his  vacation,  and  the  grizzled  friend, 
General  Tom  Ewing,  were  weeping  a  little  apart. 
The  doctors  bent  over  the  knotted  form,  lighting  as 
stubbornly  as  the  general  himself. 

But  Tom  had  not  come !  The  old  soldier  had  not 
yet  surrendered.  Again  he  rallied  his  forces  mightily, 
and  the  fortunes  of  war  were  again  in  his  favor. 

A  sudden  fit  of  coughing  freed  his  lungs  of  a 
large  quantity  of  mucus.  He  was  given  a  stimulant, 
and  the  effect  was  astonishing.  The  doctors,  who 
had  sent  out  bulletins  to  the  effect  that  he  could 
not  live  another  hour,  were  now  putting  forth  prom- 
ising bulletins.  A  despatch  was  sent  to  President 
Harrison  by  Senator  Sherman  saying :  "  The  improve- 
ment of  General  Sherman  at  one  o'clock  to-day 
justifies  a  faint  hope  that  he  will  recover." 

When  the  doctor  left  the  house  he  said  that  noth- 
ing but  the  marvellous  vitality  of  General  Sherman 
kept  him  alive.  All  through  the  afternoon  hope 
lived  again,  but  it  was  at  one  o'clock,  only  two  hours 
after  he  had  seemed  to  be  fairly  within  the  gates  of 


death,  that  the  mast  marvellous  exhibition  of  General 
Sherman's  will-power  was  manifested.  For  some 
time  he  had  been  half  sitting  up,  and  striving  earn- 
estly to  rid  himself  of  the  incubus  on  his  lungs.  He 
was  conscious,  but  frequently  wandered  off  into  de- 
lirum.  Now  he  made  a  sturdy  effort  to  rise,  and, 
assisted  by  the  doctors,  succeeded  in  walking  across 
the  room  and  sat  down  in  a  chair.  The  exercise 
seemed  to  help  him,  and  when  he  reached  his  bed 
again  he  seemed  clearer  and  more  vigorous  than  he 
bad  been  for  twenty-four  hours. 

Eiicoiirag^iiig'  News. 

News  of  this  wonderful  exhibition  was  eiven  to  the 
newspaper-men  by  General  Horatio  C.  King,  who  was 
greatly  elated  by  it.  It  was  promptly  confirmed  by 
Secretary  Barrett  and  General  Ewing,  who  thought 
it  meant  recovery.  The  doctors  said  no  to  this,  and 
hinted  at  fears  of  pneumonia. 

There  was  a  fresh  alarm  at  nightfall,  coupled  with 
nost  alarming  bulletins,  and  carriages  rattled  up 
from  every  direction  bringing  persons  who  had  been 
hasdly  summoned.  But  the  prophets  of  disaster 
again  reckoned  without  their  host,  and  at  ten  o'clock 
the  general  was  again  pronounced  out  of  immdiate 

He  was  resting  quite  easily,  though  breathing  with 
difficulty.  He  was  quite  conscious  and  knew  those 
present.  He  had  gotten  rid  of  much  of  the  trouble- 
some mucus.  At  times  he  had  a  bandage  over  his 
eyes  to  shade  them  from  the  light.     He  still  appeared 




to  have  a  good  deal  of  strength  and  vitality.  If  he 
could  hold  out  forty-eight  hours  longer,  the  doctors 
held  out  hopes  of  his  ultimate  recovery.  His  will 
was  resolute. 

Senator  John  Sherman,  who  spent  the  previous 
night  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Hoyt,  his  niece,  decided 
to  remain  at  the  Sherman  residence. 

At  eleven  o'clock  the  servants  closed  the  storm- 
doors  and  drew  down  the  blinds.  Policeman  Brown 
was  called  to  the  basement  door  by  Private  Secretary 
Barrett,  and  requested  to  hold  until  morning  all  tele- 
grams and  messages  which  arrived  after  midnight, 
and  give  the  family  rest. 

On  his  Feet  for  a  Moment. 

At  eleven  o'clock  in  the  evening  the  general  again 
demonstrated  his  extraordinary  will-power,  according 
to  Lieutenant  Fitch,  by  arising  from  his  bed  and 
walking  halfway  across  the  room.  He  was  unable 
to  speak,  but  appeared  to  recognize  those  who  were 
in  the  room. 

When  he  reached  the  middle  of  the  floor  he 
stopped  and  tottered.  He  was  at  once  supported 
back  to  bed,  and  when  he  lay  down  appeared  to  be 
very  much  exhausted. 

Early,  at  twenty-five  minutes  after  five  in  the 
morning,  the  general's  son,  P.  T.  Sherman,  sent  this 
despatch  to  the  President: 

"  My  father  is  growing  steadily  worse.  It  appears 
to  be  only  a  question  of  hours.  I  have  given  up 
all  hope." 


Senator  Sherman  at  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
sent  this  telegram   to   President  Harrison  : 

"  The  improvement  of  General  Sherman  at  one 
o'clock  to-day  justifies  a  faint  hope  of  his  recovery." 

The  medical  bulletin  at  8.30  p.  m.  said:  "General 
Sherman's  condition  is  very  critical.  He  is  gradually 
growing  weaker." 

Profound  sympathy  was  awakened  for  the  dying 
hero,  and  from  all  parts  of  the  country  came  messages 
showing  how  deeply  the  nation  was  moved. 

Prayer  in  Washing- ton. 

In  the  course  of  the  opening  prayer  on  February 
1 2th  the  chaplain  of  the  United  States  Senate,  refer- 
ring to  General  Sherman's  illness,  said  : 

"Look  in  mercy  upon  Thy  servant  around  whose 
sick  bed  so  many  hearts  lovingly  gather,  and  in  this 
time  of  anxiety  give  support  and  grace.  Oh,  that  the 
peace  of  God  which  passeth  all  understanding  may 
keep  his  heart  and  mind  as  he  casts  himself  upon  the 
mercy  of  God  ! 

"  If  it  so  please  Thee,  spare  this  life,  so  long  pre 
served,  sanctify  this  affliction,  and  grant  that,  as  we 
move  among  the  dying  and  the  dead,  we  may  so  live 
that  when   this   mortal   life  shall  end  we  may  enter 
upon  the  Hfe  that  never  ends." 

Thursday  night  was  a  grateful  relief  to  the  worn- 
out  family,  for  the  general  slept  peacefully,  and  those 
who  had  been  up  all  the  night  before  were  able  to 
retire  and  eet  much-needed  rest.  He  was  awakened 
-^very  hour  and  given  nourishment,  which  seemed  to 


Strengthen  him  considerably,  and  about  half-past  six 
in  the  morning  he  again  rose  from  his  bed  and  sat  for 
a  few  moments  on  a  chair  while  a  nurse  made  his  bed. 
At  eleven  o'clock  he  again  got  out  of  bed,  and  his 
attendants  had  considerable  trouble  in  keeping  him 
in  bed,  especially  as  he  was  suffering  somewhat  from 
his  long-time  enemy — asthma — and  was  anxious  to 
assume  an  upright  position. 

The  Father's  Heart. 

At  no  time  during  the  day  was  he  delirious,  and 
though  his  mind  was  not  at  all  active,  it  was  quite 
clear  and  he  understood  all  that  was  said  to  him.  H^ 
seemed  to  have  but  one  consuming  wish,  and  that  was 
to  see  Tom.  Several  times  he  asked  for  him  and  for 
**  Cump,"  the  younger  son.  There  were  some  things 
he  wished  to  talk  about,  but  weakness  would  not 
permit  it. 

The  house  in  West  Seventy-first  street  looked 
peaceful  enough  at  sunrise.  All  signs  of  the  hurry 
and  disorder  which  prevailed  the  day  before  were 
absent.  At  seven  o'clock  a  smiling  housemaid  came 
to  the  door  and  announced  that  the  general  had 
passed  a  quiet  and  restful  night.  He  had  taken 
considerable  nourishment  and  had  slept  well,  and 
was  at  that  time  asleep.  The  doctors  were  very 
much  encouraged. 

When  the  tin-pail  brigade  came  and  asked  its 
questions,  the  solitary  officer  was  able  to  give  encour- 
aging news,  and  many  a  **  Thank  God !"  was  uttered 
as  the  questioners  turned  away. 


General  Sherman's  illness  attracted  a  great  deal  of 
ihterest,  and  wherever  bulletins  were  posted  hun- 
dreds of  people  stopped  to  learn  the  latest  tidings. 
So  great  was  the  interest  throughout  the  country  that 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  found  it 
necessary  to  send  bulletins  of  his  condition  to  eigh- 
teen thousand  offices.  One  did  not  realize  what  a 
popular  hero  "  Uncle  Billy  "  was  until  his  peril  showed 
how  universal  was  the  feeling  about  him. 

The  first  official  news  of  Friday  was  brought  out  at 
eight  o'clock  by  the  general's  private  secretary,  whose 
face  wore  a  hopeful  look.  He  was  inclined  not  to 
promise  too  much,  but  he  showed  that  the  hopes 
entertained  were  shared  in  even  by  the  conservative 
doctors,  who  had  no  intention  of  putting  forth  any 
rainbow  statements. 

No  Loss  meant  a  Gain. 

At  nine  o'clock  the  following  bulletin,  the  first  o\ 
the  day,  was  issued : 

"  9  A.  M. — After  consultation  this  morning  the  phy- 
sicians find  that  General  Sherman  has  lost  nothinof 
during  the  night." 

This  was  as  far  as  the  doctors  would  go  officially, 
but  they  admitted  privately  that  no  loss  meant  a  gain. 
The  erysipelas  had  nearly  all  disappeared,  and  the 
great  peril  now  was  from  pneumonia,  which  had  not 
developed,  but  still  threatened.  If  they  could  keep 
the  patient  from  going  backward  until  one  or  two 
o'clock  this  morning,  they  said,  there  would  be  sub- 
stantial basis  for  hope.     There  was  slight  oedema  in 


one  of  the  lungs,  but  the  other  was  entirely  free.  He 
was  still  somewhat  troubled  by  the  accumulation  of 
mucus  in  one  lung,  but  it  was  not  to  the  alarming  ex- 
tent as  on  the  day  before. 

At  eleven  o'clock  Senator  Sherman  sent  the  fol- 
lowing telegram,  which  was  given  to  the  press  in  lieu 
of  a  bulletin : 

*'  To  THE  Hon.  Redfield  Proctor,  Secretary  of  War, 
Washhigton,  D.  C.  : 

"  Telegram  received.  General  Sherman  passed  a 
good  night.  Asthma,  his  old  disease,  his  chief  trouble. 
Heart  and  lungs  performing  their  functions.  We  are 
much  encouraged  and  hope  for  recovery.  He  has 
every  care  which  love,  sympathy,  and  human  skill  can 
render,  for  which  we  all  are  profoundly  grateful." 

At  twelve  m.  General  Thomas  Ewing  appeared,  and 
said  that  for  the  last  fourteen  hours  the  patient's  con- 
dition had  been  easy  and  that  he  had  been  resting 


The  Crisis  Passed. 

"  We  all  think,"  said  General  Ewing,  **  that  the  su- 
preme crisis  has  been  passed."  The  following  bulletin 
was  given  out  later  : 

"  1. 20  p.  M. — After  a  consultation  the  physicians  say 
there  has  been  no  chanQ^e  in  General  Sherman's  con- 
dition  since  this  morning." 

The  afternoon  was  void  of  news.  The  doctors  did 
not  put  out  a  bulletin  for  several  hours,  and  no  news 
was  looked  upon  as  equivalent  to  good  news.  The 
early  hours  of  morning  were  the  ones  looked  fpr 


with  apprehension.  It  is  then,  when  all  nature  seems 
to  be  at  an  ebb,  that  danger  is  to  be  feared.  If  those 
hours  could  be  reached  and  passed  in  safety  and 
pneumonia  kept  at  bay,  the  doctors  said  they  could 
then  begin  to  talk  of  hope. 

The  chief  danger  from  erysipelas  they  declared  to 
be  past.  The  swelling  was  going  down  and  the  action 
of  the  muscles  was  growing  more  normal.  General 
Sherman  was  out  of  pain,  and  if  his  strength  could  be 
kept  up  there  was  a  good  prospect  of  recovery. 

Kind  Inquirers. 

There  were  many  callers  at  the  house  during  the 
afternoon,  but  no  one  save  the  members  of  the  family 
were  permitted  to  see  the  sufferer.  Among  the  tele- 
grams of  sympathy  or  inquiry  received  were  ones 
from  Governor  Hill,  ex-President  Cleveland,  ind 
Governor  Fitzhugh   Lee  of  Virginia. 

Evening  brought  an  increase  of  fever,  and  with  it 
an  increase  of  anxiety.  It  was  felt  that  the  steady 
drain  on  the  resources  of  the  aged  man  was  slowly 
undermining  his  vitality,  and  while  no  alarming 
symptoms  were  developed,  all  felt  that  he  was  slowly 
growing  weaker.  The  elation  which  had  marked  the 
hours  of  sunshine  disappeared,  and  the  family  shut 
themselves  away  from  the  newspaper-men  and  were 
chary  of  information,  saying  that  they  cared  only  to 
speak  in  case  of  a  marked  change  for  better  or  for 

The  doctors  were  non-committal  and  evasive. 
They   could   give    no  good   news ;    they  would    not 


advance  any  further  prognostications.  The  doughty 
old  sufferer  had  behed  their  prophecies  too  many 
times.  At  nine  o'clock  a  servant-girl  was  sent  in  a 
hurry  to  the  drug-store.  The  general  had  a  bad 
turn,  and  it  looked  as  if  he  was  sinking. 

An  Alarming-  Bulletin. 

The  doctors  were  at  the  bedside.  The  consulta- 
tion was  the  longest  which  had  been  held,  and  the 
countenances  of  the  physicians  showed  that  the 
situation  was  extremely  critical.  At  ten  o'clock  they 
issued  a  bulletin  which  was  truly  ominous.  It  was 
as  follows : 

"  lo  p.  M. — After  consultation  the  doctors  say  there 
is  no  chanoe  for  the  better." 

A  member  of  the  household  spoke  frankly.  "  The 
general  is  undoubtedly  growing  weaker,"  he  said, 
''  and  this  gives  the  family  food  for  anxiety,  for  even 
the  most  stubborn  vitality  must  yield  in  time.  Yet 
there  is  no  marked  change  in  his  condition.  He 
rests  easily  and  is  not  troubled  by  mucus.  It  is 
his  extreme  and  growing  weakness  that  causes  the 
chief  anxiety." 


The    Struggle    Ended.— The    Great   Warrior's 
Last   Battle. 

General  Sherman  died  at  ten  minutes  of  two 
o'clock  on  Saturday,  February  14th,  aged  seventy-one 
years  and  five  days. 

His  end  was  peaceful — it  could  not  have  been  more 
so.  He  had  been  totally  unconscious  all  the  morning, 
and  had  ceased  to  struggle  long  before  the  coming  of 
the  end.  The  immediate  cause  of  death  was  said  to 
be  the  fillinof  of  his  luno^s  with  mucus,  which  he  had 
not  strength  to  throw  off  He  had  fought  so  long  as 
a  particle  of  strength  remained,  and  even  at  the  close 
his  iron  will  was  not  vanquished.  He  was  not  ready 
to  go  until  his  son  '*  Tom  "  had  come  home  to  him. 
But  death  beckoned  and  he  had  to  go. 

All  the  morning  he  lay  dying,  his  family  grouped 
about  his  bed.  His  struggles,  which  had  been  painful 
when  he  returned  to  that  semi-consciousness  which 
showed  the  proud,  unconquered  spirit  that  still  lived, 
within  him,  were  pitifully  weak  now.  With  all  hopes 
gone  the  family  prayed  only  for  a  speedy  end.  For 
hours  they  stood  grouped  about  the  bed,  watching 
and  waiting  for  the  end.  Several  times  it  seemed  as 
if  it  had  come,  but  once  more  the  spirit  struggled  back 
and  death  was  beaten  off  again. 



But  at  ten  minutes  of  two  there  came  a  chano^e. 
The  color  and  the  look  which  are  noticeable  only 
when  death  comes  suddenly  spread  over  the  drawn 
face,  disfigured  with  iodine,  and  the  nurse,  who  had 
been  bending  over  him  listening  to  the  last  faint 
flutterings  of  his  heart,  quickly  straightened  up  and 
said,  "  He  is  dead." 

Remarkable  Coincidence. 

Thus,  thirty  hours  after  the  last  admiral  of  the 
United  States,  Admiral  Porter,  the  last  general,  his 
friend  for  many  years^  passed  away. 

The  last  general  of  our  army ;  the  last  of  the  great 
heroic  figures  who  filled  the  eye  of  the  public  in  the 
bloody  era  that  is  past ;  the  last  of  the  idols  whom 
the  tattered  remnant  of  the  armies  of  the  sixties 
loved  to  follow  and  to  worship,  William  Tecumseh 
Sherman,  was  gone,  and  with  him  one  of  the  strongest 
links  that  still  connected  the  people  of  America  with 
an  epoch  which  all  would  willingly  forget  save  for 
the  mighty  debt  of  gratitude  which  the  present 
generation  owes  to  the  heroes  of  that  past  and 
passing  one. 

Not  the  least  of  the  batdes  fought  by  Sherman 
was  the  one  with  disease  and  death.  It  was  a  batde 
to  be  proud  of.  It  was  an  exhibition  of  i\merican 
pluck  and  grit  and  unconquerable  determination  in 
which  the  least  of  Americans  must  feel  a  reflected 
pride.  Brief,  compared  to  the  long-enduring  struggle 
of  the  hero  Grant,  it  was  yet  long  enough  to  show 
the  metal  of  the  man,  who  had  but  one  reason  for 


caring  to  remain  on  earth — a  wish  to  clasp  his  absent 
son  in  loving  arms. 

Oh,  what  a  rare  and  sweet  example  of  parental 
love !  Who  would  have  looked  for  it  in  the  grim 
old  soldier  who  had  hid  this  love  behind  a  crusty 
exterior  for  ten  long  years?  About  the  last  word 
which  his  lips  uttered  was  his  cry  for  "Tom"  on 
Friday.  But  he  could  not  hold  out  till  the  coming 
of  that  son.  The  forces  against  him  of  disease  and 
age  were  too  mighty.  But  he  held  off  the  end  with 
wonderful  power  and  vigor,  and  died  as  he  had  lived^ 
with  an  unvanquished  spirit. 

The  L.ast  Ebb  of  Life. 

The  beginning  of  the  end  was  about  six  o'clock  the 
evening  before.  The  tide  of  life,  which  had  risen  and 
fallen  so  many  times,  and  which  during  the  day  had 
passed  the  flood-mark  of  hope,  began  its  final  ebbing, 
which,  to  the  eyes  of  the  professional  watchers,  would 
never  be  stayed  again.  It  was  a  question  now  of 
hours  only.  How  long  could  the  sturdy  frame  with 
stand  the  gnawing  teeth  of  his  disease  ?  Time  onl) 
could  give  the  answer. 

The  family,  who  had  begun  to  smile  and  talk  cheer 
ily  of  recovery,  now  grew  haggard  again.  Hope  van- 
ished. They  read  the  story  in  the  eyes  of  the  silent 
doctors.  They  knew  that  the  last  rally  had  been  held 
and  that  the  standard  of  life  must  be  lowered.  Well, 
let  it  come  !  It  was  better  than  this  agony  of  waiting. 
None  but  the  family  and  the  professional  attendants 
were  admitted  to  the  sick-room.     The  forehead  and 


Other  parts  of  the  face  affected  by  erysipelas  had 
been  anointed  with  iodine. 

The  general  was   speechless  now,  and  utterly  un- 
conscious.    All  the  enero^ies  of  his  beinor  were  con- 
es o 

centrated  on  the  one  desperate  task  of  breathing, 
and  all  efforts  to  assist  this  operation  seemed  to  have 
no  effect.  "  No  better"  was  the  repeated  report  from 
the  chamber  of  sickness ;  and  no  better  meant  the 
constant  sapping  of  the  depleted  store  of  strength. 

Fast  Sinking-. 

At  four  o'clock  in  the  mornino-  it  seemed  as  if  he 
were  sinking  to  the  end,  and  again  the  family  were 
sumn^oned.  The  trained  nurse  who  had  zealously 
attended  him,  and  who  for  more  than  twenty-four 
hours  had  refused  to  take  sleep  or  rest,  did  all  that 
a  nurs<  could  do  to  minister  to  his  wants.  Two  hours 
before  this  the  doctors  said  "  Not  yet,"  and  some  of 
the  family  had  left  the  house,  but  they  were  hastily 
called  back,  and  all  came  expecting  that  he  would 
scarce  survive  the  rising  of  the  sun. 

It  was  Dr.  Alexander  who  first  noticed  a  change  for 
the  worse.  It  was  slight,  to  be  sure,  but  the  trained 
eye  of  the  friend  and  physician  saw  an  ominous  signif- 
icance in  it. 

Then  this  bulletin  came  from  the  general's  house : 
"The  physicians  after  consultation  declare  that  the 
general's  condition  is  now  hopeless.  He  is  dying,  and 
the  end  is  near."  There  was  no  mistake  about  it  this 
time,  as  before. 

Dr.   Alexander,  who   brought  this  bulletin   to  the 


telegraph-office,  added   significantly  to  the  reporters 
assembled,  "There  will  be  no  more  bulletins." 

The  erysipelas  had  again  set  in,  and  bronchitis  had 
also  attacked  the  sick  man.  At  half-past  nine  another 
report  came  from  the  house  through  a  friend  of  the 
general.  He  said  that  the  dying  man  was  in  no  phys- 
ical pain.  It  was  somewhat  difficult  for  him  to 
breathe,  but  otherwise  he  was  not  suffering. 

From  ten  o'clock  on  General  Sherman  continued  to 
fail.  At  twenty  minutes  past  eleven  it  was  stated  that 
his  death  was  but  a  question  of  minutes.  There  were 
many  callers  during  the  morning.  Only  immediate 
friends  were  admitted.  The  others  merely  left  their 
cards.  At  twenty-five  minutes  past  eight  o'clock 
Senator  Sherman  telegraphed  to  his  family  at  Wash- 
ington that  the  general  was  still  alive,  but  only  partially 

Death  only  a  Question  of  Minutes. 

He  was  apparently  without  pain,  but  his  breathing 
was  labored  and  his  strenorth  diminishino^.  At  ten 
minutes  past  twelve  p.  m.  Thomas  Ewing,  Jr.,  said  that 
no  further  bulletins  of  General  Sherman's  condition 
would  be  issued.  Death  was  only  a  question  of 
minutes,  he  said. 

At  a  quarter  to  twelve  a  carriage  and  a  pair  drove 
up  to  the  door  with  a  caller,  who  was  Mrs.  U.  S. 
Grant.  She  did  not  leave  her  carriage,  but  upon  be- 
ing told  that  there  was  not  the  slighest  hope  for  the 
general,  was  deeply  affected  and  immediately  drove 
away.     There  was  nothing  to  do  now  but  wait  for  the 


end,  and  the  family  waited  with  beating  hearts.  In 
the  general's  office  in  the  basement  were  a  number 
of  military  gentlemen,  including  Generals  Howard, 
Slocum,  Stewart  L.  Woodford,  and  the  commander 
of  Grant  Post  of  Brooklyn. 

About  the  bedside  were  grouped  the  general's  two 
unmarried  daughters,  Misses  Lizzie  and  Rachel  Sher- 
man, his  son  Philemon  T.,  Lieutenant  and  Mrs.  Fitch, 
Lieutenant  and  Mrs.  Thackara,  Senator  John  Sher- 
man, Mrs.  Colgate  Hoyt,  Dr.  Alexander,  and  General 
Thomas  Ewing.  The  nurse  sat  at  the  bedside  watch- 
ing the  pinched  lip  of  the  dying  man. 

In  the  windows  in  front  the  shades  were  up  and  the 
curtains  slightly  parted.  The  policeman  paced  in 
front  and  kept  the  noises  at  a  distance,  save  the  loud 
detonation  of  the  blasters  who  were  at  work  in  a  lot 
across  the  way.  A  hush  seemed  to  fall  upon  the 

The  End  had  Come. 

Suddenly  the  watchers  on  the  opposite  sidewalk 
saw  the  curtains  pulled  together  and  the  shades  drawn 
down.  A  moment  later  General  Ewing  appeared 
bareheaded  at  the  door  and  waved  his  hand.  "  It  is 
all  over,"  he  said. 

In  another  moment  the  electric  spark  was  flashing 
over  the  land  the  news.  Sherman  was  dead !  His 
spirit  had  joined  the  great  majority  with  his  many  old 
comrades,  and  had  met  the  gentle  spirit  of  his  wife  at 
last.  He  had  marched  from  Adanta  to  the  sea.  He 
had  crossed  the  dark,  dark  river.     Let  the  fife  shriek 


and  the  drum  sound  the  deathless  song  that  was  writ- 
ten for  him,  ana  will  never  die  so  long  a^  martial 
music  lives . 

"Bring  the  good  old  bugle,  boys,  we'll  have  another  song — 
Sing  it  with  a  spirit  that  will  start  the  world  along — 
Sing  it  as  we  used  to  sing  it,  fifty  thousand  strong. 
While  we   tvere  marching    through  Georgia. 

"'  Huri-ah !  hurrah  !  we  bring  the  jubilee  ! 

Hurrah  !  hurrah  !  the  flag  that  makes  you  free  !  * 
So  we  sang  the  chorus  from  Atlanta  to  the  sea. 
While  we  were  marching  through  Georgia." 

Those  who  were  present  in  the  room  said  that  the 
end  was  so  quiet  as  to  be  almost  imperceptible.  It 
was  not  until  the  nurse  looked  up  and  spoke  the 
simple  words,  "  He  is  dead,"  that  his  daughters  knew 
that  they  were  fatherless. 

*'  'Halt!'  breathed  a  muffled  voice; 

'Ensheath  thy  sword,  lay  down  thine  arms. 
No  more  the  battle's  bugles  or  alarms 
Shall  rouse  thy  lion's  heart.     Rejoice!' 
Yet,  spite  Death's  mandate  low, 
Despite  a  nation's  woe, 
Sherman  marched  on — 
Marched  on  triumphantly, 
As  when  he  led  his  armies  to  the  sea — 
Marched  on ! 

•*0  Death!  thou  couldst  not  stay 
A  hero,  dauntless  set  upon  his  way 
To  a  new  planet,  toward  eternal  peace  ; 
Thou  couldst  not  touch  him,  save  with  pain  surcease : 

For  while  thou  spakest,  even, 
Sherman  marched  on — to  heaven. 
Where,  then,  thy  sting,  O  Death?  since  he 
J}a§  beard  God's  xoll-oall     Where  thy  victorjr, 


O  grave?  since  he  has  made  reply. 

Can  Sherman  die? 
Nay;  glory -girded,  one  more  battle  won. 

He  has  marched  on. 

**  Choke  back  your  sobs,  O  men ! 
He  has  outstripped  the  sun — what  then? 
The  Spring,  that  cometh  soon,  will  let 
Her  gently  falling  tear-drops  wet 
His  new-made  grave. 

"Nature  will  weep,  but  men — men  do  not  weep  the  brave. 
Lay  his  sheathed  sword  upon  his  breast; 
After  life's  burning  warfare  peace  is  best. 
Let  dust  to  dust  return;  nothing  can  shroud 
The  soul  of  Sherman.     Be  not  overhowed 
With  grief;  rather  let  joy  exult; 
For  even  Death's  grim  "Halt!" 

His  purpose  could  not  stay; 

He  saw  the  coming  day, 
And  'neath  the  sunrise  marched,  as  toward  the  sea, 

Marched — marched — to  immortality.'* 

Messages  of  Sympathy. 

The  following  telegrams  were  received  by  the 
family  of  General  Sherman  : 

To  Hon.  John  Sherman  :  Convey  to  your  brother's 
bereaved  family  our  tenderest  sympathy.  A  very 
great  man  has  gone.  James  G.  Blaine. 

To  P.  T.  Sherman:  In  this  hour  of  affliction  you 
have  my  deepest  sympathy.  The  memory  of  General 
Sherman  will  be  for  ever  cherished  by  the  American 
people  as  one  of  their  most  valued  possessions. 

B.  F.  Tracy. 

Governor  Pattison  of  Pennsylvania  sent  the  follow- 


ing  message  to  P.  T.  Sherman  :  ''  I  desire  to  express 
the  sincere  sympathy  of  the  people  of  Pennsylvania 
for  the  family  of  General  Sherman,  of  whose  death  I 
have  just  been  advised.  His  patriotic,  faithful,  and 
invaluable  services  to  his  country  will  ever  be  grate- 
fully remembered." 

Miss  Sherman:  Deep  and  heartfelt  sympathy  fo« 
the  irreparable  loss  both  to  you  and  to  America. 

H.  M.  Stanley. 

Gv;ineral  Joseph  E.  Johnston,  Sherman's  great  foe, 
sent  the  following: 

To  the  Misses  Sherman  :  Intelligence  of  Genera* 
Sherman's  death  grieves  me  much.  I  sympathize 
deeply  with  you  in  your  great  bereavement. 

To  Miss  Rachel  Sherman:  The  nation  mourn? 
and  sympathizes  with  you  in  all  your  great  sorrow. 
Your  illustrious  father's  death  is  to  Mrs.  Morton,  oui 
children,  and  myself  the  loss  of  a  personal  friend,  Uj 
whom  we  were  devotedly  attached. 

Levi  P.  Morton. 

To  the  Misses  Sherman  :  The  death  of  my  old 
commander  causes  deep  sorrow  to  myself  and  house- 
hold. Our  sympathy  is  with  his  family  in  their  great 
affliction.  John  M.  Harlan. 

To  the  Hon.  John  Sherman  :  We  mourn  with  the 
family  and  kindred   of  General   Sherman.     He  w^s 


beloved  by  me  and  my  family  with  the  warmest  per- 
sonal affection.  I  expect  to  reach  the  Fifth  Avenue 
Hotel  Monday.  R.  B.  Hayes. 

To  Hon.  John  Sherman:  Please  accept  for  your- 
self and  the  members  of  your  family  sympathy  in 
the  bereavement  you  suffer  in  the  loss  of  the  general 
commander,  who  was  my  dearest  friend. 

J.  M.  ScHoriEi.D. 

The  following  is  the  President's  message  to  the 
family  of  General  Sherman : 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  Feb.  14,  1891. — 
To  Hon.  John  Sherman,  New  York :  I  loved  ana 
venerated  General  Sherman,  and  would  stand  very 
near  to  the  more  deeply  afflicted  members  of  his 
family  in  this  hour  of  bereavement.  It  will  be  as  if 
there  were  one  dead  in  every  loyal  household  in  the 
land.  I  suggest  the  body  be  borne  through  Wash- 
ington and  lie  in  state  for  one  day  in  the  rotunda  of 
the  Capitol.  Please  advise  me  of  any  arrangements 
made.  Benjamin  Harrison. 

Upward  of  three  thousand  telegrams  were  received 
within  twenty-four  hours,  expressing  the  sympathy 
felt  in  all  parts  of  the  land,  and  the  high  appreciation 
in  which  General  Sherman  was  held  by  all  classes  of 
his  countrymen. 

There  is  something  impressive  in  the  sight  of  a 
great  natipn  moved  by  a  commor)  feeling.    As  m  tb^ 


old  days  of  the  war  the  whole  North  was  sometimes 
thrilled  and  overjoyed  by  the^  news  of  victory,  so  now 
the  country  was  affected  by  a  commc  i  sorrow. 

And  the  grief  was  not  entirely  confined  within 
geographical  lines.  In  all  parts  of  the  land  there 
was  mourning  for  the  hero  whose  war  record  was 
one  of  the  most  brilliant  written  in  the  annals  of  the 
republic.  The  hills  of  New  England,  the  Rockies  in 
the  West,  and  the  vales  of  the  South  might  well  have 
been  draped  in  black. 


A  Nation  in  Mourning. — Tributes  of  Love  and 


President  Harrison  had  just  finished  his  luncheon 
and  was  walking  up  stairs  to  his  office  when  the  bul- 
letin announcing  the  death  of  General  Sherman 
reached  the  White  House.  The  telegraph  operator 
handed  the  despatch  to  Private  Secretary  Halford, 
who  hastened  to  inform  the  President,  and  met  him 
on  the  stairway.  The  President  was  very  much 
shocked  He  served  under  General  Sherman  in  the 
famous  march  to  the  sea,  and  the  friendship  begun  at 
that  time  had  been  strengthened  by  their  close  asso- 
ciation ever  since.  General  Sherman  never  visited 
Indianapolis  while  General  Harrison  was  there  with- 
out spending  many  hours  in  his  society,  and  even 
greater  intimacy  had  exisjed  between  them  since  the 
President's  election.  The  last  time  they  were  together 
was  on  January  27th,  when  General  Sherman  called 
at  the  White  House  in  company  with  General  Scho- 
field.  In  the  words  of  Mr.  Halford,  ''The  President 
had  the  greatest  love  and  admiration  for  General 
Sherman,  and  is  sorely  grieved  at  his  death." 

A  few  minutes  after  reading  the  bulletin  the  Presi- 
dent  received  a  brief  telegram  from  Senator  Sherman 
announcing  his  brother's  death.    He  thereupon  sent  for 



General  Lewis  A.  Grant,  who  was  acting  as  Secretary 
of  War,  and  Major-General  Schofield,  and  gave  in- 
structions for  full  military  honors  for  the  dead  soldier, 
and  made  several  suggestions  in  regard  to  the  cha- 
racter of  the  general  order  announcing  General  Sher- 
man's death  to  the  army.  He  also  prepared  a  message 
to  Congress  on  the  same  subject  and  issued  the  fol- 
lovvinor  executive  order: 

It  is  my  painful  duty  to  announce  to  the  country 
that  General  William  Tecumseh  Sherman  died  this 
day  at  1.50  oclock  p.  m.,  at  his  residence  in  the  city  of 
New  York.  The  Secretary  of  War  will  cause  the 
highest  military  honors  to  be  paid  to  the  memory  of 
this  distinguished  officer.  The  national  flag  will  be 
floated  at  half-mast  over  all  public  buildings  until  after 
the  burial,  and  the  public  business  will  he  suspended 
in  the  executive  Departments  at  the  city  of  Washing- 
ton and  in  the  city  where  the  interment  takes  place 
on  the  day  of  the  '.  neral,  and  in  all  places  where 
public  expression  is  given  to  the  national  sorrow 
during  such  hours  as  will  enable  every  officer  and 
employee  to  participate  therein  with  their  fellow- 
cidzens.  Benjamin  Harrison. 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  D.  C,   February 
14,  1891. 

An  Ideal  Soldier. 

The  message  to  Congress  is  as  follows: 

To  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives : 

The  death  of  William  Tecumseh  Sherman,  which 
took  place  to-day  at  his  residence  in  the  city  of  New 


York  at  1.50  o'clock  p.  m.,  is  an  event  that  will  bring 
sorrow  to  the  hearts  of  every  patriotic  citizen.  No 
living  American  was  so  loved  and  venerated  as  he. 
To  look  upon  his  face,  to  hear  his  name,  was  to  have 
one's  love  of  country  intensified.  He  served  his 
country,  not  for  fame,  not  out  of  a  sense  of  profes- 
sional duty,  but  for  love  of  the  flag  and  of  the  benef- 
icent civil  institutions  of  which  it  was  the  emblem. 

He  was  an  ideal  soldier,  and  shared  to  the  fullest 
the  esprit  de  corps  of  the  army ;  but  he  cherished  the 
civil  institutions  organized  under  the  Constitution,  and 
was  only  a  soldier  that  these  might  be  perpetuated  in 
undiminished  usefulness  and  honor.  He  was  in  noth- 
ing an  imitator.  A  profound  student  of  military  sci- 
ence and  precedent,  he  drew  from  them  principles 
and  suggestions,  and  so  adapted  them  to  novel  condi- 
tions that  his  campaigns  will  continue  to  be  the  profit- 
able study  of  the  military  profession  throughout  the 

His  genial  nature  made  him  a  comrade  to  every 
soldier  of  the  great  Union  army.  No  presence  was 
so  welcome  and  inspiring  at  the  camp-fire  or  com- 
mandery  as  his.  His  career  was  complete  ;  his  honors 
were  full.  He  had  received  from  the  Government 
the  highest  rank  known  to  our  military  establishment 
and  from  the  people  unstinted  gratitude  and  love. 

No  word  of  mine  can  add  more  to  his  fame.  His 
death  has  followed  in  startling  quickness  that  of  the 
admiral  of  the  navy,  and  it  is  a  sad  and  notable  inci- 
dent that  when  the  Department  under  which  he  served 


shall  have  put  on  the  usual  emblems  of  mourning-  four 
of  the  eight  executive  Departments  will  be  simultane- 
ously draped  in  black,  and  one  other  has  but  to-day 
removed  the  crape  from  its  walls. 

Benj.  Harrison. 
Executive  Mansion,  Feb.  14,  1891. 

General  Army  Order. 

The  Actincr  Secretarv  of  War  issued  a  general 
order  to  the  army  announcing  the  death  of  General 
Sherman.  It  included  the  President's  message  to 
Congress  and  the  executive  order  issued  by  him  to 
the  executive  Departments,  and  ordered  that  the  War 
Department  be  draped  in  mourning  for  the  period  of 
thirty  days,  and  that  all  business  be  suspended  therein 
on  the  day  of  the  funeral. 

This  was  accompanied  by  another  order  issued  by 
Adjutant-General  Kelton,  by  command  o(  Major-Gen- 
eral  Schofield,  as  follows : 

On  the  day  of  the  funeral  the  troops  at  every  mili- 
tary post  will  be  paraded  and  this  order  read  to  them, 
after  which  all  labors  of  the  day  will  cease.  The 
national  flag  will  be  displayed  at  half-staff  from  the 
time  of  the  receipt  of  this  order  until  the  close  of 
ihe  funeral.  On  the  day  of  the  funeral  a  salute  of 
seventeen  euns  will  be  fired  at  half-hour  intervals, 
commencing  at  eioht  o'clock  a.  m.  The  officers  of 
the  army  will  wear  the  usual  badges  of  mourning, 
and  the  colors  of  the  several  regiments  and  battal- 
ions  will  be  draped  in  mourning  for  a  period  of  six 


months.  The  day  and  hour  of  the  funeral  will  be  com- 
municated to  department  commanders  by  telegraph, 
and  by  them  to  their  subordinate  commanders.  Other 
necessary  orders  will  be  issued  hereafter  relative  to 
the  appropriate  funeral  ceremonies. 

Imposing-  Obsequies  in  New  York. 

General  Sherman's  funeral  began  in  New  York  on 
February  19th,  and  ended  in  St.  Louis  on  the  21st. 
But  once   has   New  York  seen  a  o-reater  funeral 


pageant,  and  that  was  when  General  Grant  was  borne 
to  his  tomb  in  Riverside  Park.  Twenty  thousand 
men,  it  is  said,  followed  the  remains  of  General  Sher- 
man as  they  were  carried  through  the  streets,  decorated 
with  emblems  of  mournino-  and  throneed  with  mourn- 
ers  eager  to  participate  in  the  last  honors  to  the  hero 
of  the  "  March  to  the  Sea." 

The  day  was  wellnigh  perfect,  and  from  first  to  last 
no  serious  accident,  no  untoward  incident,  detracted 
from  the  beauty  and  impressiveness  of  the  pageant. 
The  bright  sunshine,  which  made  the  metal  helmets  of 
the  soldiers  glitter  as  they  marched  and  sent  the  light 
flashing  from  swords  and  guns,  relieved  the  sombre- 
ness  of  the  funeral  cavalcade,  and  gave  the  procession 
the  appearance  of  bravery  which  befitted  a  great 
soldier's  funeral.  Everything  seemed  suited  to  the 
occasion  and  to  the  man,  and  Nature  and  the  nation 
joined  in  doing  honor  to  the  great  Union  captain. 

Sympathetic  Crowds. 

An  hour  or  more  before  the  hour  set  for  the  mov- 
ing of  the  procession   the  str--.ets  along  which  it  was 


to  pass  began  to  fill,  and  at  two  o'clock  they  were 
densely  packed.  Tens  of  thousands  crowded  every 
available  place,  and  some,  women  as  well  as  men, 
stood  for  hours,  that  they  might  see  "Sherman's 
funeral."  The  interest  manifested  was  intense,  and 
the  comments  on  the  dead  hero  heard  on  every  hand 
were  always  appreciative,  although  sometimes  uncouth. 

The  first  thing  that  the  waiting  thousands  saw  were 
the  mounted  police  that  forced  the  crowd  back  to  the 
sidewalks,  leaving  the  street  free  for  the  vast  proces- 
sion. Not  far  behind  them  came  the  regular  troops> 
mounted  and  on  foot,  marching  with  the  precision 
which  marks  the  veteran.  Then  followed,  drawn  by 
four  black  horses,  the  caisson  on  the  top  of  which 
rested  the  coffined  remains  of  General  Sherman,  the 
simple  casket  covered  with  the  flag  of  the  United 

Behind  the  caisson  came  the  carriages  of  the 
mourners,  the  President,  Cabinet,  and  other  distin- 
guished attendants,  and  these  were  followed  by  the 
Loyal  Legion,  the  Grand  Army,  and  the  National 
Guard.  The  procession  made  a  striking  picture  as 
its  various  and  contrasting  sections  passed  slowly 
down  Fifth  avenue,  and  it  compelled  the  comment 
that  the  hero  of  Atlanta  was  worthily  escorted.  In 
the  marching  line  was  a  committee  of  twelve  men 
from  the  Confederate  Veteran  Camp  of  New  York, 
and  one  of  the  honored  pall-bearers  was  General 
Joseph  E.  Johnston,  one  of  the  greatest  of  the 
Confederate  commanders. 


The  Solemn  Knell. 

As  the  procession  moved  church-bells  tolled  slowly., 
and  from  St.  Thomas's,  near  Central  Park,  down  to 
Old  Trinity,  their  solemn  music  gave  notice  that  Gen- 
eral Sherman's  funeral  escort  was  marching.  At 
intervals  cannons  boomed,  salutes  of  seventeen  guns 
havine  been  fired  at  half-hour  intervals  from  Fort 
Wood  on  Bedloe's  Island,  Fort  Hamilton,  Fort  Wads- 
worth,  Fort  Schuyler,  Governor's  Island,  Willett's 
Point,  and  from  the  recruiting  depot  on  David's  Island. 

The  mourning  decorations  were  not,  as  a  rule, 
elaborate,  but  they  were  tasteful,  and  such  as  Gen- 
eral Sherman  would  have  been  likely  to  approve, 
comprising  mainly  flags  crape  bordered.  One  of 
these,  which  hung  from  one  of  the  Vanderbilt  houses, 
bore  the  names  of  all  the  battles  in  which  General 
Sherman  fought.  Nearly  every  house  passed  by  the 
procession  bore  some  evidence  of  sorrow,  and  from 
some  floated  several  flao-s  bearinor  the  insignia  of 
mourninor.  There  was  no  ostentation  ;  there  was  also 
no  neglect.  The  mourning  decorations,  like  the 
pageant,  were  impressive,  but  they  were  not  oppres- 
sive throuo^h  excessive  sombreness. 

The  Casket  Open  during^  the  Forenoon. 

The  casket  remained  open  during  the  forenoon  for 
any  distinguished  visitors  that  might  arrive  from  the 
hotels.  At  10.30  none  but  some  intimate  friends  and 
old  veterans  had  come  in  to  take  a  last  look  at  their 
old  commander.  A  few  minutes  before  eleven  o'clock 
a  large  floral  shield  was  received  at  the  house  from 


West  Point  cadets.  The  shield  was  six  feet  in  height 
and  four  feet  broad.  It  was  made  of  white  and  blue 
immortelles,  and  bore  the  inscription,  "  William  Te- 
cumseh  Sherman,  from  his  West  Point  boys,  Class  of 
1840."  At  the  top  of  the  shield  was  the  American 
eagle  worked  in  blue  immortelles,  and  at  the  bottom 
a  sword  and  scabbard  in  the  same  flower.  The  base 
of  the  shield  was  made  of  white  calla  lilies.  At  eleven 
o'clock  Secretaries  Proctor  and  Rusk  drove  up  to  the 
house  in  a  carriage  and  passed  in  at  the  front  door. 

At  eleven  o'clock  many  other  distinguished  guests 
arrived  at  the  house.  Among  the  number  were  Gen- 
eral O'Beirne  and  General  Romer.  Shortly  after  them 
Secretary  Blaine  walked  up  Seventy-first  street,  arm-in- 
arm with  General  Thomas  Ewing.  President  Harri- 
son would  not  look  upon  the  remains  of  the  general. 
The  family  sent  an  invitation  to  him  this  morning  at 
the  Fifth  Avenue  Hotel,  but  the  President  kindly  re- 
plied that  he  preferred  to  keep  with  him  the  remem- 
brances of  the  general  while  alive.  He  did  not  wish 
to  see  him  in  death,  when  their  associations  had  been 
so  warm  and  genial. 

At  noon  every  doorstep  along  the  street  was 
crowded  with  interested  spectators  and  windows 
were  filled  with  expectant  faces.  The  street  was 
kept  free  from  pedestrians,  but  the  side-streets  were 
crowded  with  the  forming  troops  and  citizens. 

About  12.25  the  caisson,  draped  in  black  and 
drawn  by  four  horses,  was  drawn  up  in  front  of  the 
Sherman  house.     The  horses  were  mounted  by  regu 


lars  and  an  army  officer  was  in  charge.  Behind  the 
caisson  was  an  orderly  leading  the  blajk  charger 
which  bore  the  military  trappings  of  the  general.  A 
black  velvet  covering  almost  hid  the  horse  from  view, 
but  the  boots  and  saddle  were  plainly  conspicuous. 

The  services  of  prayer  began  promptly  on  the 
hour.  At  five  minutes  to  twelve  a  Father  left  the 
general's  late  residence  and  entered  No.  "j"]  Seventy- 
first  street,  and  summoned  the  boy  choir  of  St. 
Francis  Xaviei'.  The  services  were  over  at  12.30. 
The  prayers  were  read  by  Rev.  Father  Sherman. 

There  were  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  persons 
present  at  these  ceremonies.  The  greater  number 
were  relatives,  but  there  were  many  close  friends  as 
well,  among  them  being  Mrs.  Grant  and  Senator 

The  reading  of  the  service  and  the  singing  to- 
gether did  not  occupy  more  than  fifteen  minutes. 
During  that  time  no  one  was  permitted  to  enter  the 
house.  There  were  large  crowds  of  people  all  along 
the  street  and  on  the  house-stoops,  but  they  main- 
tained the  utmost  order,  and  by  their  silent,  com- 
posed demeanor  manifested  their  respect  for  the 
dead  general. 

As  the  hour  of  two  drew  near  the  scene  in  the  im- 
mediate neighborhood  was  one  full  of  life.  Mounted 
officers  and  orderlies  dashed  through  the  streets,  the 
polished  trimmings  of  their  horse  equipments  flash- 
ing in  the  bright  sunlight,  and  their  yellow-  and  scar- 
let-lined capes  flying  in  the  breeze. 



Drooping-  Flag-s, 

Flags  at  half-staff  in  almost  countless  numbers  flut- 
tered from  windows  of  every  house  in  the  vicinity. 

Ex-President  Cleveland  and  Chauncey  M.  Depew 
arrived  at  the  house  together  about  1.30.  Soon  after 
came  Governor  Pattison  of  Pennsylvania  and  Major- 
General  Snowden,  with  their  staff,  and  followinor  them 
were  Governor  Bulkley  and  staff  and  Lieutenant- 
Governor  Jones.  Ex-President  Hayes  was  accom- 
panied by  Joseph  H.  Choate. 

The  Senate  committee  arrived  in  a  body,  wearing 
the  usual  signs  of  mourning,  and  after  them  came  the 
large  committee  of  the  House.  It  was  close  on  to 
two  o'clock  when  President  Harrison,  with  Lieutenant 
Ernst,  his  aide-de-camp,  reached  the  house.  Follow- 
ing were  the  remaining  members  of  the  Cabinet. 

Mourning-  Decorations. 

The  hour  at  which  the  head  of  the  funeral  proces 
b.on  was  to  move  from  Seventy-first  street  was  two 
o'clock,  but  long  before  that  time  spectators  began  to 
take  up  their  places  along  the  route  of  march.  Every 
house  in  the  block  where  General  Sherman  lived  so 
long  was  tastefully  decorated  with  draped  flags. 
Along  Fifty-seventh  street,  from  Broadway  to  Fifth 
avenue,  nearly  every  house  was  draped,  and  up  to 
noon  the  work  of  decoration  continued.  Fifth  avenue 
from  the  Plaza  at  Central  Park  to  the  Arch  at  Wash- 
ington Square  presented  a  bewildering  array  of 
draped  and  half-masted  flags.  The  club-house  of  the 
Seventh  Regiment  Veterans  was  handsomely  draped. 


and  the  Union  League  Club  building  presented  an 
elaborate  display  of  black.  Especially  noticeable  were 
the  sombre  decorations  of  the  big  hotels  along  the 
line.  The  big  wholesale  houses  on  Broadway  had 
their  flags  at  half-mast,  and  the  smaller  stores  were 
tastefully  draped.  The  side-streets  were  similarly 

Forming'  the  Procession. 

The  first  move  toward  the  formation  of  the  pro- 
cession was  at  1.58.  General  Howard  came  out  on 
the  front  steps  of  the  general's  residence  and  ordered 
the  caisson,  which  had  beeii  withdrawn,  to  come  up. 
At  that  instant  a  detailed  squad  of  the  Sixth  Cavalry 
formed  to  the  left  of  the  house  in  the  middle  of  the 
street.  The  caisson  came  up  in  front  of  the  house  at 
exactly  two  o'clock.  Generals  Howard,  Slocum,  John- 
ston, and  other  military  dignitaries  formed  two  lines 
on  the  walk  and  made  a  passageway  to  the  caisson. 
As  the  pall-bearers  left  the  house  an  army  band  out 
toward  Central  Park  began  playing  a  funeral  march. 

Six  lieutenants  appeared  in  the  doorway  bearing  on 
their  shoulders  the  casket  of  the  general.  Slowly  they 
bore  their  burden  to  the  awaiting  funeral  carriage.  All 
heads  were  then  bared,  and  silence  reigned  from  one 
end  of  the  street  to  the  other.  This  was  at  2.05.  A 
narchlng  order  was  given  and  the  caisson  moved  out 
.oward  Eighth  avenue.  The  private  carriage  of  Gen- 
eral Butterfield  was  then  driven  to  the  door,  and 
Generals  Schofield,  Ploward,  Slocum,  and  Schofield's 
aide  entered.     The  pall-bearers  were  then  seated  In 


their    respective  carriages  in    quick  succession,  and 
were  ready  to  fall  into  line. 

The  members  of  the  family  then  entered  their  car- 
riages, and  the  friends,  governors,  senators,  and  other 
notables  followed  in  the  order  previously  announced. 

The  procession  at  2.45  had  moved  down  Eighth 
avenue  for  some  distance,  but  the  movement  was  very 
slow.  Out  on  the  side-streets  were  hundreds  of  car- 
riages waiting  for  a  place  in  the  immense  procession. 

As  the  caisson  bearing  the  body  rumbled  over  the 
pavement  through  the  sunlit  street  into  Eighth  avenue 
the  vast  crowds  stood  with  uncovered  heads,  rever- 
ently watching  the  starry  folds  of  the  American  flag 
enveloping  the  casket.  More  than  one  veteran  wept 
as  the  body  of  his  old  commander  was  borne  past 
him.  The  sidewalks,  the  roof-tops,  every  window, 
swarmed  with  watching  humanity.  As  the  cortege 
passed  down  the  avenue  there  fell  in  behind  it  the 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  of  the  United 
States  and  officers  of  the  army  and  navy,  among  them 
being  representatives  of  the  Ohio  Commandery,  of 
which  General  Sherman  was  a  member.  Then  came 
the  Grand  \''my  of  the  Republic,  followed  by  the  West 
Point  cadets. 

The  next  in  line  was  the  National  Guard,  under 
command  of  General  Louis  Fitzgerald.  Among  the 
veterans  were  the  Confederate  Veterans'  Camp  of 
the  city  of  New  York,  riding  in  carriages,  and  after 
them  came,  in  carriages,  representatives  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce  and  the  New  York  Historical 


Society,  of  the  Common  Councils  of  Boston  and 
Brooklyn,  the  Union  League  Club,  and  other  bod- 
ies. Altogether,  fully  fifteen  thousand  men  were  in 

The  whole  line  of  the  long  route  was  thronged  on 
sidewalks,  on  house-tops,  and  in  every  window  with 
reverent  spectators,  who  stood  in  silence  with  bare 
heads  as  the  body  of  the  dead  general  was  borne 
past  them.  The  route  was  lined  with  seventeen  hun- 
dred policemen,  and  the  most  perfect  order  was 
maintained.  As  the  procession  moved  slowly  along 
the  church-bells  be^an  to  toll,  and  through  the  whole 
route  the  mournful  sound  of  the  bells  continued  as  it 
wended  its  way  to  its  destination.  There  were  many 
funeral  dirges  played,  but  none  struck  with  keener 
force  on  the  listening  ears  than  "  Marching  through 
Georgia,"  played  in  half  time,  as  arranged  for  the 

In  New  York  especially  General  Sherman  was  a 
favorite.  The  achievements  of  the  man,  his  blunt  yet 
kind  demeanor,  his  downright  integrity,  and  honesty 
of  purpose,  his  commanding  figure,  which,  wherever 
he  went,  associated  Am  with  the  heroic  deeds  of 
the  nations'  patriots,  all  served  to  endear  him  to  the 
hearts  of  the  people,  and  awake  profound  regret  at 
his  death. 

New  York  honored  itself  in  the  memorable  tribute 
she  paid  to  the  dead  soldier.  The  assemblage  of  per- 
sons from  distant  places  told  how  strong  a  hold  Sher- 
man had  upon  the  love  and  admiration  of  his  country- 


men.  He  had  made  his  place  in  the  nation's  his- 
tory. He  was  a  magnificent  figure  in  the  wonderfial 
panorama  of  our  national  life  and  deeds.  It  was 
fitting  that  his  obsequies  should  be  nothing  less  than 
a  national  demonstration. 


Final  Obsequies  of  General  Sherman. — Grand 
Procession  of  Troops  and  Civic  Bodies, 

On  February  21st,  St.  Louis  bade  an  impressive 
farewell  to  the  soldier  whose  miUtary  genius  was 
excelled  by  none  and  equalled  by  few. 

For  the  first  time  in  several  days  the  sun  shone  out 
gloriously,  but  its  rays  fell  upon  a  city  draped  in 
mourning.  The  hearts  of  the  people  were  saddened, 
and  with  one  accord  all  manner  of  men  abandoned 
"heir  earthly  pursuits  and  assembled  along  the  line  of 
he  funeral  procession  to  do  homage  to  the  honored 
dead.  As  early  as  6.30  o'clock  in  the  morning  the 
Union  Depot  was  thronged  with  people  awaiting  the 
arrival  of  the  Sherman  funeral  train.  As  the  morning 
advanced  the  crowd  became  larger,  and  each  train  as 
it  entered  the  depot  deposited  load  after  load  of 
human  freight,  which  added  to  the  throng  until  the 
depot  became  almost  impassable. 

When  the  hands  of  the  big  clock  pointed  to  8.20 
o'clock  a  squad  of  police  marched  to  the  depot,  and 
soon  the  immense  crowd  was  under  control.  In  a  few 
minutes  the  funeral  train  appeared,  and  the  ponder- 
ous iron  horse  slowly  rolled  into  the  station.  The 
dull  black  engine  looked  duller,  blacker,  and  heavier 
than  ever  before,  its  sombre  drapings  of  mourning 
adding  to  the  dismal  effect. 

3A  m 


For  miles  the  streets  were  lined  with  solid  walls  of 
people,  standing  at  least  a  dozen  deep,  and  the  evi- 
dences of  affection  in  which  his  fellow-townsmen  held 
General  Sherman  were  abundant  on  all  sides.  The 
city  was  draped  in  mourning.  Evidences  of  individual 
sorrow  were  also  abundant,  and  badges  of  ribbon  and 
crape  fluttered  from  every  coat-lapel.  The  grief  of 
those  in  the  procession  was  not  alone  genuine,  but 
apparent  to  every  one.  His  comrades  of  Ransom 
Post  marched  in  hollow  square  about  the  caisson. 

The  Historic  Thirteenth. 

Following  the  caisson  were  the  handful  of  surviv- 
ors of  the  old  Thirteenth  Infantry,  a  small  and  grief- 
stricken  body  of  men,  following  their  old  leader  over 
a  road  which  they  too  must  travel  at  no  very  far  dis- 
tant day 

There  were,  besides,  thousands  of  veterans  of  the 
war,  members  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic, 
old  and  grizzled  comrades-in-arms  of  the  dead  gen- 
eral. Slowly  they  walked,  and  only  too  plainly  was 
it  written  that  the  ravages  of  time  were  fast  depleting 
the  ranks  of  the  preservers  of  the  Union.  Yet 
none  of  them  were  so  feeble  that  they  would  admit, 
even  to  themselves,  that  they  were  taxing  their 
strength  in  following  Sherman  to  Calvary,  even  as 
they  had  followed  him  to  Savannah. 

Arrival  of  the  Funeral  Train. 

The  funeral  train  arrived  at  just  half-past  eight.  As 
it  crossed  the  bridge  a  salute  from  a  near-by  battery 
announced  its  approach.     Emerging  from  the  tunnel. 


it  was  compelled  to  proceed  slowly  while  the  police 
cleared  the  tracks  of  people.  On  the  depot  platform 
was  Governor  Francis  with  his  staff  and  the  members 
of  the  General  Reception  Committee,  headed  by 
Messrs.  James  C.  Yeatman  and  Henry  Pitchcock. 

After  an  exchange  of  greetings  the  governor  and 
representatives  of  the  General  Committee  and  Ran- 
som Post,  G.  A.  R.,  were  introduced  to  the  members 
of  the  Cabinet  and  Lieutenants  Fitch  and  Thackara. 

Meantime,  outside,  the  military  companies  were 
moved  into  position.  The  caisson  on  which  the  body 
was  to  be  borne  from  the  train  to  its  resting-place  was 
standing  on  Poplar  street,  at  the  entrance  of  the  car- 
riage-way. It  was  from  Battery  E,  First  Artillery,  and 
was  under  Lieutenant  Wilson,  with  Sergeant  Cannon 
in  immediate  charge.  It  was  drawn  by  six  bay  horses. 
The  riders  were  the  men  who  worked  the  Hotchkiss 
gun  at  the  battle  of  Wounded  Knee  Creek  during  the 
recent  Indian  war.  They  belonged  to  the  Seventh 
Cavalry,  known  as  the  "  Fighting  Seventh."  Their 
names  were  Privates  Mallory,  Ryan  and  Krauss.  The 
body-bearers  were  eight  sergeants.  Four  of  them — 
Sergeants  Connelly,  Lang,  Hennessey  and  Siegber — 
were  from  the  Seventh  Cavalry.  The  other  four — 
Sergeants  Hunneman,  Lavay,  French  and  Donohugh 
— were  from  Battery  E,  First  Artillery. 

The  Riderless  Horse. 

In  front  of  the  caisson,  on  Poplar  street,  was  th^ 
Twelfth  Infantry,  from  F'ort  Leavenworth,  under  coiri- 
mand  of  Colonel  Townsend,  drawn  up  in  line  facij\i; 


the  depot.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  were 
the  members  of  Ransom  Post,  who  were  to  act  as 
guard  of  honor.  The  horse  that  was  to  be  led  behind 
the  caisson,  equipped  with  the  dead  general's  saddle, 
bridle,  boots  and  spurs,  stood  next  to  the  caisson. 
He  was  a  black  horse  belonging  to  Troop  D,  Seventh 
Cavalry,  of  Fort  Riley,  Kansas,  and  was  brought  from 
there  especially  for  this  purpose.  It  was  led  by  Ser- 
eeant  Georoe  H.  Rathouber.  The  hearse  on  this 
occasion  was  not  covered  with  a  black  cloth,  as  was 
done  in  the  general  parade  in   New  York. 

Removal  of  the  Body  from  the  Train. 

At  a  quarter-past  ten  an  open  barouche  drove  into 
the  carriage-way.  All  of  the  floral  pieces  brought 
from  New  York  and  those  received  during  the  trip 
were  put  in  this  carriage,  to  be  conveyed  to  the 
cemetery.  General  Merritt  and  staff  arrived  at  the 
depot  at  half-pafit  ten.  At  this  hour  the  adjacent 
streets  and  Twelfth  street  bridge  were  fairly  black 
with  people.  The  police  had  all  they  could  to  keep 
room  enough  for  the  procession  to  move  in. 

Immediately  after  the  arrival  of  General  Merritt 
and  staff  preparations  were  made  to  remove  the  body 
fr(-'m  the  car  where  it  had  rested  during  its  Ion: 
journey.  The  eight  body-bearers  took  up  position-.^ 
at  the  car-door,  four  on  each  side.  Directly  behind 
them,  six  on  a  side  stood  the  honorary  pall-bearers. 
They  were :  Military — Major-General  John  Pope, 
Brevet  Major- General  Amos  Beckwith,  Brevet  Major- 
General  A.  J.  Smith,  Brevet  Major-General  John  W. 


Turner,  Brevet  Major-General  Willard  Warner,  Brevet 
Brigadier-General  John  W.  Barriger,  Commander 
Charles  S.  Cotton,  U.  S.  N.  ;  Citizens — Judge  Samuel 
Treat.  Colonel  Georore  E.  Leiorhton,  Colonel  Charles 
S.  Parsons,  Byron  Sherman,  Esq.,  Daniel  B.  Harri- 
son, Isaac  Sturgeon,  and  Thomas  E.  Tutt. 

A  Silent  Throng. 

Ranofed  in  line  on  each  side  of  the  carriacr*^- 
entrance  were  the  military  and  public  officials  who 
had  accompanied  the  remains  from  New  York,  Gen- 
eral Merritt  and  staff,  and  Governor  Francis  and 
staff  Three  comrades  of  Ransom  Post  entered  the 
funeral  car  and  assisted  the  six  serg^eants  in  charcre 
to  lift  the  casket  out  through  the  car-door  to  the 
shoulders  of  the  waiting  pall-bearers.  As  the  end 
of  the  flag-covered  oaken  box  was  passed  through 
the  door  every  head  was  uncovered  and  silence 
reigned  supreme.  Slowly  and  carefully  the  precious 
burden  was  taken  from  the  car  and  placed  on  the 
shoulders  of  the  stalwart  sergeants. 

As  they  started  with  slow  step  out  through  the 
carriage-way  to  the  waiting  caisson,  the  Twelfth 
Infantry  presented  arms,  flags  were  dipped  and  the 
^regimental  band  played  Pleyel's  well-known  hymn. 
Many,  many  hearts  were  touched  by  the  sight,  and 
veterans  and  comrades  of  the  dead  soldier  could 
be  seen  crying  on  all  sides.  Generals  Howard  and 
Slocum  were  so  overcome  they  could  not  speak  for 
several  minutes.  The  casket  was  placed  lengthwise 
on  the  caisson  and  strapped  in  place.     On  it  were 


placed  the  hat  and  sword  of  him  who  lay  inside. 
The  delivery  of  the  remains  to  the  St.  Louis  body- 
guard relieved  the  six  sergeants  who  had  accom- 
panied it  from   New  York  of  all  further  care. 

The  Procession. 

When  the  fastening  of  the  casket  was  finished, 
Colonel  L.  Townsend  gave  the  order  to  march,  and 
the  Twelfth  Infantry  wheeled  into  line  and  marched 
up  Eleventh  street  to  the  corner  of  Clark  street. 
Here  they  halted.  The  open  carriage  with  the  floral 
pieces  followed  directly  behind.  Then  the  order  was 
given  by  Lieutenant  Wilson,  and  the  caisson,  with  its 
sacred  burden,  moved  slowly  up  Eleventh  street  to  a 
place  next  the  carriage  containing  the  flowers.  On 
each  side  of  the  caisson  walked  the  four  military 
body-bearers.  Directly  the  caisson  started  the  four 
hundred  members  of  Ransom  Post,  who  had  made 
up  the  guard  of  honor,  marched  up  in  two  columns, 
Dne  going  to  one  side  and  the  other  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  caisson.  The  saddle-horse  bearing  the 
riding  equipments  of  the  general  was  led  just  be- 
hind the  caisson  and  between  the  columns  of  Ran- 
som Post. 

Meanwhile  the  immediate  members  and  relatives 
of  the  Sherman  family  had  filled  coaches,  and  werc^ 
now  driven  into  a  place  in  the  procession  next  to  the 
guard  of  honor.  Behind  the  family  were  carriages  in 
which  were  the  people  who  had  come  from  New  York 
to  attend  the  funeral.  In  the  first  coach  were  Secre- 
tary and  Mrs.  Noble,  Judge  Hough  and  Major  Ran- 


dolph ;  in  the  second,  Secretary  Rusk,  Assistant 
Secretary  Grant,  Charles  A.  Greeley,  Captain  Kings- 
bury; the  third  carnage  contained  ex- President  Hayes, 
General  Schofield,  Governor  Stannard,  and  Lieuten- 
ant Anderson  ;  the  fourth,  Generals  Howard,  Slocum, 
and  Broadhead  and  Lieutenant  Howard ;  the  fifth, 
General  Alger,  James  E.  Yeatman,  Colonel  McCreary, 
and  General  James  D.  Moore.  When  these  carriages 
had  taken  their  proper  places  in  the  line,  General 
Merritt  with  his  staff  galloped  to  the  head  of  the  pro- 
cession, which  was  at  the  corner  of  Clark  avenue  and 
Eleventh  street.  At  just  ten  minutes  after  eleven, 
all  division  commanders  having  reported  everything 
ready.  General  Merritt  gave  the  order  to  march. 

Great  Popular  Demonstration. 

The  funeral  column  was  made  up  of  six  divisions, 
composed  of  the  regular  military  escort,  as  provided 
by  army  regulations,  and  Grand  Army  posts.  Loyal 
Legion,  Sons  of  Veterans,  civic  societies,  State  militia 
of  Missouri  and  Ohio,  and  Legislatures  of  Missouri, 
Illinois,  and  Kansas,  governors  of  States  and  staffs, 
unorganized  bodies,  and  citizens  in  carriages  and  on 
foot.  The  route  of  the  procession  from  the  depot  to 
Calvary  Cemetery,  a  distance  of  nearly  eight  miles,  was 
through  some  of  the  principal  streets  and  avenues. 
After  starting  from  the  junction  of  Eleventh  street  and 
Clark  avenue,  the  cortege  moved  up  Eleventh  street 
to  Market,  through  Market  to  Twelfth,  and  through 
Twelfth  to  Pine  street.  The  route  was  through  the 
business  section. 


The  stores  were  closed,  but  the  windows  of  nearly 
all  the  big  blocks  were  filled  with  spectators,  and  the 
sidewalks  were  filled  with  crowding,  surging  masses 
of  humanity.  While  there  was  no  disorder  (in  the 
full  sense  of  the  word)  in  the  streets  mentioned,  the 
jam  of  people  coming  in  from  the  various  intersect- 
ing streets  when  the  procession  started  was  some- 
thing terrific.  Strong  men  and  weak  women  were 
swept  along  by  this  human  tidal  wave  until  they 
were  brought  to  a  standstill  by  the  crowds  that 
already  had  possession  of  every  inch  of  available 

The  march  to  the  cemetery  from  the  depot  was 
through  some  of  the  principal  streets  of  the  city. 
The  route  laid  out  was  through  Eleventh,  Market, 
Twelfth,  and  Pine  and  Grand  avenue,  thence  out 
Florissant  avenue  to  Calvary  Cemetery.  The  en- 
trance to  the  cemetery  was  by  the  rear  gate.  The 
larger  part  of  the  military  remained  outside  of  the 

The  Scene  at  the  Cemetery. 

When  the  caisson  entered  the  gates  of  the  cem- 
etery most  of  the  troops  remained  outside  of  the 
cemetery.  On  account  of  the  large,  number  of  car- 
riages occupied  by  Grand  Army  men,  members  of  the 
Loyal  Legion,  and  the  Sons  of  Veterans  who  were 
unable  to  endure  the  fatigue  of  the  entire  march  of 
nearly  eight  miles,  and  for  whom  carnages  were  pro- 
vided at  the  corner  of  Grand  and  K^.FA?rn  avenues, 
the  road   from   the  entrance  to  the  rx-i'^Mery  tc  the 


grave  was  soon  blocked,  and  many  of  those  who 
occupied  carnages  and  near  the  end  of  the  proces- 
sion were  obHged  to  leave  them  some  distance  from 
Jie  gate  and  walk  to  the  grave.  This  caused  some 
delay,  and  it  was  not  until  half-past  two  o'clock  that 
all  who  had  been  assigned  places  took  their  positions 
about  the  open  grave,  which  was  lined  inside  with 

A  short  distance  to  the  south  was  the  brave 
Thirteenth,  to  the  east  members  of  the  G.  A.  R., 
and  direcdy  around  it  to  the  north  were  grouped 
Senator  Sherman,  the  Misses  Sherman,  P.  T.  Sher- 
man, Colonel  Hoyt  Sherman,  Lieutenants  Thackara 
and  Fitch  and  their  wives,  Judge  and  Mrs.  P.  B. 
Ewing,  General  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Ewing,  General 
and  Mrs.  Nelson  A.  Miles,  Secretary  and  Mrs.  Noble, 
Secretary  and  Mrs.  Rusk,  Assistant  Secretary  Grant, 
ex-President  Hayes,  General  Schofield,  General  How- 
ard, General  Slocum,  and  others.  After  all  had  taken 
their  positions  the  eight  sergeants,  acting  as  body- 
bearers,  lifted  the  casket  from  the  caisson  and  bore  it 
reverentially  to  the  grave,  when  all  that  was  mortal 
of  General  Sherman  was  lowered  to  its  last  resting- 
place.  The  casket  was  draped  with  flags  and  was 
bare  of  any  floral  tributes. 

The  Services  at  the  Grave. 

The  services  were  of  the  simplest  character  and 
were  conducted  by  Rev.  Thomas  Ewing  Sherman, 
all  assembled  at  the  grave  standing  with  uncovered 
heads.     As  the  casket  was  being  lowered  the  regi- 


mental  band  played  Pleyel's  hymn.  Father  Sherman 
read  the  Catholic  service,  one  of  the  selections  being 
"I  am  the  resurrection  and  the  life,"  offered  a  fervent 
prayer,  and  the  services  were  at  an  end.  As  the 
services  progressed  many  about  the  grave  were 
visibly  affected,  and  when  the  flags  surrounding  the 
casket  were  removed  the  sounds  of  low  sobbing  were 
heard.  At  three  o'clock  the  closing  of  the  grave 
took  place,  and  the  buglers  of  the  Seventh  Calvary 
sounded  "Taps,"  "Lights  out."  Salutes  were  fired 
by  the  Thirteenth  Infantry,  followed  by  three  salvos 
of  artillery,  which  was  stationed  some  distance  to 
the  east.  Wreaths  and  branches  of  evergreens  were 
then  placed  upon  the  grave  by  loving  hands.  The 
funeral  party  and  troops  returned  to  the  station  and 
the  many  thousands  of  citizens  dispersed  to  their 

Thus  was  laid  to  rest  by  the  side  of  his  wife  and 
two  sons,  one  of  whom  was  his  "  soldier  boy,"  Gen- 
eral William  Tecumseh  Sherman 

Description  by  an  Eye-witness. 

The  following  graphic  recital  of  the  events  attend- 
ing the  last  obsequies  is  from  the  pen  of  an  eye-witness 
of  the  wonderful  spectacle  : 

The  scene  at  the  St.  Louis  Union  Depot  as  early  as 
six  o'clock  was  one  of  great  animation,  and  by  the 
time  the  funeral  train  arrived  the  crowd  rivalled  in 
numbers  the  largest  ever  seen  in  this  city.  Every  few 
minutes,  from  6.40  a.  m,  to  10  o'clock,  a  train  would 
roll  in  bearing  a  com.pany  or  regiment  of  militia  under 


arms  and  In  full  uniform,  besides  numerous  civilians 
and  State  dignitaries  from  other  States.  Committees 
were  promptly  on  hand  to  meet  and  escort  them  to 
their  respective  places,  and  notwithstanding  the  push 
and  jam  of  the  crowd,  there  was  but  little  confusion  in 
readily  carrying  out  the  programme  that  had  been 
previously  arranged.  With  the  marching  and  counter- 
marching of  the  incoming  troops,  with  their  glistening 
bayonets,  the  scene  just  before  the  arrival  of  the 
funeral  train  vividly  called  to  mind  the  excitement 
attending  upon  the  movements  of  an  army  during 
the  war. 

It  was  early  announced  that  the  funeral  train,  which 
was  expected  at  7.30  o'clock,  would  not  arrive  till  8.25, 
so  there  was  no  anxious  waiting  upon  the  part  of  the 
committees  appointed  to  meet  it.  A  few  minutes  after 
eight  o'clock  Colonel  Brodhead,  chairman  of  the  re- 
ception committee,  and  a  number  of  the  members  of 
his  committee,  assembled  in  the  ladies'  waiting-room 
of  the  depot,  and  were  soon  joined  by  Governor 
Francis  and  several  other  prominent  gentlemen. 
They  proceeded  to  a  position  just  outside  the  main 
entrance,  where  they  were  joined  by  General  Merrltt. 

Dense  Crowd. 

Promptly  at  8.30  the  funeral  train  was  sighted 
slowly  approaching  around  the  curve  at  the  east  end 
of  the  yards.  Its  approach  was  announced  by  a 
salute.  The  crowd  that  now  lined  both  sides  of  the 
track  to  a  depth  of  several  feet  became  anxious  to 
catch  a  view  of  the  train,  and  were  widi  great  dif- 


ficulty  pressed  back  by  the  police,  who  were  stationed 
every  few  feet  along  the  track. 

The  engine  drawing  the  train  was  No.  8  of  the 
Bridge  and  Tunnel  Company.  It  was  heavily  draped 
in  black,  and  on  the  headlight  was  placed  an  engrav- 
ing of  the  dead  general  surrounded  by  a  band  of 
black,  while  over  the  engine  was  fastened  a  United 
States  flag  draped  with  crape.  Slowly,  with  muffled 
bell,  the  engine  pulled  past  the  main  entrance,  reveal- 
ing one  after  another  the  eight  heavily  and  tastefully 
draped  coaches  composing  the  funeral  train,  till  the 
locomotive  reached  the  Twelfth  street  bridge. 

Impressive  Scene. 

Immediately  following  the  engine  was  the  funeral 
car,  with  the  doors  of  each  side  pushed  back,  reveal- 
ing the  interior.  The  floor  was  covered  with  a  hand- 
some carpet,  and  in  the  centre  was  a  catafalque,  or: 
which  rested  the  black  walnut  casket  covered  with  a 
silk  flag,  while  on  the  top  of  it  lay  the  dead  general's 
sword  and  hat.  At  the  head  of  the  casket  were  a 
number  of  beautiful  floral  emblems,  and  at  the  foot, 
on  a  stand,  were  the  saddle,  bridle,  boots,  and  other 
riding  equipments  of  the  dead  hero.  The  interior  of 
the  car  was  entirely  covered  with  black  cloth.  On 
each  side  of  the  catafalque  stood  erect  the  guard  of 
honor,  composed  of  the  following  past  commanders 
of  Ransom  Post,  who  went  on  to  meet  the  train  at  In- 
dianapolis:  John  B.  Harlow,  J.  G.  Butler,  Smith  P. 
Gait,  and  A.  G.  Peterson. 

The  commercial  strife  of  a  great  city  was  arrested 


for  a  few  hours  when  the  people  of  St.  Louis  ranged 
themselves  in  line  and  paid  reverence  to  the  remains 
of  William  Tecumseh  Sherman.  Outwardly  this  as- 
pect of  mourning  was  preserved  throughout  the  day, 
save  for  the  activity  of  the  restless  ones,  who,  having 
satisfied  their  curiosity,  set  about  other  business.  No 
one  can  gainsay  the  affection  and  respect  felt  for  Gen- 
eral Sherman  by  the  mass  of  the  multitude  who  for- 
£Ook  their  customary  vocations.  It  was  shown  in  the 
deep  and  reverential  silence  maintained  while  the  pro- 
cession passed — in  the  eagerness  of  the  many  whom 
a  mere  military  show  does  not  summon  from  their 

The  spectacle  offered  by  the  funeral  procession  was 
most  impressive  and  significant.  Two  generations  of 
men  and  women  blocked  the  sidewalks  along  Pine 
street  and  Grand  avenue  for  many  miles.  For  the 
older  generation  war  had  been  a  horrible  reality ;  for 
the  younger  it  was  but  an  historical  episode.  But 
young  and  old  were  perhaps  equally  impressed  by  the 
solemnity  of  it  all. 

The  murmur  of  expectation  caused  by  the  distant 
sound  of  approaching  troops  was  stilled  when  the 
first  horseman  advanced,  and  silence  fell  upon  the 
multitude  assembled  to  the  west  of  where  the  proces- 
sion had  gotten  under  way.  All  was  in  harmony  with 
the  occasion.  Early  in  the  morning  the  clouds  low- 
ered forbiddingly,  and  there  seemed  small  hope  that 
the  wretched  weather  of  the  past  week  would  be 
broken.     But  just   before    eleven    o'clock — the  hour 


set  for  the  order  to  march — the  sun  absorbed  the  mist 
and  shone  cheerfully  enough,  and  a  light  breeze  bore 
away  the  smoke  and  the  lingering  fog.  The  streets 
had  been  washed  clean  by  the  heavy  rains ;  the  air 
was  fresh  and  bracing.  It  was  excellent  marching 

Bronzed  Veterans. 

The  sight  of  trained  soldiers  is  always  an  inspiring 
one.  In  line  was  a  regiment  of  the  regular  army,  a 
regiment  made  up  of  cavalry,  artillery,  and  infantry — 
bronzed  and  weatherbeaten  men,  most  of  them,  who 
formed  a  dignified  and  solemn  escort  to  the  remains 
of  the  old  commander.  The  troops  showed  service, 
and  when  the  broken  companies  of  the  Seventh 
Cavalry  rode  by  the  spectators  were  reminded  that 
war  is  even  yet  a  reality  and  that  these  men  had 
fouo^ht  at  Wounded   Knee. 

No  more  melancholy  procession  than  a  military 
funeral  finds  its  way  to  a  cemetery.  Neither  crape 
nor  coffin  was  needed  to  emphasize  the  mournful- 
ness  of  that  march  to  the  grave.  The  impression 
of  sorrow  is  conveyed  in  the  slow  steps  of  the 
soldiers,  in  the  sad  strains  of  bugles  which  were 
moulded  for  inspiring  melody,  and  in  the  sullen  tone 
of  muffled  drums.  As  the  escort  moved  west  there 
came  a  sound  even  more  doleful  than  these.  It  was 
the  tolling  of  the  bell  in  the  tower  of  St.  John's 
Catholic  church  at  Sixteenth  and  Chestnut  streets. 
It  began  before  the  escort  was  under  way,  and 
clanged  a  cheerless  accompaniment  to  the  slow  and 


monotonous  tramp  of  the  troops.  Then  one  of  the 
military  bands  struck  up  a  funeral  march,  and  people 
easily  affected  felt  glad  that  the  sun  was  shining. 

Tokens  of  Grief. 

Since  the  war  in  which  Sherman  fought  there  has 
perhaps  occurred  nowhere  in  the  West  so  imposing 
a  public  ceremony.  In  the  matter  of  mere  numbers 
there  has  been  no  such  body  of  men  in  line  in  St. 
Louis  since  the  encampment  of  the  Grand  Army  of 
the  Republic.  It  was  not  singular,  then,  that  the 
railways  brought  to  this  city  thousands  of  strangers, 
who,  swelling  the  local  population,  made  sightseers 
thankful  that  the  route  to  the  cemetery  was  so  long. 
Otherwise  the  pavements  and  the  windows  along  the 
line  of  march  would  scarcely  have  accommodated  the 

They  stretched  for  miles  up  Pine  street  and  along 
Grand  avenue,  and  the  streets  at  their  intersection 
were  blocked  with  well-filled  wagons.  Mourning 
was  displayed  in  many  windows,  and  while  the  pro- 
cession was  under  way  St.  Louis  and  its  people 
showed  innumerable  tokens  of  sincere  grief.  There 
was  something  more  than  this  visible  in  the  attitude 
of  the  older  spectators.  They  realized  that  another 
link  in  the  chain  of  events  between  '6i  and  '91  had 
been  broken — that  another  paragraph  was  prepared 
for  American  history.  And  they  took  their  way 
thoughtfully  to  their  homes,  never  to  forget  the 
mournful  scenes  of  the  day. 

Seldom  has  St.  Louis  ever  made  such  a  display  of 


Visible  tokens  of  its  sorrow.  Perhaps  it  has  never 
been  more  universally  draped  in  mourning.  Both  in 
the  business  portions  and  the  residence  neighbor- 
hoods there  was  a  general  display  of  funeral  hang- 
ings. The  stately  buildings  on  the  down-town  streets 
and  the  small  and  unpretentious  shops  removed  fron 
the  business  centre  were  alike  draped.  On  tl; 
public  buildings  the  sombre  materials  were  unspar 
ingly  used.  Along  parts  of  the  route  of  the  funeral 
pageant  every  building  was  made  to  testify  to  the 
general  sadness.  In  every  part  of  the  city  the  same 
mournful  scenes  were  presented.  The  drapery  and 
other  emblems  varied  in  quality,  quantity,  and  per- 
haps in  taste  and  skill  of  arrangement,  but  whether  it 
was  the  black  calico  draping  of  the  small  shop  or  the 
cashmere,  serge,  bombazine,  bunting,  or  broadcloth 
of  the  richer  houses,  it  none  the  less  testified  to  the 
popular  esteem  in  which  the  city  held  the  dead  hero. 
Flags  in  Graceful  Folds. 

Many  liberally  disposed  persons  incurred  great  ex- 
pense in  this  work  of  love  and  reverence,  though  they 
occupied  houses  in  unfrequented  streets,  where  their 
displays  were  hidden  from  general  view.  The  ma- 
terials used  in  the  principal  down-town  thoroughfares 
and  in  the  wealthier  residence  neighborhoods  were  all 

The  piers  of  the  basement  section  of  the  Govern- 
ment building  were  heavily  shrouded  with  black,  an^ 
the  upper  stories  were  hung  with  the  same  materials, 
secured  with  black  rosettes.     The  City  buildings  were 


all  elaborately  draped  with  black  materials  and  flags. 
In  the  windows  everywhere  were  portraits  of  Sher- 
man in  black  frames.  Large  flags  gracefully  arranged 
In  folds  or  looped  up  with  black  bands  were  used  as 
drapery  on  many  of  the  big  business  buildings  and  on 
private  dwellings.  On  others  there  were  many  small 
flags  with  crape  sashes. 

A  large  flag  with  a  heavy  black  bar  extending  diag- 
onally across  it  floated  over  Washington  avenue  near 
Seventh  street.  Broad  bands  of  mourning  were 
stretched  lenc/thwise  across  several  buildings  on  that 
street,  and  a  large  number  of  the  windows  were  hand- 
somely decorated.  Black  and  white  feathers  taste- 
fully grouped,  and  sheaves  of  wheat  and  rye  with 
appropriate  inscriptions,  made  many  of  the  large 
windows  on  the  principal  streets  attractive. 

The  banks,  the  railroad  offices,  big  wholesale 
houses,  hotels,  and  other  large  edifices,  all  bore  some 
mournful  tribute  to  the  dead  man.  It  was  all  done 
hurriedly,   but  none  the  less  tastily. 

The  wealthy  residents  on  the  streets  and  avenues 
through  which  the  funeral  procession  passed  had  their 
palatial  abodes  put  in  mourning  costume  by  skilled 
decorators  and  designers.  The  work  was  not  elabo- 
rate, but  it  was  rich,  costly,  and  in  keeping  with  the 
homes.  Many  of  these  houses  were  not  draped,  how- 
ever, either  because  of  the  short  time  allowed  for 
the  work  after  it  was  known  what  route  the  funeral 
procession  would  take  or  because  of  a  question  of 


Myriads  wlio  Honor  the  Hero. 

The  hotels  were  all  so  well  filled  that  many  of  the 
late-comers  to  the  city  could  not  obtain  rooms,  but 
myriads  came  for  the  day  only,  and  the  numbers  who 
sought  accommodations  at  the  hotels  furnished  no 
fair  standard  by  which  to  estimate  the  entire  number 
of  strangers  in  the  city.  By  noon  the  population  liad 
bounded  from  its  ordinary  limit  at  half  a  million  to 
very  much  nearer  six  hundred  thousand,  and  citizens 
and  strangers  were  out  early,  side  by  side,  seeking 
the  most  advantageous  point  possible  from  which  to 
view  the  procession.  Hundreds  of  country  relatives 
and  friends  found  comfortable  quarters  in  the  houses 
of  citizens  within  view  of  the  line  of  march,  but  there 
were  myriads  who  were  less  fortunate.  Train-load 
after  train-load  rolled  into  the  depot  from  every  poin^ 
of  the  compass  during  the  first  half  of  the  day. 

The  day  had  scarcely  begun  when  the  earliest 
arrivals  were  landed,  and  soon  there  were  in  all  of 
the  down-town  streets  little,  broken,  irregular  lines  of 
men  and  women  wandering  about  till  time  for  the 
pageant  to  move.  In  a  short  time  these  processions 
became  denser  and  broader.  A  little  later  armed  and 
uniformed  lines  of  men  gave  variety  to  the  scene. 
Soon  they  were  all  over  the  down-town  district.  They 
no  longer  moved  in  thread-like  lines  ;  the  sidewalks 
were  no  longer  broad  enough  to  hold  them.  Every 
house  except  those  along  the  line  of  march  seemed  to 
give  up  its  occupants  to  join  the  strangers  in  the  wild 
rush  hither  and  thither,  jostling  and  pushing  to  get  in 


the  streets  from  which  the  column  could  be  seen,  and 
afterward  to  get  good  standing-places  there. 

Martial  Dirges. 

Then  there  was  a  blare  and  clash  of  bands,  and  the 
b:g  crowd  increased  its  struggle  to  get  the  vantage- 
points.  Hundreds  of  them  took  to  the  street-cars  and 
were  quickly  transported  far  out  along  the  line.  Hun- 
dreds of  others  did  not  understand  the  necessity  of 
going  early,  and  as  a  result  the  jam  was  so  great  in 
many  of  the  down-town  streets  that  the  street-cars 
were  delayed  or  stopped  entirely  when  the  procession 
was  forming. 

All  kinds  of  vehicles  were  moving  in  the  direction 
of  Pine  street  lone  before  the  cortege  was  to  move. 
Trucks  of  all  kinds,  licensed  and  unlicensed  vender- 
wagons  and  carts  rigged  out  with  rows  of  wooden 
benches,  light  wagons,  carriages,  coaches,  and  cabs, 
were  called  into  use  to  give  the  anxious  people  an 
opportunity  to  see  the  uniformed  line.  But  many  of 
them  were  disappointed. 

The  windows,  roofs,  and  balconies  were  lined  with 
people  before  the  procession  moved.  And  still  others 
came  pushing  and  crowding,  creeping  under  wagons 
and  crowding  between  vicious  horses.  They  rushed 
pellmell  one  way  in  expectation  of  finding  a  vacant 
place,  and  then  dashed  back  again  when  they  discov^ 
ered  that  there  was  no  such  place  in  sight.  Pale- 
faced,  ill-clad  women,  gayly-dressed  girls,  clerks, 
workingmen.  and  merchants  crowded  together  and 
conversed  while  the  line  moved. 


Glowing  Eulogies  upon  the  World-Renowned 

When  the  President's  message  announcing  Gen- 
eral Sherman's  death  reached  the  Senate,  discussion 
of  the  subject  under  consideration  (the  Copyright 
bill)  was  suspended,  and  Mr.  Hawley,  of  Conneciicut^ 
offered  the  followino-: 

Resolved,  That  the  Senate  receives  with  profound 
sorrow  the  announcement  of  the  death  of  William 
Tecumseh  Sherman,  late  general  of  the  armies  of 
the  United  States. 

Resolved,  That  the  Senate  renews  its  acknowledg- 
ment of  the  inestimable  services  which  he  rendered 
to  his  country  in  the  day  of  its  extreme  peril,  laments 
the  great  loss  which  the  country  has  sustained,  and 
deeply  sympathizes  with  his  family  in  its  bereave- 

Resolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  for 
warded  to  the  family  of  the  deceased. 

Mr.  Hawley  said : 

"  Mr.  President,  at  this  hour  the  Senate,  the  Con- 
gress, and  the  people  of  the  United  States  are  one 
family.  What  we  have  been  daily  expecting  has  hap- 
pened: General  Sherman  has  received  and  obeyed 
his  last  order.     He  was  a  great  soldier  by  the  judg- 



ment  of  the  great  soldiers  of  the  world.  In  time 
of  peace  he  had  been  a  ereat  citizen,  elowino-  and 
abounding  with  love  of  country  and  of  all  human 
ity.  His  glorious  soul  appeared  in  every  look, 
gesture,  and  word.  The  history  of  our  country  is 
rich  in  soldiers  who  have  set  examples  of  simple  sol 
Alrrly  obedience  to  the  civil  law  and  of  self-abnega 
iion.  Washino^ton,  Grant,  Sheridan,  and  Sherman 
lead  the  list.  Sherman  was  the  last  of  the  illustri- 
ous trio  who  were  by  universal  consent  the  foremost 
figures  in  the  armies  of  the  Union  in  the  late  war. 
Among  the  precious  traditions — to  pass  into  our  his- 
tory for  the  admiration  of  the  old  and  the  instructior^ 
of  the  young — was  their  friendship,  their  most  har- 
monious co-operation  without  a  shadow  of  ambition 
or  pride.  When  General  Grant  was  called  to  Wash- 
ington to  take  command  of  the  armies  of  the  Union 
his  great  heart  did  not  forget  the  men  who  stood  by 

Beautiful  Tribute  by  Hawley. 

Here  Mr.  Hawley  read  the  letter  from  Grant  to 
Sherman  (written  at  that  time),  expressing  thanks  to 
him  and  McPherson  as  the  men  to  whom,  above  all 
others,  he  owed  his  success,  and  Sherman's  letter  in 
reply  saying  that  General  Grant  did  himself  injustice 
and  them  too  much  honor. 

Mr.  Hawley  closed  his  remarks  (his  voice  fre- 
quently giving  way  from  grief  and  emotion)  by  read- 
ing the  following  passage  from  Bunyan's  Pilgrim' i 
Progress  : 


"After  this  It  was  noised  about  that  Mr.  Valiant- 
for-Truth  was  taken  with  a  summons.  When  he 
understood  it  he  called  for  his  friends  and  told  them 
of  it.  Then  said  he  :  'I  am  going  to  my  fathers  ;  and 
though  with  great  difficulty  I  got  hither,  yet  now  I  do 
not  repent  me  of  all  the  trouble  I  have  been  at  to 
arrive  w^here  I  am.  My  sword  I  give  to  him  that 
shall  succeed  me  in  my  pilgrimage,  and  my  courage 
and  skill  to  him  that  can  get  them.  My  marks  and 
scars  I  carry  with  me,  to  be  a  witness  for  me  that  I 
have  fought  His  battles  who  will  now  be  a  rewarder.' 
When  the  day  that  he  must  go  hence  was  come, 
many  accompanied  him  to  the  river-side,  into  which 
as  he  went,  he  said,  '  Death,  where  is  thy  sting?'  and 
as  he  went  down  deeper  he  said,  '  Grave,  where  is 
thy  victory  ?'  So  he  passed  over,  and  all  the  trumpets 
sounded  for  him  on  the  other  side." 

From  Senator  Morg^aii. 

Mr.  Morgan  said :  "  On  this  occasion  of  national 
solemnity  I  would  lead  the  thoughts  and  sympathies 
of  the  American  Senate  back  to  those  days  in  our 
history  when  General  Sherman  was,  by  a  choice 
greatly  honorable  to  his  nature,  a  citizen  of  the  State 
of  Louisiana,  and  presided  over  a  college  for  the 
instruction  of  Southern  youths  in  the  arts  of  war  and 
the  arts  of  peace.  These  were  not  worse  days  than 
some  we  have  seen  durine  the  last  half  of  this 
century.  In  those  days,  notwithstanding  the  then 
conditions  of  the  South,  in  view  of  its  institutions 
inherited   from  the  older  States  of  the   East,   every 


American  was  as  welcome  in  Louisiana  and  the 
South  as  he  was  elsewhere  in  the  Union.  We  are 
gradually  and  surely  returning-  to  that  cordial  state 
of  feeling  which  was  unhappily  interrupted  by  the 
Civil  War. 

"  Our  fathers  taught  us  that  it  was  the  highest  pa- 
triotism to  defend  the  Constitution  of  the  country. 
But  they  had  left  within  its  body  guarantees  of  an  insti- 
tution that  the  will  of  the  majority  finally  determined 
should  no  longer  exist,  and  which  put  the  conscience 
of  the  people  to  the  severest  test.  Looking  back 
now  to  the  beginning  of  this  century  and  to  the  con- 
flict of  opinion  and  of  material  interests  engendered 
by  these  guarantees,  we  can  see  that  they  never  could 
have  been  stricken  out  of  the  organic  law  except  by  a 
conflict  of  arms.  The  conflict  came,  and  it  was  bound 
to  come,  and  Americans  became  enemies,  as  they  were 
bound  to  be  in  the  settlement  of  issues  that  involved 
so  much  of  money,  such  radical  political  results,  and 
the  pride  of  a  great  and  illustrious  race  of  people. 
The  power  rested  with  the  victors  at  the  close  of  the 
conflict,  but  not  all  the  honors  of  the  desperate  war- 
fare. Indeed,  the  survivors  are  now  winning  honors, 
enriched  with  justice  and  magnanimity,  not  less  worthy 
than  those  who  fell  in  battle,  in  their  labors  to  restore 
the  country  to  its  former  feeling  of  fraternal  regard 
and  to  unity  of  sentiment  and  action,  and  to  promote 
its  welfare. 

''  The  fidelity  of  the  great  general  who  has  just  de- 
parted   in   the   ripeness    of  age   and  with  a    history 


marked  by  devotion  to  his  flag  was  the  true  and 
simple  faith  of  an  American  to  his  convictions  of  duty. 
We  differed  with  him  and  contested  campaigns  and 
battle-fields  with  him,  but  we  welcome  the  history  of 
the  great  soldier  as  the  proud  inheritance  of  our 
country.  We  do  this  as  cordially  and  as  sincerely  as 
we  orave  him  welcome  in  the  South  as  one  of  our 
people  when  our  sons  were  confided  to  his  care  in  a 
relation  that  (next  to  paternity)  had  its  influence  upon 
the  young  men  of  the  country. 

Supreme  Devotion. 

"The  great  military  leaders  on  both  sides  of  our 
Civil  War  are  rapidly  marching  across  the  borders  to 
a  land  where  history  and  truth  and  justice  must  de- 
cide upon  every  man's  career.  When  they  meet 
there  they  will  be  happy  to  find  that  the  honor  of 
human  a':t/ons  is  not  always  measured  by  their  wis- 
dom, but  by  the  motives  in  which  they  had  their 
origin  I  cherish  the  proud  belief  that  the  heroes  of 
the  Civil  War  will  find  that,  measured  by  this  stand- 
ard, none  of  them,  on  either  side,  were  delinquent, 
and  they  will  be  happy  in  an  association  that  will 
never  end,  and  will  never  be  disturbed  by  an  evil 
thought,  jealousy,  or  distrust.  When  a  line  so  narrow 
divides  us  from  those  high  courts  in  which  our  actions 
are  to  be  judged  by  their  motives,  and  when  so  many 
millions  now  livinor  and  increasino-  millions  to  follow 
are  to  be  affected  by  the  wisdom  of  our  eriactments, 
we  will  do  well  to  give  up  this  day  to  reflection  upon 
our  duties  and  (in  sympathy  with  this  great  country'! 


to  dedicate  the  day  to  his  memory.  In  such  a  retro- 
spect we  shall  find  an  admonition  that  an  American 
Senate  should  meet,  on  this  side  of  the  fatal  line  of 
death,  as  the  American  generals  meet  on  the  other 
side,  to  render  justice  to  each  other  and  to  make  our 
beloved  country  as  happy,  comparatively,  as  we  should 
wish  the  great  Beyond  to  be  to  those  great  spirits. 

From  Senator  Manderson. 

Mr.  Manderson  said  that  as  the  hours  of  the  last 
few  days  passed  away  he  had  not  had  the  heart  to 
make  such  preparation  for  the  event  which  all  feared 
and  dreaded  as  might  seem  to  be  meet  and  appropri- 
ate. He  had  been  afraid  to  prepare  anything  that 
might  be  in  the  nature  of  a  post-mortem  tribute.  It 
seemed  like  a  surrender  to  the  enemy.  The  death 
of  General  Sherman  came  (although  one  might  have 
been  prepared  for  it)  as  the  unexpected.  It  was  a 
day  of  mourning  and  grief.  Here,  at  the  capital  of 
the  nation,  lay  the  body  of  the  great  admiral,  the 
chief  of  the  navy ;  and  in  New  York  was  being  pre- 
pared for  the  last  sad  rites  the  body  of  the  greatest 
military  genius  which  the  nation  had  produced. 
General  Sherman  had  been  not  only  great  as  a 
military  leader,  but  he  had  been  great  as  a  civilian. 
Who  was  there  that  had  heard  him  tell  of  the  events 
of  his  wonderful  career  who  had  not  been  filled  with 
admiration  and  respect  for  his  abilities  ?  It  seemed 
to  him  that  General  Sherman  was  perhaps  the  only 
man  in  the  North  who  in  the  early  days  of  the  war 
seemed  to  appreciate  what  the  terrible  conflicc  meant 


It  was  recollected  how  it  was  said  in  1861  that  he 
must  be  insane  to  make  the  suggestions  which  he 
made.  These  suoi^estions  were  so  startling  to  the 
country  that  he  (Mr.  Manderson)  did  not  wonder  that 
men  doubted  General  Sherman's  sanity.  Like  men 
of  great  genius,  he  seemed  to  have  lived  in  that 
debatable  ground  existing  between  the  line  of 
perfect  sanity  and  insanity. 

After  a  review  of  General  Sherman's  military 
career,  opening  at  Shiloh  and  closing  at  Atlanta,  Mr. 
Manderson  read  General  Sherman's  letter  to  the 
mayor  and  common  council  of  Adanta,  beginning, 
"  We  must  have  peace,  not  only  at  Atlanta,  but  in  all 
America."     In  conclusion,  Mr.  Manderson  said: 

The  Model  Citizen. 

"  General  Sherman  v^as  estimable  as  a  citizen,  and 
as  fully  appreciated  the  duties  of  a  civilian  as  he  was 
admirable  as  a  soldier.  But  this  strife  which  we  have 
watched  for  the  past  few  days  has  ceased.  The  con- 
flict has  ended.  The  nation  has  witnessed  it.  Sixty 
millions  of  people  have  stood  in  silence,  watching  for 
the  supreme  result.  Death,  ever  victorious,  is  again 
a  victor.  A  great  conqueror  is  himself  conquered. 
Our  captain  lies  dead.  The  pale  lips  say  to  the 
sunken  eye:  'Where  is  thy  kindly  glance?'  And 
no  answer  is  returned." 

Mr.  Davis  said  he  could  hardly  trust  himself  to 
speak.  He  had  been  a  soldier  under  General  Sher- 
man, and  had  received  acts  of  kindness  from  him  when 
he  was  a  subaltern.     As  the  years  had  gone  by  and 


the  widening  avenues  of  life  had  opened  up  ways  of 
promotion,  that  acquaintance  had  ripened  into  friend- 
ship, and,  he  might  say,  into  intimacy.  He  had  first  seen 
General  Sherman  at  the  siege  of  Vicksburg,  twenty- 
eight  years  ago,  when  he  was  the  very  incarnation  of 
war,  but  to-day  that  spirit  had  taken  up  its  rest  in  the 
everlasting  tabernacle  of  death.  It  was  fit  that  the 
clangor  of  the  great  city  should  be  hushed  in  silence, 
and  that  the  functions  of  government  should  be  sus- 
pended while  the  soul  of  the  great  commander  was 
passing  to  Him  who  gives  and  Him  who  takes  away. 
No  more  are  heard  the  thunders  of  the  captains  and 
the  shoutings.  The  soul  of  the  great  warrior  had 
passed,  and  was  standing  in  judgment  befoi  i  Him 
who  was  the  God  of  battles  and  was  also  the  God  of 

Mr.  Pierce,  as  one  of  the  soldiers  who  had  served 
under  General  Sherman  in  the  Army  of  the  Tennes- 
see, gave  some  reminiscences  of  the  war  and  paid  a 
glowing  eulogy  to  his  old  commander. 

The  Eloquent  Evarts. 

Mr.  Evarts  said  that  the  afflicting  intelligence  of 
the  death  of  General  Sherman  had  touched  the  Sen- 
ate  with  the  deepest  sensibilities — that  that  grief  was 
not  a  private  grief,  nor  was  it  limited  by  any  narrower 
bounds  than  those  of  the  w^hole  country.  The  affec- 
tion of  the  people  toward  its  honorable  and  honored 
men  did  not  always  find  a  warm  effusion,  because 
circumstances  might  not  have  brought  the  personal 
career,  the  personal  traits,  the  personal  affectionate 


disposition  of  great  men  to  the  close  and  general 
observation  of  the  people  at  large.  But  of  General 
Sherman  no  such  observation  could  be  truly  made. 
Whatever  of  affection  and  of  grief  Senators  might 
feel  was  felt,  perhaps,  more  intensely  in  the  hearts 
of  the  whole  people.  To  observers  of  his  death,  as 
they  had  been  of  his  life.  General  Sherman  had  been 
yesterday  the  most  celebrated  living  American. 

He  was  now  added  to  that  longer  and  more  illus- 
trious list  of  celebrated  men  of  the  country  for  the 
hundred  years  of  national  life.  One  star  differed  from 
another  star  in  glory,  but  yet  all  of  the  stars  had  a 
glory  to  which  nothing  could  be  added  by  eulogy  and 
from  which  nothing  could  be  taken  away  by  detrac- 
tion. They  shone  in  their  own  effulgence,  and  bor- 
rowed no  light  from  honor  or  respect.  It  had  been 
said  already  that  General  Sherman  was  the  last  of 
the  commanders.  If  those  who  had  passed  out  of 
life  still  watched  over  and  took  interest  in  what  trans- 
pired in  this  world  (and  no  one  doubted  it),  what 
great  shades  must  have  surrounded  the  death-bed  of 
General  Sherman  !  And  who  could  imagine  a  greater 
death-bed  for  a  ereat  life  than  that  which  has  been 
watched  over  in  a  neighboring  city  during  the  week? 
It  had  been  reserved  for  him  (Mr.  Evarts),  at  the 
declining  hour  of  the  day,  as  a  Senator  from  the 
State  which  General  Sherman  had  honored  by  his 
residence,  and  in  which  he  had  died,  to  move,  out 
of  respect  for  his  memory,  that  the  Senate  do  now 


The  resolutions  were  then  adopted  unanimously, 
and,  on  motion  of  Mr.  Hawley,  the  presiding  officer 
was  requested  to  appoint  a  committee  of  five  Senators 
to  attend  the  funeral  of  General  Sherman.  The  Senate 
then,  at  5  o'clock,  adjourned  till  Monday  at  1 1  a.  m. 

In  the  House  of  Representatives. 

The  President's  message  announcing  General  Sher-'s  death  was  received  in  the  House  about  three 
u^  oiock.  Speaker  Reed,  after  consultation  with  Mr. 
Cutv\leon  of  Michigan  and  a  few  others,  decided,  in 
view  '>f  the  near  expiration  of  the  Congress,  and  of 
the  nev\^ssity  of  getting  the  appropriation  bills  over 
:o  the  Sevate  as  soon  as  possible,  that  It  would  not  be 
advisable  fc  lay  the  message  before  the  House  undl 
.:iear  the  ujluU  time  of  adjournment.  It  was  then  re- 
%rred  to  the  Cv^mmittee  on  Military  Affairs,  which  will 
report  appropncVie  resoludons  of  respect  and  recom. 
mend  that  the  Hc>\.se  take  part  in  the  funeral  services 
if  that  be  in  consont^uce  with  the  feelings  of  the  family. 

General  CutcheoA,  :,hairman  of  the  Committee  on 
Military  Affairs,  refe<^r^vi  feelingly  to  the  fact  that 
General  Sherman's  death  removed  the  last  of  the  three 
great  Union  generals.  M\  Cutcheon  served  under 
General  Sherman  only  a  sht/rr  dme,  but  was  attached 
to  General  Burnside's  commauc^  when  General  Sher- 
man came  to  its  relief 

"I  regard  General  Sherman,'  sa^d  Mr.  Cutcheon, 
"  as  the  greatest  strategist  developed  by  the  war.  I 
should  say  that  Grant  was  the  greatest  in  his  firmness 
and  his   unfaltering    courage  and  confidence    in  his 


ability  to  succeed.  He  was  also  great  in  his  spirit  of 
magnanimity.  Sherman  knew  more  of  the  art  and 
science  of  war.    Sheridan  was  the  most  brilHant  fig-hter. 


Sherman  was  also  great  as  a  patriot  and  as  a  man.  This 
passage  from  his  memoirs,  I  think,  is  the  key  to  the  cha- 
racter of  the  whole  man  :  it  was  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
war,  when  Sherman  was  in  Louisiana:  '  On  no  earthly 
account  will  I  do  any  act  or  think  any  thought  hostile 
to  or  in  defiance  of  the  old  Government  of  the  United 
States;  " 

Warm  Tribute  from  Mr.  Blaine. 

Members  of  the  Cabinet  spoke  feelingly  of  the 
death  of  General  Sherman.  Secretary  Blaine  said  he 
could  remember  him  personally  from  the  time  he  wa? 
graduated  at  West  Point,  fifty  years  ago,  when  he  was. 
himself  a  schoolboy  of  ten  years. 

"  For  more  than  thirty  years,"  continued  Mr. 
Blaine,  "  by  reason  of  family  connections,  I  had 
known  him  very  intimately.  Of  his  many  and  great 
qualities  on  his  public  side  I  do  not  care  to  speak. 
General  Sherman's  military  history  is  a  part,  and  a 
large  part,  of  the  proudest  annals  of  the  nation.  He 
did  not  grow  less  in  the  intimacy  of  private  life  or  by 
the  fireside  in  his  own  home.  He  had  the  kindest  of 
hearts  and  the  most  chivalric  devotion  to  those  he 
loved.  He  was  one  of  the  warmest  friends  to  those 
for  whom  he  professed  friendship.  He  was  frank, 
just  and  magnanimous.  He  spoke  and  wrote  with  a 
freedom  that  almost  seemed  reckless,  and  oftentimes 
was    misunderstood,    as    when    he    wrote    his    own 


memoirs.  His  death  seemed  premature.  Seeing 
him  very  often,  I  had  discovered  no  decay  in  the  acute- 
ness  of  his  senses  except  in  a  sHght  loss  of  hearing. 
I  saw  him  last  summer  at  Bar  Harbor  for  a  consider- 
able period,  and  his  brightness  of  talk  and  his  enjoy- 
ment of  life,  especially  with  the  young,  seemed  as 
natural  and  marked  as  ever,  but  at  the  same  time  I 
had  in  some  way  gained  the  impression  in  talking 
with  him  that  he  had  no  expectation  of  a  long  life." 

Secretary  Noble's  Paiieg-yric. 

Secretary  Noble  said  :  "  I  feel  a  great  personal 
grief  at  the  loss  of  General  Sherman,  my  friend  for 
many  years.  I  was  born  in  Lancaster,  where  he  was. 
His  father  was  my  father's  friend,  and  while  I  retain 
for  him  the  admiration  that  all  Americans  and  the 
whole  world  must,  I  feel  that  one  has  gone  from  me 
b)  whose  approval  my  personal  action  in  life  has 
been  greatly  influenced.  I  served  under  him  in  the 
war,  and  had  been  honored  by  his  friendship  and  per- 
sonal intercourse  in  St.  Louis,  New  York,  and  Wash^ 
ington  since.  His  miUtary  achievements  in  the 
service  of  the  republic  are  a  part  of  the  history  of 
our  country  ;  but  great  as  his  talents  as  a  commander 
were,  they  were  equalled  by  the  beautiful  traits  of  his 
character  that  made  him  the  instructive  companion, 
the  genial  friend,  and  wise  counsellor  that  he  was. 
He  was  as  tender  and  kind  in  private  life  as  he  was 
great  and  successful  in  war.  His  literary  taste  was 
most  wonderful,  and  his  memory,  not  only  of  events  and 
facts,  but  even  of  figures  and  statistics,  was  unfailing. 


"  His  love  for  his  comrades-in-arms  was  like  that  of 
a  father  for  his  children.  His  love  embraced  all  our 
people.  Among  the  first  events  in  my  official  life 
here  was  a  visit  from  General  Sherman,  voluntarily 
made  in  behalf  of  General  Joseph  Johnston,  of  whom 
he  spoke  in  the  highest  terms.  He  was  as  ready  to 
support  any  man  when  friendly  to  the  Government 
as  he  was  uncompromising  to  all  its  enemies.  He 
was  as  grand  a  patriot  as  ever  lived,  and  I  believe 
that  his  services,  his  speeches,  and  examples  will  have 
a  happy  influence  upon  our  country  through  all  its 
history.  This  is  no  time  nor  place  to  attempt  to 
speak  of  all  that  was  valuable  and  admirable  in  the 
career  and  character  of  General  Sherman.  May  God 
bless  and  console  his  family,  and  raise  up  other  men 
like  him  for  the  support  and  protection  of  our 
republic !" 

A  Man  of  "Pure  Gold." 

Postmaster-General  Wanamaker  said  :  "  I  had  only 
ten  years'  personal  acquaintanceship  with  General 
Sherman,  but  even  a  much  shorter  time  would  have 
drawn  me  to  him  closely.  He  never  seemed  to  me 
like  an  old  man,  and  always  woke  up  in  me  all  the 
boy  that  was  in  me.  I  was  never  where  he  was  that  I 
could  get  near  to  him  that  we  did  not  put  our  arms 
around  each  other.  The  ring  of  his  words  and  ways 
showed  that  he  was  made  of  pure  gold.  No  man 
that  I  ever  knew  combined  in  such  a  degree  the  cour- 
age of  a  lion,  the  loving  gentleness  of  a  woman,  and 
the  simplicity  of  a  child.     The  sunset  of  his  career 


^as  been  as  gorgeous  and  beautiful  as  the  glory  of 
his  great  campaign." 

Attorney-General  Miller  said :  "  In  General  Sher- 
man's death  the  world  has  lost  the  first  of  its  military 
men.  At  least  there  is  no  one  surviving  at  all  com- 
parable to  him,  unless  it  be  the  great  German  marshal 
Von  Moltke.  He  was  not  only  a  great  soldier,  but  he 
was  wise  in  all  public  affairs.  He  was,  perhaps,  the 
first  to  appreciate,  or  at  least  the  first  to  announce, 
the  magnitude  of  the  nation's  task  in  suppressing  the 
j^reat  rebellion.  In  this  he  was  ahead  of  his  contem- 
poraries, and,  as  usual  with  men  ahead  of  the  times, 
he  was  thought  to  be  wild,  not  to  say  crazy.  Events, 
however,  more  than  justified  his  declarations.  I  have 
met  General  Sherman  a  good  many  times,  but  had  no 
close  relations  with  him.  One  thing  especially  struck 
me  in  the  great  Centennial  review  in  New  Yc"k. 
There  he  stood  by  the  side  of  the  President.  No 
matter  what  else  might  be  claiming  his  attention,  he 
never  failed  to  take  off  his  hat  and  salute  the  flag. 
He  might  let  the  men  pass  without  recognition,  but 
never  the  flag.  Very  few  men  have  ever  been  so 
close  to  the  hearts  of  the  people  of  the  United  States 
as  General  Sherman. 

From  Old  Comrades. 

General  Henry  W.  Slocum,  in  speaking  of  General 
Sherman,  said  that  he  felt  that  he  had  lost  his  best 
friend.  In  Sherman's  famous  march  General  Slocum 
was  in  command  of  the  left  wing,  and  the  friendship 
then  formed  survived  the  war  and  became  stronger 


with  each  succeeding  year.  He  and  General  Sher- 
man  were  much  together  of  late  years.  At  pubHc 
dinners  which  they  both  attended  it  was  always  to  be 
noticed  that  the  two  veterans  seemed  to  enjoy,  fully 
as  much  as  anything,  getting  together  and  talking 
over  the  interesting  story   of  the  war. 

General  Slocum  joined  Sherman's  expedition  at 
Atlanta,  and  was  with  it  from  that  time  until  the 
close  of  the  war.  Every  other  day  General  Sherman 
rode  with  him.  On  these  occasions  General  Sher- 
man, who  was  a  great  talker,  was  as  entertaining  a 
companion  as  could  well  be  imagined.  His  conversa- 
tion covered  a  wide  range  of  subjects,  but  touched 
JIghtly  on  the  one  subject  which  at  that  time  possessed 
the  greatest  interest,  not  only  for  General  Slocum, 
but  for  the  whole  country — the  march  itself  and  what 
was  expected  of  it. 

General  Sherman's  appearance  at  this  time.  Gen- 
eral Slocum  says,  was  about  the  same  as  it  was  In 
later  years.  He  was  angular,  nervous,  but  giving 
every  one  the  impression  of  being  a  man  of  great  de- 
termination. At  the  same  time  he  was  of  a  sanguine 

''  From  the  time  he  started  on  the  expedition,  '  said 
General  Slocum,  "he  never  seemed  for  a  moment  to 
doubc  that  it  would  ultimately  prove  successful.  Noth- 
ing seemed  to  shake  his  faith  in  this  respect.  He 
never  discussed  his  plans  with  me  to  any  extent.  It 
was  not  his  habit  to  discuss  them  with  his  subordinates. 
He  preferred  saying  little  about  what  he  intended  to 


do  until  It  be'^ame  necessary.     His  self-reliance  was 

The  Army  Idolized  Him. 

With  his  troops,  General  Slocum  said,  General 
Sherman  was  exceedingly  popular.  This  was  perhaps 
but  natural,  as  he  had  led  them  to  success,  and  a  com- 
mander in  such  a  position  generally  is  popular.  While 
possibly  he  v;a'i  not  generous  with  his  men,  he  was 
always  just,  anJ  this  fact  they  recognized  and  honored 
him  for.  Hi'p  li^jnse  of  justice  caused  him  to  be  severe 
in  his  treacrrent  of  those  who  failed  to  do  their  duty. 
He  alway*  (ooked  well  after  the  welfare  of  those 
under  hi*:  command,  and  was  never  above  h»,ving  a 
pleasant  vjord  for  his  men.  Yet  he  was  none  the 
less  a  soldier,  a  man  of  deeds. 

Speaking  of  the  feeling  of  the  Southern  people 
against  General  Sherman,  which  was  probably  stronger 
than  that  felt  against  any  other  Northern  general, 
General  Slocum  said  that  it  had  never  been  General 
Sherman's  wish  or  intention  to  cause  any  unnecessary 
suffering  to  the  people  in  the  country  through  which 
he  was  marching.  For  the  burning  of  Columbia  he 
was  in  no  way  responsible.  Yet  he  was  charged  with 
it,  with  much  bitterness,  by  the  Southern  people.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  the  inhabitants  of  the  place  were 
themselves  to  blame  for  its  burning.  They  had  filled 
the  streets  with  cotton,  and  when  Sherman's  army 
marched  in,  thinking  to  propitiate  the  soldiers,  they 
had  waylaid  them  with  whiskey,  which  they  gave  to 
them  in   tin  cups,  as  much  as   they  would   take,  until 


every  ugly  fellow  in   the   ranks  was  still  uglier  and 
half  drunk. 

Sorrows  of  War. 

"  General  Sherman,"  said  General  Slocum,  '*  always 
expressed  great  regret  at  the  suffering  caused  by  the 
burning  of  Columbia.  He  talked  with  me  about  it  at 
the  time,  and  frequently  spoke  of  it  after  the  war. 
Nothing  was  further  from  his  intentions  than  that  the 
city  should  be  burned.  He  strove  to  burn  everything 
useful  to  the  Confederates  ;  nothing  else.  When  we 
first  crossed  into  South  Carolina,  we  found  we  were 
walking  on  torpedoes  planted  in  the  road,  and  the 
troops  did  some  burning  on  their  own  account,  but 
General  Sherman  put  a  stop  to  it  as  soon  as  possible." 

One  of  the  most  astonishing  things  about  General 
Sherman,  General  Slocum  declared,  was  his  memory. 
He  never  seemed  to  forget  anything  which  he  met 
with,  and  which  he  thought  might  at  any  future  time 
be  of  use  to  him.  Having  been  stationed  at  Charles- 
ton before  the  war,  he  seemed  to  have  the  whole 
topography  of  the  State  at  command.  Frequently  he 
was  able  to  give  information  which  wa^.  not  found  on 
the  map  which  General  Slocum  had  with  him.  When 
asked  how  he  came  s  know  some  particular  thing 
about  the  country,  he  would  say  that  he  had  noticed 
it  several  years  before. 

Tribute  from  General  Howard. 

Major-General  O.  O.  Howard,  commanding  the 
Division  of  the  Atlantic,  was  much  affected  by  the 
death  of  his  old  comrade  and  friend.     He  talked  for  a 


few  moments  regarding  the  dead  commander,  and  his 
voice  trembled  as  he  spoke. 

"General  Shermai^,"  he  said,  "has  permitted  me 
during  the  last  two  years  in  which  I  have  been  sta- 
tioned in  the  vicinity  of  his  home  to  be  particularly 
intimate  with  him.  He  never  seemed  like  a  fellow- 
officer  so  much  as  like  a  father  or  elderly  friend.  So 
to-night  my  heart  bleedn  at  his  loss.  When  did  I  first 
meet  him  ?  I  think  it  was  shortly  before  the  first 
batde  of  Bull  Run,  and  after  that  I  was  with  him  at 
Chattanooga  and  on  the  march  to  the  sea.  My  per 
sonal  acquaintanceship  with  him  did*  not  really  begin 
until   1863." 

Reininiscences  hy  General  King-. 

Said  General  Horatio  C.  King:  "The  announce- 
ment of  General  Sherman's  death  is  a  ereat  shock  to 
me,  as  I  have  had  a  strong  hope  that  he  would  pull 
through.  I  regard  it  as  one  of  the  greatest  privileges 
of  my  life  that  I  have  been  favored  with  the  close 
friendship  of  General  Sherman.  He  was  the  most  in- 
teresting conversationalist  I  have  ever  met,  and  his 
fund  of  reminiscences  was  seemingly  inexhaustible. 
I  shall  never  forget  the  first  address  he  made  at  one 
of  our  army  reunions  held  in  Philadelphia,  June  6,  of 
the  Centennial  year.  The  meeting  was  in  the 
Academy  of  Music.  He  made  quite  a  long  and 
patriotic  off-hand  address,  in  which  he  counselled  ten- 
derness toward  the  South.  'Let  us,'  he  said,  'forgive 
and  forget — provided  they  will  do  the  same.' 

"General  Sherman  has  felt  of  late   years  that  his 


Strength  was  being  too  strongly  taxed  by  the  in- 
cessant social  demands  upon  him.  He  never  could 
refuse  his  old  Western  associates,  but  I  had  some 
difficulty  to  persuade  him  that  he  had  as  many  friends 
in  the  East.  At  Saratoga  Springs  in  1887  he  gave 
me  a  most  laughable  scoring  for  my  persistence.  He 
said:  *  By  the  law  of  our  land,  which  is  the  only 
king  we  worship,  I  was  turned  out  to  grass,  and  I 
was  told  that  I  could  spend  the  rest  of  my  days  in 
peace  and  retirement.  I  sought  refuge  in  the  city  of 
St.  Louis ;  I  found  but  little  peace  there.  But  I  read, 
[  think  in  Dr.  Johnson,  that  peace  and  quiet  could 
only  be  had  in  a  great  city  or  forest — in  Nature's 
wilderness.  I  therefore  sought  it  in  New  York  City.' 
Then  General  Sherman  told  his  famous  story  of  Cap- 
tain Bonneville.  Bonneville,  it  seemed,  wanted  peace 
and  quiet.  He  asked  for  two  years'  leave  of  absence, 
and  got  it,  and  he  went  out  to  the  mountains  where 
Salt  Lake  now  is.  He  caught  beavers  and  otter  and 
fished,  and  the  Crows  came  and  cleaned  him  out, 
and  he  kept  out  of  the  way  for  two  years  more. 
He  was  reported  dead.  He  went  to  the  adjutant- 
general  and  reported,  but  the  adjutant  says:  'Bon- 
neville is  dead.' — He  says  :  '  I  am  not  dead.' — '  Oh 
yes,'  said  the  adjutant,  '  you  are  dead ;  you  are  as 
dead  as  a  mackeral.  Go  away  from  here  and  don't 
disturb  the  record.' 

"  Sherman  is  the  last  of  the  great  triumvirate  of 
generals — Grant,  Sherman  and  Sheridan — for  in  that 
order  they  will  always  be  named ;  yet  to  my  think- 


ing  Sherman  possessed  the  highest  miHtary  genius, 
and  as  a  strategist  had  not  his  equal  in  the  war  of 
the  rebeUion." 

Tributes  from  Abroad. 

Lord  Wolseley,  who  is  beHeved  to  be  the  best 
informed  man  in  the  British  army,  said:  "I  join  the 
people  of  the  United  States  in  their  regret  at  General 
Sherman's  death,  for  his  loss  is  not  confined  to 
America,  but  is  shared  by  all  military  people." 

Asked  what  he  thought  of  Sherman  as  a  military 
commander,  Lord  Wolseley  replied  that  it  was  a 
difficult  matter  for  an  outsider  to  make  comparisons, 
but,  speaking  purely  from  a  military  point  of  view,  he 
ii-.doubtedly  would  place  Sherman  at  the  head  of  all 
the  Northern  commanders  as  a  strateg^ist.  Sherman 
show?,d  great  power,  and  in  this  he  excelled  all 
others,  while  in  the  achievements  for  which  he  was 
most  famous — notably  his  march  to  the  sea — he  dis- 
played a  dash  combined  with  strategical  skill  that  at 
once  proved  his  great  power. 

Colonel  Hugh  McCalmont,  C.  B.,  who  has  seen 
much  service  in  India,  and  who  was  the  officer  com- 
manding the  Fourth  (Royal  Irish)  Dragoon  Guards 
at  Dublin,  said  with  great  feeling  that  in  his  judg- 
ment Grant  would  not  have  been  able  to  break  down 
the  heroic  opposition  of  Lee  if  it  had  not  been  for  the 
genius  of  Sherman,  whose  march  to  the  sea  was  the 
grandest  thing  of  its  kind  in  history.  He  especially 
admired  Sherman  because  he  was  a  pukka  general 
(pukka  in  India  means  real,  genuine),  also  because  be 

568  GENERAL  SHERMAN.         -"'  y  ^^ 

UJ^  (^  ^^"^^ 

was  a  soldier  solely,  having  resolutely  refused  to"  go 

in  for  politics. 

One  of  the  most  accomplished  and  best-read  staff 
officers  in  the  British  army  is  Colonel  S.  F.  Maurice, 
of  the  Royal  Artillery,  at  present  professor  of  Military 
Art  and  History  at  the  Staff  College.  He  said:  ''I 
have  long  considered  the  Atlanta  campaign  of  Sher- 
man as  one  of  the  most  valuable  lessons  in  war 
furnished  by  our  time.  The  feature  of  Sherman's 
career  which  has  always  impressed  me  with  the  most 
interest  as  a  man  was  the  generosity  with  whicL,  after 
he  had  himself  opposed  Grant's  arrangements  for  the 
Vicksburg  campaign,  he  immediately  afterward  on 
the  spot  and  at  the  time  confessed  himself  in  the 
w^ong,  and  used  all  his  military  genius  to  poin'  ^ut 
the  skill,  foresight  and  importance  of  what  Grant  had 
iione.  The  mode  in  which  Sherman  talked  to  influ- 
ential politicians  and  others  of  those  very  achievements 
of  Grant  became  the  starting-point  of  Grant's  great 
career.  To  a  large  extent  the  United  States  owe  to 
Sherman's  generosity  of  character  and  to  his  military 
clearness  of  vision  the  ultimate  selection  of  Grant  as 
the  general  who  carried  their  armies  to  success." 

Similar  tributes  from  Von  Moltke  and  other  great 
military  heroes  show  the  estimate  placed  upon  the 
renowned  co-mmander  who  now  lies  in  death,  "  his 
martial  cloak  wrapped  around  him."